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Full text of "The annals and magazine of natural history : zoology, botany, and geology"

I 



I 




THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 



INCLTJDIXG 



ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 

(being a CONTINaATIO>r OF THE 'A.VSALS ' COMBfXED WITfl LOUDON AND 
CHARLESWORTh's ' MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY.') 



CONDUCTED BY 

WILLIAM CARRUTHERS, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
ARTHUR E. SHIPLEY, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S., 

AND 

WILLIAM FRANCIS, F.L.S. 



VOL. XIX.— EIGHTH SERIES. 



J"' 

LONDON: y ^ 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY TAYLOR AND FIIANCIS. 

SOLB BY SrMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAinLTON, KF.NT, AND CO., LD. ; 
BAILLIKRE, PARIS : AND HODGES, FIGGIS, AND CO., DUBLIN. 

1917. 



"Omnes res creatjr sunt diviiifp snpientine et prttentiiv? testes, diviti.T felicitatifl 
liiiiiinna;: — ex liaruin usu (iniiilas Creatoris; ex pulcliritucline sapientia Domini ; 
CK oecono'iiia in conservntionc, projiortione, reiiovatione, poteiitia iiiajestatis 
elucet. Eitniiu itnqiie iiidagatio ab lioininibus sibi relictis semper a^stimata ; 
a vere oruditis et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper 
inimicn fiiit." — Linnaeus. 

" Quel que soil le priiici|ie de la vie animale. il ne faut qu'ouvrir les yeux pour 
voir quVlle est le clief-d'oeuTre de la Toute-pnissaiice, el le but auquel se rappor- 
tent toutes ses operations." — Buucknek, lltiorie du Si/sthne Animal, Leydeii, 
17G7. 

'J'be sylvan powers 

Obey our summoJis ; from their deepest dells 

The Drvads come, and tlirow their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme 

And purple heath-tlower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep: the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They cro\> the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the ri]ipling tide: the frozen poles, 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All. all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. T.AYr.OR, Noruich, 1818. 



I 
v. 



ALIOltK I 1J,A.M.\IAM. 



/^ 




.1^ 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XIX. 

[EIGHTH SERIES.] 



NUMBER 109. 

Page 

I. Goryhpliidce [Colfioptera] from the Seychelles and Rangoon. 
By Hugh Scott, M.A., F.L.S., Curator in Entomology in the 
University of Cambridge. (Plates I.-V.j 1 

II. Notes on Exotic C'hloropidce. By C. G. Lamb, M.A., B.Sc, 
Clare College, Cambridge 33 

HI. Some Systematic Notes on ilelolonthine Coleoptera. By 
Gilbert J. Arrow 59 

IV. Descriptions of New Tyralidce of the Subfamilies Epi- 
j>aschimi<2, Chrysaugince, Endotrichince, and FyndhKE. By Sir 
George F. Hamp.sox, Bart., F.Z.S., &c 65 

V. The Homoptera of Indo-China. By W. L. Distant 100 

"VI. Notes on Fossorial Hynienoptera. — XXV. On new Sphecoidea 
in the British Museum. By Rowland E. TriiKEn, F.Z.S., F.PIS. 104 

VII. On the External Characters of the Felidce. By R. I. 
PococK, F.R.S., Superintendent of the Zoological Society's Gardens. 113 

VIII. On some new Mites of the Suborder Prostigmata living on 
Lizards. By Stanley Hirst 136 

IX. C'assidince and Bruchidcc [Coleoptera] from the Seychelles 
Islands and Aldabra. By S. Maulik, B.A. (Cantab.) 114 



iv CONTENTS. 

Pago 

X. Notes on Fossorial HYmenoptern.— XXVI. On the Genus 
Homonotus, Dahlb. By Rowland E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S 147 

XI. Notes on tbe Species of the Genus Cavia. By Oldfield 
Thomas ^^-^ 



NeiD Book : — African Freshwater Fishes 160 



NUMBER 110. 

XII. Coleoptera, Heteromera (excluding Tenehrionida) from the 
Seychelles Islands and Aldabra. By George Charles Champion, 
F.Z.S. (Plate VI.) 161 

XIII. On new Species of Indian Curculionidce. — Part III. By 
Guy a. K. Marshall, D.Sc 188 

XrV. A Revision of the Clupeid Fishes of the Genus Pellonula 
and of Related Genera in the Rivers of Africa. By C. Tate 
Regan, M.A 198 

XV. New Species of TabanidcB from Australia and the Fiji 
Islands. By Gertrude Ricakdo 207 

XVi; New Species of Hcematopota from India. By Gertrude 
Ricardo 225 

XVII. The Fishes of the Genus Clupea. By C. Tate Regan, 
M.A 226 

XMII. Barnacles from the Hull of the ' Terra Nova ' : a Note. 
By L. A. BoRRADAiLE 229 



Proceedings of the Geological Society 230, 231 



NUMBER 111, 

XIX. Notes from the Gatty Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews.— 
No. XL. By Prof. M'Intosh, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., &c., Gatty 
Marine Laboratory, University, St. Andrews. (Plates VII.-XII.) . 233 

XX. Notes on Exotic Helomyzida, Sciomyzid^, and Psilidce. By 

C. G. Lamb, M.A., B.Sc, Clare College, Cambridge 260 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

XXI. Further Notes on the New Zealand Amphipod Hi/ale 
yvcnfeUi, Chilton. By Chas. Chilton, M.A., D.Sc, M.B., CM,, 
LL.D., C.M.Z.S., Profeesor of Biology, Canterbury College, New 
Zealand 273 

XXII. Descriptions of new Lizards of the Family Lacertidce. By 

G. A. BouLENCxER, F.U.S 277 

XXIII. A new Bat of the Genus Scotcscus. By Oldfield 
TuoMAS 280 

XXIV. A new Species of Aconcsmys from Southern Chili, 

By Oldfield Thomas 281 

XXV. Descriptions and Records of Bees. — LXXIV. B}' T. i). A. 
CocKEBELL, University of Colorado 282 



Neiu BooJc : — Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalsense. Supplement, 
Vol. 1 291 



Proceedings of the Geological Society 291 — 295 



NUMBER 112. 

XXVI. A Eevision of the Clupeoid Fishes of the Genera PromO" 
lobus, Brevoortia and Dorosoma, and their Allies. By C. Tate 
Regan, M.A 297 

XXVII. Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera. — XXVII. On new 
Species in the British Museum, By Rowland E, Tuenee, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S ', 317 

XXVIII. A new Tuberculate Terrestiial Isopod from New 
Zealand. By Chas. Chilton, M.A., D.Sc, M.B., CM., LL.D., 
C.M.Z.S., Professor of Biology, Canterbury College, New Zealand. 
(Plate XIII.) ' ^ 327 

XXIX. South-African TalUridcr.. By the Rev. Thomas R. R. 
Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S ". 330 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
XXX. New Species of ludo-Malayan f^epidopleva. By Colonel 
C. SwixuoE, M.A., F.L.S 331 



XXXI. The Lemurs of the Rnpalemur tiroup. Bv B. I. PococK, 
F.R.S. '. 343 



XXXII. Sonu" Notes on Three-toed Sloths. By Oldfikld 
Thomas 352 



Proceediugs of the Geological Society 357, 359 



NUMBER 113. 

XXXIII. Descriptions of New Pyralidte of the Subfamilies 
Jli/drocamphics, Scopariante, Sec. Hy Sir Georgf, F. Hampson, 
Bart., F.Z.S., &c 361 

XXXIV. A Revision of the Clupeid Fishes of the Genera Sardi- 
iiella, Haretigula, &c. By C. Tate Regan, M.A 377 

XXXV. On new Weevils of the Genus Mecysmoderes from India. 

By Guy A. K. Marshall, D.Sc 395 

XXXVI. Occurrence of a Ilolothurian new to the Fauna of 
Bermuda. By W. J . Croziku 405 

XXXVII. Descriptions of a new Lizard and two new Frogs 
discovered in West Africa by Dr. IJ. G. F. Spurrell. By G. A. 
BOULENGKR, F.h'.S 407 

XXXVIII. New Species of Indo-Malayan Lepidoptera. By 
Colonel C. Swi.nhoe, M.A., F.L.S., &;c 409 

XXXIX. Notes on Myriapoda. — V. On Cylindroiulus (Leucoiulun) 
nitidm (Vurhoeff). iiy Hilda K. Buadk, M.Sc, L.R.C.P., 
M.K.C.S., and the Rev. S. Graham Birks, M.Sc 417 



CONTENTS. 



NUMBER 114. 

Page 

XL. Xotes on Colleinbola. — Part 4. The Classification of the 

CoUeiubola ; with a List of Genera known to occur in the British 

Isles. By John W. Shoebotham, N.D.A., Berkhampsted, Herts. 42j 

XLI. Notes on Fossorial Hj-menoptera. — XXVIII. On new 
Ethiopian Species of Bembex in the British Museum. By Roavlaxd 
E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S 436 

XLII. On Fabricius's Types of Odonata in the British Museum 
(Natural History). By Herbert Campion 441 

XLIII. A new Vole from Palestine. By Oldfield Thomas . . 450 

XLIV. On the small Hamsters that have been referred to Cri- 
ceiulus phceus and camphelli. By Oldfield Thomas 452 

XLV. Descriptions of New Pyralidca of the Subfamilies Htjdro- 
campina, Scopariaiice, &c. By Sir George F. Hampson, Bart., 
F.Z.S., &c 457 

XLVI. Descriptions and Records of Bees. — LXXV. By T. D. A. 
Cockerell, University of Colorado 473 

XL VII. The Kbapra Beetle (T rogoderma khapra, sp. u.), an 
Indian Grain-pest. By Gilbert J, Arrow 481 



Proceedings of the Geological Society 483 



Notice to the Zoological Profession of a Possible Suspension of the 
International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature in the Cases 
of Musca, LinnfBus, 1758, and Calliphorci, Desvoidy, 1830 .... 484 



Index 48,5 



f 



PLATES IN VOL. XIX. 

Plate I. ] 
XL I 
III. ^Uorylopliid beetles. 
IV. 
Y 
VI. Ileteromerous Coleoptera from the Seychelles aud Aldabra. 

vii.-^ 
VIII. I 

^Nervous and muscular systems of Owenia and Mvriochele. 
X. ] ■' 

XI. 

XILJ 
XIII. Cubans milleii, sp. n. 



ERRATUM. 

Page 330, line 14, for 1913. Talitriator, Matthews, P. Z. S. Lond. p. 109, 
read Talitriator, Methuen, P. Z. S. Loud. p. 109. 



THE ANXALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 

[EIGHTH SERIES.] 



" perlitoraspargrte museum. 

Naiades, et circum vitreos considite fontes ; 
Polliee virgineo teneros hie earpite flores: 
Floribns et pietiira. divae, replete canistrura. 
At ros, o Nymphae Craterides. ite sub undas ; 
lie, recurvato variata eorallia truneo 
Vellite mustosis e rupihus. et mihi conchas 
Ferte, De* pelat^i, et piiigni eonchylia sncco." 

N.Parthenii Giannettaai, Eol. 



No. 109. JANUARY 1917. 



I. — -Corylotilii'-lfe \ Coleoptera^ from the Seychelles and Ran- 
goon. By Hugh Scott, M.A., F.L.S., Curator in Ento- 
mology ill the University of Cambridge. 

[Plates I.-V.] 

The main purpose of this paper is to give an account of the 
Coiylophid beetles obtained by the Percy Shiden Trust Expe- 
dition of 1905 and 1908-9 in the Seychelles and other ishands 
of the Western Indian Ocean. But I have also included 
ceifain forms taken at Rangoon in 1911. The actual sources 
of these two sets of material may be considered separately, 
as follows : — 

(A) Rangoon. — The specimens were collected from a nest 
of Alunia striata^ a bird belongin<>- to the Pl-oce id ae or weaver- 
birds, on Oct. 9th, 1911, by Dr. H. H. Mar.shall, M.O.H., and 
sent by hiin in alcohol to Professor G. H. F. Nuttall at the 
Quick Laboratory, Cambridge. Professor Nuttall kindly 
handed over the Coleoptera to me. They consist of thiee 
species of Corylophidse — namely, Arfhrolips jlavicolh's, 
Matthews, Orthoperus munioe, sp. n., and Orlhoperus sp. 
iiidet., as well as a single example of an undetermined 

Ann. & Mag. N. IJiat. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 1 



2 y\v. H. Siott on Co\\]n\^\\'\i\iV from the 

('lU'iiiiil \\ liirli sooms closclv alliorl lo Silva7}>i.<t lonqiro'-nio, 
GroMvelK', a tonn known from SinjUfnporo. In addition to 
Colfopt(M-a, tlie tnbe containod some Lepidoptorous larvio, a 
spider {Sn/foJen sy.), and somcGammasid mites, all from tin; 
same biid's-ncst. I do not know of other recorded cases of 
Corylopliida3 being found in birds'-nosts, but T liavo myself 
taken a specimen of Orthopenis from a blacki)ird's or tinn'^li's 
nest of tlieprecediiicr year at Ilenley-on-Tlmmes, 25.iii. 1910. 
(li) SkyCIIKLLES Islands, — It was intended tliat all 
results of the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition should appear 
toeether in one publication, but circumstances have rendered 
this impossible. The work in question consists of certain 
special volumes of Trans. Linn. Soc. London, five of which 
are already complete (ser. 2, Zoo!., vols, xii.-xvi.), wliile a 
sixth is in proi^ress : these contain, z«/er a/w, a number of 
reports on insects. In the present paper much the same 
plan is followed as in my two previous articles on certain 
groups of vSej'chelles Coleoptcra [op. cit. vol. xv. p. 215, 1912 ; 
vol. xvi. p. 193, 1913). 

No Corvlophidae have been recorded from these islands 
beiore. Those dealt with here aniount to twelve species, ten 
of which are described as new (see below, under '■'■ deter tmna- 
(ion of species'^), while one is undetermined and one is 
referred to a previously described species. They belong to 
eio^ht geiiera, one of which is described as new. The series 
may be briefly analyzed thus: — Sacium, 4 spp. n. ; Arthro- 
Ups, 1 sp. n., 1 sp. indet. ; Meiodenis, 1 sp. n. ; Sericoderus 
{Anisomeristes), 1 sp. n. ; Dauhania, g. n,, 1 sp. n. ; Lew- 
i.ti'im, 1 sp. n. ; Rhypobins^ 1 sp. n. ; Orlhopcrus, 1 sj). 
(previously known). 

])isirihution. — One species, Rhi/jyohius oquUinuf!, was found 
only on a coralline island of the Amirantes Group. The 
other eleven were all taken by the writer in the mountainous 
granitic islands of the Seychelles proper. Six of these were 
found exclusively in the island of Silhouette, v^^hich was 
visited only during the drier months of August and September; 
one was only ol>tained in Long Island, a small cultivated 
islet near Malic, in July, also one of the drier months; the 
remaining four, including the new genus Dauhania, were 
taken in two or more of the larger islands, and in butli 
the drier and wetter seasons. 

Two species are represented by single specimens, two 
{^Ski icodfiu.i and Leicisium^ by big series of over 50 and of 
nearly 200 respectively, the remainder by series of J'rom 3 t;o 
15 examples. They were all preserved dry. 

Seven kinds were obtained only at high elevations, in the 



Seychelles and Rangoon. 3 

eiulemic forests; one {Arthrollps i»suIce-Ioi>r/iv), as stated 
above, only on a cultivate J islet. 0£ the remaiiuler, Dauhania 
(gen, nov.) occurred in the high forests and at more moderate 
elevations, while the two most abundant forms (Sericoderiis 
and Lewisium) seemed generally distributed from the culti- 
vated country up into the endemic woods at high altitudes. 

]\Iostof the material was collected somewhat promiscuously, 
by general sweeping and beating of vegetation, but in some 
cases I have exact records of the manner in which specimens 
were taken. Thus some of the Sericoderus and of the 
Lewisium were swept from long grass, and most of the 
Sacium pi'caultianum were beaten from dead palm-leaves, a 
very fruitful source of beetle-life. Two individuals of the 
Lewisium were found in a fallen branch containing an ant^s 
nest (see p. 24), though whether their presence was acci- 
dental or intentional I cannot say. 

Affinitie'i. — The world-fauna of creatures so minute as 
Corylophidae mu-it be at present but very imperfectly known, 
therefore it is not profitable to discuss at length the affinities 
of the Seychelles series. Moreover, having regard to the 
highly peculiar nature of the endemic vegetation, and to the 
large number of peculiar insects and other animals existing 
there, it is probable that some at least of the species herein 
described will prove to be absolutely confined to these islands. 
But such indications of affinities as exist may be briefly con- 
sidered for what they are worth. 

The only form referred to a previously described species 
is Orthoperus mimitissimus, Matth., hitherto recorded from 
S. America and W. Indies. The new genus Dauhania is 
allied to Ohgarthrum, known only from S. America, and to 
Conjhphus, widely distributed in Europe and Asia. Meio- 
derus was previously recorded only from Japan, Lewisium 
from (Ceylon and Japan. The other gentra are kuouni from 
all parts of the world. 

The Corylophid fauna of Madagascar appears to be very 
little known. The only species included in Alluaud's ' Liste 
des Insectes Coleopt^res de la Ke^ion Malgache ' * (p. lOo) 
is Sacium monatrosum (Schaufuss) f, which, from its descrip- 
tion, seems quite unlike any of the Seychelles form?. 
^Matthews describes his Sacium hifasciatum (Mon. p. iJX) 
from Madagascar, and this is a little like my Sacium picaulti- 
anum. I have found no further records of Corylophidoe 

* Vol. xxi. of Graadidier's 'Ilistoire Physique, Naturelle, et Politique 
de Miidfiy:ascar,' Paris, 1900. 

t = Clypeaster monstrosm, Scliaufuss, Tijdschr. Ent. xxxiv. 1891, p. 2 ; 
Matthews, Mon. Corylophidse, p. 217. 

1* 



4 ^Ii'. TT. Scott 071 (/or}loj)lii(Uo/r(n7i the 

IVoni ^ladaojiscar in tlie subsequent litrratuie. Roitter's 
(li)OS) tl('scii[)tions of E. AtVicrin species have been studied, 
but witliout seeing specimens it is hard to pronounce on their 
vehitionships with those of the Seychelles. In comparing: 
the latter with forms in Matthews's collection, I have several 
times found that the nearest to the Seychelles species are 
Oiiental form«, from Ceylon, Jaj)an, &c. (cf. the distribution 
of the genera Meioderus and Lewis'unn, mentioned above), but 
the resemblance is not generally very close. However, if 
these apparent indications of Oriental affinities should prove 
genuine, this would only tally with what has been found 
so strongly marked in certain other groups of Seychelles 
insects. 

On the wliole, the Seychellean forms are very 97iiinite, even 
for Cort/lophiche. In comparing, I have been repeatedly 
struck with their small size in relation to their congeners. 

StkucTUKE. — Various anatomical points are dealt with 
under the headings of particular genera and species. Thus 
secondary sexual characters have come to light in Ehi/pohius 
and Orthoperus, and differential specific characters in the 
form of antenna; ^n(\. month-parts in certain species of Sacium, 
Sericoderus, and Leuisium — in /S'rtcmmalso in the form of the 
jirosiernuvi. Attention is called to the presence of diverging 
metasternal strise in Orthoperus. 

The condition of the hind wings is stated, so far as it has 
been examined, in the case of each particular species. I 
follow Matthews in using the term "ample" to denote that 
the wings are not reduced, vestigial, or absent, but much 
longer than the elytra, under wliich they are folded. It 
appears that they are ample in ten out of the fifteen species 
dealt with below, the remaining five being: — Arthi-olijys 
sp. indet., wings present but could not be examined ; Arthro- 
lips flavicollisj Matth., Orthoperus minutisi>inius, Mattli., and 
Orthoperus sp. indet., wings not examined ; l{h//pohius aqui- 
/mws, sp. n., wings present and longer than the elytra in the 
(J, but seemingly quite absent in the ? . Tliis last case is 
interesting, exlubiting a sexual difference in the wing- 
developmeiit. The genus Uhypohius ( = Moronillus) is said 
by Ganglbauer (Kaf. JMitteltur. iii. pp. 273, 283-4) to have 
the hind wings quite absent. IMatthews makes the less 
general statement (Mon. pp. 172-3) that these organs are 
absent in the " genotype," R. marinus, Leconte, but says 
nothing of their condition in the other species. In a pair of 
the European R. ruJicoUis (Duval) which I have examined I 
find no trace of hind wings in either sex. I have not investi- 
gated their condition in other species of the genus. 



Set/chcllea and Ranf/ooti. 5 

Matthews also states (Mon. pp. 109, 115) tliat the liind 
wings are either absent or small and narrow in S-iricoderus 
and Anisomeristes, but in those specimens of S. (^A.) seycheU 
iensis, sp. n., which T have dissected they are much longer 
than the elytra. For the rest Matthews describes them as 
" ample" in his diat^noses of all the other genera except six, 
in which he either states that he had not examined them or 
does not mention them at all. But in the case of some 
genera examination of larger numbers both of species and 
individuals is j)robably required. 

I'echnique. — In fixing the generic position of species T 
Ifave never relied on general appearance alone, but have in 
all cases made balsam-preparations of antennte and mouth- 
parts for examination under the compound microscope. - 
These preparations are mounted between two cover-slips, one 
of which is attached to a cardboard framework ; the thinness 
of the glass then allows of both sides of the object being 
viewed through a high-power objective, while the cardboard 
framework admits of the preparations being pinned beside 
tlie insects. Balsam-preparations appear almost essential in 
dealing with Corylophidae, and are indispensable in describing 
any new genus. 

Measxn-ements of length have been made with a calibrated 
micrometer-eyepiece. Drawings made with the aid of a 
drawing- apparatus. 

For comparison I have used the British Museum Collection, 
which, including Matthews's Collection and his balsam- 
preparations, is fairly complete up to the date of his ' Mono- 
graph ' (1899). Descriptions of older forms not included in 
the jMonograph, and of all species and genera described since, 
have been consulted. 

LiTERATUEE. — Mattlicws^s ' Monograph of Corylophidse 
and Sphseriidse ' appeared in 1899, after its author's decease. 
A number of species unknown to him were not included in 
liis manuscript, but the editor of the Monograph refers to 
these on pp. 19-21 and p. 217. The Monograph may there- 
tore be taken as a fairly complete enumeration of the species 
up to and including 1899. 

The following is a list of the subsequent literature, compiled 
from the ' Zoological Record.' the nature of ejich work being 
briefly indicated. Though a catalogue of the family has 
recently appeared, this list may also be of some use : — 

1900. Casey. Journ. New York Eiit. Soc. viii. pp. 60-75, review of 
N. Amer. forms, describing several new genera and species: 
Bathuna, g. u., Gronevus, g. u., Eutrilia, g. n. near Ort/ioj)eruii, 
Molamba, g. u. near Sacium. 



6 My. II. Scott on Coryloplildfc/'/om the 

1900. DoDKRO. Ann. Mus. Geneva, xl. p. 565, records Sacium for- 

viosinn, Mattli., from JJurmab. 
Eeittku. Wieu. ent. Zeit. xix. p. 132, synonymic notes ; Deutsch. 
eut. Zeitschr. p. 82, describes Sericoderus chobuuti, sp. n., from 
S. France [see 1908]. 

1901. Rkitter. Deutsch. ent. Zeitschr. p. 70, Orthoperus acariformis, 

sp. n., from West Turkestan. 

1902. Reiitkr. Wien. eut. Zeit. xxi. p. 137, Orthoperus schneideri, 

sp. n., from Corsica. 

1903. Fauvel. liev. Ent. Franc. (Caen), xxii. pp. 289-291, three new- 

species of Arthrolips and one of Corylophas from New Cale- 
donia *. 
Morrill. Ent. News (Pliiladelphia), xiv. pp. 135-138, pi. vi., 
metamorphosis of Corylup/wdes maryititcollh. 

1908. Reitter. Wieu. ent. Zeit. xxvii. pp. 59-63, describes a num- 

ber of forms from E. Africa {Homociriijmius, g. n. near Serico- 
derus, and new species of Sacium, ArtJi)-olij}s, Sericoderus, Cory- 
lophus, and Orthoperus) ; t. c. p. 198, synonymic uotes, and 
sinks Sericoderus chobanli, Keitt. (1900), as a\ar. of <S'. revellieri, 
Ileitt. 
Scott. 'Fauna Hawaiiensis/ iii. pp. 415-8, includes description 
of Sacium angusticolle, sp. n. [omitted by Csiki from his Cata- 
lo2ue, 1910]. 

1909. Reitter. Bull. Soc. ent. Egypte, i. (1908) p. 40, descr. Serico- 

derus {Aiiisomeristes) pecirkanus, sp. n., from Egypt. 

1910. Blatchley. Bull. ludiaua i)ept. Gdol. i. pp. 501-506, describes 

Indiana species. 
Csiki. Rovart. Lapok. xvii. p. 28, synonymic notes and new 
names ; Coleopt. Catalog. (Junk & Schenkliug), part 18, pp. 5- 
28, catalogue of the family. 

1912. Sharp and Muib. Tr. Eut. Soc. London, p. 607, d' genital arma- 

ture. 

1913. IIetschko. Wien. ent. Zeit. xxxii. p. 181, Matthewsiella, nom. 

nov. for Microum. 
Reitter. Deutsche ent. Zeitschr. pp. 653-4, Sericaderistes, gen. 

nov. near Sericoderus, with a new species, from Turkestan. 
Sahlberg. Cifv. Finsk. Vetensk.-Soc. Fiirh. (llelsingfors), 

vol. Iv. 1912-13, Afd. A, no. 8, p. 12, Catoptyx levantinus, sp.n., 

Lebanon. 

1914. BRorx. New Zealand Institute, Bull. 1, part 3, p. 173, Sacina 

curiuln, sp. n., New Zealand. 

In the following poition of this pnper dates in brackets 
after authors^ names refer to the above list. 

* In .this paper Fauvel also records (p. 289) Arthrohps souverbiet 
(Montr.) from New Caledonia. This species was described by Mon- 
trousier fi'om that country as one of the Heteromera, being made the 
tvpe of a new genus Apeltn (Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, vol. xi. 1864, j). 124), 
and as such it is included in the Munich Catalogue (vol. vii. p. 1972) 
under Tenebrionidre. But Fauvel, n.* stated above, records it as a Cory- 
lopliid, giving Apelta as a synonym of Arihrolips. The name souverbiet 
does not, however, appear to be meiitioned in Csiki's 'Catalogue of 
Corvlo])hid£e ' (1910) either as a \alid species or as a synonym. 



Seychelles and Rauijoon. 7 

Types. — A first set of the material, incliuliiig the types of 
the new genus and of all new species, will be placed in the 
British j\liiseiim ; a second set will be retained in the Cam- 
bridge University Museum. 

SaciUM, Leconte. 
(PI. T. tigs. 1-9.) 
Sacium, Leconte, Proc. Ac. Philad. vi. 1852, p. 142. 

The material includes four species from the Seyclielles, all 
quite distinct from each other and from anything in Matthevvs's 
culiection ; neither do the descriptions of the few species 
which I have not seen correspond at all with any of the 
►St-ychelJes forms. Reitter (1908) has described five species 
from East Africa ; but after careful study of his descriptions 
1 conclude that none of my species is identical with any of 
his. 

Structural Characters. — In examining the Seychelles 
collection I have noticed certain structural differences between 
the species, of a kind which does not seem to have been 
hitherto employed. Thus, among these four species there are 
two distinct types of p^'ostemum : (i.) of appreciable lengtU 
in front of the coxoe and furnished with an elevated median 
keel (fig. 6) ; (ii.) exceedingly short in front of the coxa? and 
with no keel (tig. 3) ; turtlier details are given in the 
specific descriptions. Matthews (Mon. p. 41) writes " pro- 
sterno parvo, inter coxas elevato . . .," but makes no state- 
ment as to specific ditferences in its form. 

Another category of characters is exhibited by the mouth~ 
parts. A balsam-preparation was made in order to fix with 
certainty the generic position of each species. These prepara- 
tions exhibit slight differences in the form and relative pro- 
portions of such parts as the mentum and joints of the palpi, 
differences which are briefly mentioned in each description 
(c/. figs. 2, 5, 8, 9). 

Ciiaracters such as these are not necessary for separating 
the Seychelles species, which are amply distinct in other 
ways. But they are indicated in ca.se they should prove 
usefid in further studies of this large genus of nunute 
creatures. 

1. Sacium picauUiamnn, sp. n. 
(PI. I. figs. 1-6.} 

Oblongo-ovale, supra nitidissimum, fere glabrura ; piceo-uigrnra, 
thoracis margiue anteriore testaceo, elytris maculis 4 (in utroque 



8 Ml. H. Scott on CorylophitUe/7'owj the 

olvtro 2) rufo-flavis, corpore suhtus rufo-picco, pedibus rufo- 
testaceis, untcnniuum clavis iiifusoalis ; supra tote forlitor dense 
puiictatuni, thoracis basi plus miuusve rogulariter seriatim punc- 
tata ; metasterno et segmenlo 1° abdominis subtilitcr dense 
punctatis. 
Long. Corp. l-05-l*25 mm. 

01)loiic;-oval, witli elytra nearly jiaralld-sideil, not very 
niiicli bioader than the tlioiux at their ■widest point; uppi-r 
surface very shining, wilh ihe jumetures bearing siuh exces- 
sive! v siiort minute han.s (only visible under a com pound 
niicioscope) that it ma}' almost be called glabrous. Colour : 
thorax pitchy black, with the anterior explanate maroiu 
translucent and testaceous, the testaceous colour extending 
back a little on to the disc in two places, one on either side 
of the middle line in front ; scutelium Idack ; elytra pitchy 
black, with two reddish-yellow marks on each, the front pair 
of marks extending from the base to ^ the length or more, 
fairly widely separated from the outer margins and at the 
suture ; the hind pair only veiy narrowly separated at the 
suture, sometimes quite confluent across it, fairly widely 
separated from the apex of the elytron, each mark extending 
obliquely forwards from the suture nearly to the outer margin. 
In a few examj)les the spots of the front pair also are nearly 
confluent across the suture; and in some (possibly immature) 
the whole elytra are much ))aler, almost uniform pitchy 
reddish or even testaceous. Underside reddish pitchy, ajiex 
of the abdomen rufescent. Legs reddisli testaceous. Clubs 
of antenna3 dark, lliurox and elytra closely and strongly 
iiunctured, the punctures sepaiated by from once to twice 
their own diameter, the thorax with a basal seiies of more 
closely placed punctures (very distinct in the figured speci- 
men, but less regular in others) ; elytra with lateral margins 
reflexed and visible from directly above throughout the 
greater part of their length ; sutural stria present, obsolete in 
about the anterior ^. Wingfi dissected out and found to be 
ample. 3lttasternum and ahdomen finely and closely punc- 
tured and finely pubescent; the punctuation more sparse on 
the postero-median |)art of the metasternum. 

Prosternum (PI. I. tig. 3) extremely short, forming iii 
front of each coxa a bridge so narrow that it can scarcely 
be seen in looking directly down on to the under surface; 
tliere is consequently no room for a median elevated keel 
in front of the coxffi (contrast Sacium (jro.ssiniuvum, fig. 6). 
A bulsam-pH-ltaration of the mouth-parts shows that the 



Seychelles and R nigoon. 9 

menfnm (fig. 2) is narrow, |)ointe(l in tVoiif, ami tlie terminal 
joints of the Idlial p(tlpi slightly hunger than tlie second. 

Sacinm j)i<^<iultianum approaciies three species which I 
liave seen — S. bifasdatum^ Matth. (Madagascar), S. quaclri- 
vi'iculatum, Matth. (Ceylon), and 8. flaviventre, Mattli. 
(Ceylon), Mon. pp. 53, 54. S. hifasciatum is slightly 
longer in pro|)ortioii, more tapering behind, much more finely 
punctured, with the basal thoracic series much less distinct, 
and the light marks on the elytra less sharply defined and 
ditferently arranged. S. qnadrhiaculatum and S. flaviventre 
are h:)th larger and differently shaped in outline, having the 
elytra less parallel-sided and broadening out ratlier more 
beliind the shoulders ; both have the disc of the thorax dark 
red instead of pitchy black and the marks on the elytra much 
smaller; moreover, the upper surface is entirely glabrous, 
the punctures being devoid of even such minute hairs as are 
})resent in S. picauUiinum. The latter is quite distinct froiu 
anv of the three. 

Loc. Seychelles : Silhouette Island, 1908. 

Fifteen specimens. Nine were beaten irom dead palm- 
haves on the i\lare aux Cochons plateau, over 1000 feet, 
25. ix. 1908 ; five others are from the same loealit)^, though 
how obtained is not recorded ; and one is from the other side 
of the island, near Ment Pot-a-eau. 

Named after Captain Lazare Pieault, who commanded one 
of the earliest expelitioiis to the Seychelles, in 1742 *. 

2. Sacinm qrosnni'anum, sp. n. 
(PI.' I. tigs. 4-6.) 

Oblongo-ovale, supra sat nitidum, subtiliter dense pnnctatum atqne 
l)ul)escens, piceo-nigrum, thoracis margine anteriore late testaceo, 
elytris fasciis 2 transversis rufo-tlavis, in sutura interdum an- 
guste iuterruptis ; metasterno et segmeuto 1* abdominis nigris, 
thorace subtus et segraentis posterioribus rufescenlibus, pedibus 
aiiteunisque lufo-flavis, harum clavis baud nigricantibus. 

Long. Corp. 1'15 mm. 

Oblong-oval, with thorax rather long, its anterior margin 
forming a curve that narrows considerably in front, and 
with el}tra nearly parallel-sided, but considerably broader 
than the thorax at their widest point ; upper suiface fairly 
shining, covered with fine, short, decundjent, pale pubescence. 

* For this and other historical particulars, see J. Stanley Gardiner, 
"The Sevchelles Aichiptlago," Ueographical Journal, ieb. 1907, 
pp. 148-1 f 4. 



10 y\i. II. Scutt on Covy\oi)]i\i]io from the 

Colour : tliorax pitcliy blade, witli front margin rather 
broadly recklisli testaceous ; elytra pitcliy blade, with two 
l)road transverse redcli.sli-yellow fascite, the anterior or both 
ot" which may be narrowly inlerrnpted by darker colour at 
t!ie suture, thus almost foiniing tour scjKirate marks; in one 
example the scutellum is included in the anterior pale fascia, 
in another it is darker; metasterniiui and fiist abdominal 
segment pitchy black, posterior segments paler; underside of 
thorax, legs, and antennas reddish yellow, clubs of the an- 
teinife not black, lliorax and ch/fra closely and veiy finely 
})unetured, the punctures twice their own diameter, or rather 
more, apart ; the thorax has no distinct b:\sal series, but au 
impressed line immediately before the base ; sntural stria 
present but vanishing in nearly the anterior \ ; lateral mar- 
gins of elytra reflexed through about | the length from the 
shoulder, visible from directly above. Wings apparently 
ample, but not dissected out. Metasternum and abdomen 
finely and closely punctured and pubescent. 

Frosternum (1^1. T. fig. G) much longer tlmii in Saciuvi 
picaultiaiium, forming in front of eacli coxa a bridge about 
lialf as broad in an antero-posterior direction as the dimen- 
sions of the coxaj in the same direction, and having a 
sharply elevated median longitudinal keel. A balsam- 
])reparation of the mouth-parts shows that the mentavi 
(PI. I. fig. 5) is broader, not j)ointed in front, more like 
ilatthews's figure (pi. i. DC). 

Several species resemble this in general scheme of colour, 
but its pubescent surface distinguishes it in many cases, and 
I have seen none veiy closely similar to it. Among the 
other Seychelles si)ecies it is abundantly distinct from 
b. ]>icaul(uinum by its pubescence, its narrower form, finer 
]>unctuation, longer prosternum, by the confluence of the 
light U'arks on the elytra to form transverse fascial, &c. 

IjOc. Seychelles: Silhouette Island. 

Three examples, fiom the same place as most of the pre- 
ceding species, the Mare aiix CocLons plateau or ne.ar by, 
ix. lUOb. 

Is'amed in memory of Captain Grossin, a member of 
Picault's expedition to the Seyclielles in 1742. 

3. Sacivm i'osJanianum, sp. n. 
(I'l. I. figs. 7 & 8.) 

Late ovale, supra nitidissimum, tote glabrum, modice sat dense 
j)unctaluni ; ])icco-nignnii, margineanteriore thoracis late pallido 
tcstaceo, elytro utroque roacula bingula media rulb-flava, corjjoro 



Seychelles and Ihingoon, 11 

siibtus piceo, pcdibus piccis vel fusco-teotaceis, antennarum clavis 
fuscis. 
Long. Corp. 1*0 mm. 

Rather sliortly and broadly oval, with thorax forming 
alino-st a perfect semicircle (not a narrowing curve), and 
el)tra considerably Avider than the thorax, reaching- their 
widest ])oint a little before the middle ; shining and entirely 
glabrous above. Colour: pitchy black ; front margin of the 
tlioiax broadl}-- pale testaceous and translucent ; each elytron 
has a median pale spot, narrowly separated from its neigh- 
bour at the suture, more widely separated from the outer 
margin ; in one specimen the spots are clear yellow, in otliers 
darker, reddish, and suffused ; the black ground-colour is 
sliglitly diluted at the apices of the elytra ; underside pitchy; 
legs ])itchy or fusco-testaceous, with paler tilna; ; head and 
clubs of antenuEB dark, Tliorax and ehjtra moderately 
strongly and closely punctured ; lateral margins of elytra 
reflexed throughout the greater part of their length, visible 
from directly above ; sutural stria present, vanishing in the 
anterior portion. Wings a})parently ample, but not dissected 
out. ]\Jeiasternum and abdomen with remote punctures 
bearing fine short hairs, the former nearly impunctate in the 
middle. 

Proslernum in front of each coxa forming a bridge of con- 
siderable breadth in an antero-posterior direction, and having 
an elevated median longitudinal keel, i. e, approaching tlie 
condition found in Sac'mm grossinianum {cf. tig. 6). The 
balsam-preparation of the mouth-parts shows that the mentam 
(tig. 8) is rather narrow and bluntly pointed in front, the 
apical joints of the labial palpi shorter than the second (con- 
trast h. picaultianuni) , and the penultimate (third) joints 
of the moxillary palpi proportionately longer than in some 
other s])ecies. 

Sacium concimium, Matth. (Ceylon), S. formosum, Matth. 
(Ceylon), and S. politum, Matth. (Japan) [Mon. pp. 52, 56, 
57], all liave the ?ame general scheme of colour — each elytron 
with a single pale mark on a dark ground. S. roslanianum 
isj however, quite distinct from them all. S. concinmini is 
differently shaped, having the el} tra very little wider than 
the thorax, its punctuation is much closer, and the light 
marks on the elytra are more longitudinal in direction and 
much more widely separated from tlie outer maigins and 
from one another. S. formosuin k larger, longer, and 
narrower, with thorax forming a longer nairowing curve; 
also its thorax is reddish instead of black, and the pale marks 
lie further back on the elytra and are much more widely 



12 ]\rr. II. vScott on Cory]o\)\\\i}x from the, 

popaiateil at the sntiiro ; tlic punctuation also is finer. 
S- poll turn \s, xwwAx laitft-Tj propoi tioiiaiely lonoci-j and naj- 
rowor, with red thorax ; its palu marks are nmch sliortcr in 
an antoro-posterior direction — /. e., they form a narrow trans- 
verse fascia on the elytra. 

Loc. Seychelles: Sdhouette and Mahd, 1908-9. 

Five specimens, from the high forests. In Silhouette two 
were found, m^ar Mont Pot-i\-eau (ca. 1500 feet), and at 
INFare aux Cochons ; in Mahe three, from C.iscade Estit(3 at 
about 1000 feet, and from the Mare aux Occhoiis district 
at about 1500 feet. 

Named after Monsieur du Tloslan, under whom an early 
expedition visited the Seychelles in 17G9. 

4. Sacinm rocJwnianum, sp. n. 
(PI. J. fig. 0.) 

llinutuni, ovale, supra nitidis&imiim, glaberrimnm, omnino impunc- 
tatuni ; thoracc rufo-flavo ; elytris piceo-nigris, vel unicoloribus, 
vel fascia pallida transversa sufi'usa, plus minusve distincta, 
munitis ; raetasterno piceo-nigro, alxloraiue rufescente, ore an- 
ti.niiis pedihus liavis, autennarum clavis haud uigricantibus. 

Long. Corp. 0-'J-l*0 mm. 

Minute, oval, the front margin of the thorax forming an 
elliptical curve narrowing sliglitly in front, sides of the elytra 
gradually curved, reaching their widest point a little before 
the middle ; very shining, absolutely impunctate, and 
glabrous above. Colour: thorax unicolorous reddish yellow, 
rather paler at the front margin ; scutellum in most examples 
reddish yellow, in some darker; elytra pitchy black, diluter 
at the apices ; in some s))ecimens practically unicolorous, but 
in most there is near the suture just behind the middle a 
paler area, which, thongh very indistinct in some, in other 
cases forms a suffused transverse pale fascia; metasternum 
pitchy black, underside of thorax yellowish testaceous, of 
abdomen reddish ; head, anteniife, and legs yellow, clubs 
of the antennae not darkened. Eiytra with lateral margins 
narrowly reflexed throughout most of their length from the 
shoulder, these margins visible from above immediately 
behind the shouhler and again in the posterior half, but 
scarcely visible (or invisible) for a short space just before 
the middle; sutural stria |)resent, extending forwards a little 
beyond the middle. Winys apparently ample, but not 
dissected out. Metasternum quite smooth, glabrous, and 
impunctate in the middle, with scanty very short pubescence 
at the sides; uhdouien with longer yellowish jjubescence. 



Sei/chelies and Rangoon. 13 

Proslernnm formed rather as in S'lciutn picanltiannm^ very 
sliort, forminor only a very narrow bridge in trout o£ each 
coxa, and sloping steeply upwards («'. e., dorsalwards) in the 
middle in front^ not forming a median keel. The balsam- 
preparation of the mouth-parts shows that ih^meidum (fig. 9) 
is broader than long (contrast S. picanUianum) . 

No species which I have seen is closely like this. The 
Hawaiian S. anffiislirolle, Scott (1908, p. ilG), resembles it 
in its minute size and general colour-scheme — red thorax and 
black elytra. But S. angusticolle is distinctly though finely 
punctured and pubescent above, and is proportionately longer 
and narrower, less oval in outline, and with elytra less 
broadened about the middle. 

Loc, Heychelles : Siliiouette, 1908. 

Fifteen examples, all from the high endemic forest above 
Mare aux CJochons, well over 1000 feet. 

Named after the Abbe Rochon, a member of du Roslan's 
expedition in 1769; he left a written record, and his name 
has been given to a river in Mahe. 

Arthrolips, Wollaston. 

The material includes three species — A . flavicolUs, Matth., 
hitherto known from Java, an example of which is now 
recorded from Rangoon; A. insiilce-longce, sp. n., from the 
Seychelles ; and an undetermined species from the Seychelles. 
Since the appearance of Matthews's Monograph, Fauvel 
(1903) has described three new species from New Caledonia, 
and Reitter (1908) two new species from East Africa. But 
those before me do not appear to be identical with any of 
these. 

5. Arthrolips JlavicoIIiSj Matthews. 

Arthrolips JlavicoU is, Matthews, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, (o) vol. xix. 
1S87, p. 107 ; 31ou. Corylopliidte, p. 92. 

One example, agreeing closely with the type, 
Loc. Rangoon; from nest of Mania striata, 9. x. 1911 
[Dr. 11. II. MarahalV). Previously recorded from Java. 

6. Arthrolips insuhn-JonqcPj sp. n. 
(PI. I. figs. 10, 11.) 

Sat breviter ovalis, convexus, nitidus, castaneus, fere imicolor, sed 
elytris ad latera et antice ad suturam indistincte infiiscatis, pedi- 
biis auteniiisque castaneis, harum elavis baud nigricantibus ; 
corpora supra subtusque dense punctato, pallide pubescente. 

Long. Corp. ri5-l-25 mm. 



14 Mr. H. Scott on Corylopliidce/rj/H ihe 

Itatlier shortly oval, more convex ty^^xx several of its con- 
jyeiicrs, sliiniiij>-, castaiieous, almost unicolorous above and 
beneath, but with tlie front marivin of the thorax paler and a 
dark mark on its disc where tlie head shows through the 
chitin, and with indistinct dark areas along the sides of the 
elytra and near the front part of the suture, the latter forming 
a median dark mark common to the two elytra ; legs and 
antennre castaiieou^, the latter with the clubs not darker ; 
body above and beneath covered with fine pale yellowish 
])ubescence. Thorax with base almost straiglit, only very 
slightly sinuate on either side of the scutelium, with surface 
finelv punctured, the punctures about twice their own diameter 
apart. SculeUum finely punctured. Elytra about as long as 
their combined breadth, with sutural stria indistinct (not indi- 
cated in fig. 10 and in some positions hardly visible) and 
obsolete in the anterior -|, more strongly punctured than the 
thorax, punctures about twice their own diameter apart; 
retlexion of lateral margins very slight, scarcely noticeable 
from above. Wings apparently ample, but not dissected out. 
Ventral surface closely punctured, except the middle of the 
metasternura, which is almost impuiictate. 

It is not easy to describe the difFereJices separating this 
form from others. It is not identical with any species 1 have 
seen. Tlie following four are selected from Matthews's 
collection for comparison, as they seem nearest to it. A. teslu- 
dinalisy VVoll. (Madeira), is larger, less convex, more parallel- 
sided, with the dark areas at the sides and suture of the 
elytra contrasting much more strongly with the paler areas 
between, and the elytral punctures very much closer. 
A. croceus, Matth. (Siam), is uarrov^^er, much less convex, 
more parallel-sided, and much paler and yellower; in punctua- 
tion it is not unlike A. insnlce-hmgce. Tlie same remarks 
ap])ly very nearly to A. seuegaleusis, Matth. A. westwoodi, 
Matth. ((!eyloii), is larger, proportionately longer, less convex, 
and generally lighter in colour, though with the daiker areas 
on the elyira much the same as those of A. ■insuhe-longce ; its 
antennse are much lighter coloured, being bright yellow; in 
]tunctuation it is not far removed from A. insulce-longce. 
The latter differs from all these four species in its shorter, 
more convex, less parallel-sided form, as well as in the other 
ways mentioned in each separate case. 

Keitter (1908, ]). 61) has described a species — A. centii- 
maculutus, from East Africa — wiiich seems to resemble 
A. insulce-Iovgoe in many respects ; but without seeing a 
specimen it is hard to say exactly how the two forms are 
related. A. centrimaculatus is described as " breviter ovalis," 



Seychell'is and Rangoon. 15 

but as "levissime convexns " and ^"^ (lilute fulvns," wlievens 
A. t'nsulce-hngce is ynore convex than several of its cono-eners 
ami dark castaneous. The dark areas on the elytra of 
A. centrimaculatus appear to bs in the same positions as those 
of A, insuhe-longce. 

hoc. Seychelles : Lonp; Island, a small coconut-planted 
islet close to Mah^, vii. 1908. Eight specimens, obtained by 
beating (probably from coconut-trees). 

7. Arthrolips sp. 

A single specimen, in bad condition, with one elytron 
broken. So far as can be seen, the form is rather depressed 
and suboblong — that is, more nearly parallel-sided than in 
some allied species. Shining, thorax and elytra pitchy black, 
the thorax paler (dirty ferruginous) in front, and the apices 
of the elytra, where the lis^ht shows through, appearing 
pitchy ferruginous. Underside of thorax ferruginous, meta- 
sternum and first abdominal segment pitchy, hind margins 
of abdominal segments testaceous. Legs ferruginous ; clubs 
of antennae not black. Body above covered with fine pale 
pubescence, muck worn in the unique example. Thorax 
very finely and subobsoletely punctured. ScuteUum and 
eli/tra with stronger, larger punctures, about their own 
diameter apart ; sutural stria very fine and close to the 
suture, but distinguishable through almost the whole length 
of the elytron excepting right at the base. Wings present, 
but not examined. VentraJJy, metasternum and first abdo- 
minal segment finely and rather closely puncture 1, the punc- 
tuation reticulate towards the sides ; the pale pubescence is 
rather dense, especially towards the sides of the sternum and 
hind maro-iiKs of the abdominal seo:ments. 

Length 1*0 mm. 

As the specimen is unique and in bad condition, I have 
not named it, though it is not identical with any examples 
I have seen. A. oblom/us, Matth. (Japan), has the same 
shape and colour, but is much larger and diff"erently punc- 
tured, its thoracic punctures being stronger, while conversely 
the elytral |)unctures are finer and more remote. 

Log. Seychelles : Silhouette, from Mare aux Cochons or 
the forest near by, over 1000 feet, 1908. 

Metoderus, Matthews. 
Meioderus, Matthews, Mon. Corylophidfe, p. 102. 

This genus was erected to include a single species — d/. niti- 
dus, Matth., from Japan, — till now its only known repre- 



16 ]\rr. H. Scolt on Cory\op]\idx from the 

soiitative. The ii'-w fonn drscriboil Ix-low agrees closely with 
M. nitidtis ill (reneiic characters — in general shaj^e, form of 
anteiiiiiv, inouili-parts, sterna, tarsi, &c., — but is quite distinct 
in specilic characters. 

8, ^Jtio lerus "jfiiftissi/ayiKS, sp. n. 
(PI. 11. fig.' 12.) 

Sat late ovalis, supra fortiter nitidus, ouinino glaber ; prothorace 
unicolore, rufo, scutello elytrisquc unicoloribus, piccis, corpore 
sul)tu8 fuaco-testaceo, pedibus antenuisque testaceis, barum clavis 
baud nigricaotibus ; protborace fere impmictato, elytris subtiliter 
remot«i punctatis, siue stria suturali. 

Long. Corp. ca. I'l mm. 

Rather broadly oval, modoratelj convex, very shininfr, 
an<l quite glabrous above. Colour : prothorax uiiicolorous 
reddish, the colour broadly diluted at the translucent front 
niaroin, scutellum and elytra unicolorous pitchy, underside 
brownish testaceous, legs and antennae testaceous, clubs of 
antennae not blackened. Jltorax rather short, its front mar- 
gin forming a wide curve ; for ordinary purposes it may be 
culled impunctate, though under a very high po'ver a few 
very remote and exceedingly fine punctures are visible, as 
indicated in fig. 12. Elytra gradually curved, with lateral 
margin narrowly reflexed, though when viewed from directly 
above this is generally visible only in front, as shown in 
fig. 12 ; punctures fine, remote, shallow, slightly elongate ; 
sutuial stria entirely absent. Wings ample (mounted in 
balsam). Metasternum and Jirst abdominal segment glabrous, 
the former iinj)unctate in the middle, finely and remotely 
punctured at the sides, the latter finely and remotely punc- 
tured. 

M. nitidusj ]\latth., is larger, more elongate-ovate in out- 
line, with thorax much darker; the elytra are much deeper 
black, their punctuation is, if anything, a little stronger, and 
a sutural stria is discernible in the posterior ])art; the ventral 
surface is much blacker and tlie nietasteriium more closely 
punctured at the sides. Wiien the ventral surfaces of J/, i.ili- 
dns and M. qninssyanus are viewed side by side tbe greater 
relative breadth ot M. guitissi/niiiis is apparent, and the co.\?e 
of its middle and posteri(;r piirs of legs look even more 
widely distant, inter se, in spite of its smaller actual size. 

Loc. Seychelles : Silhouette, viii.-ix. 1908. 

Four examples, one from near Mont Pot-a-eau, at about 
1500 feet, three from Mare aux Coclions, about 1000 feet. 

This species is named after Monsieur Le Queau de Quinssy, 



Seychelles and Rangoon. 17 

last of the French Governors of the Se}xhelles, who served 
the Monarchy, the Republic, the Empire, and, finally, the 
British Government. 



Sericoderus, Stephens. 
(PI. II. figs. 13-17.) 

Subgenus Anisomeristes (Matthews). 

Anisomeristes, Matthews, Ent. Mo, Mag. xxii. 1886, p. 225 ; Mon. 

Corylophidfe, p. 108. 
Sericoderus, pars, Reitter. 

Anisomerihtes, treated by Reitter, and here, as a subgenus 
of Sericodfras, is separated from true Sericoderus by having 
11-jointed instead of 10-jointed antennjB. Otherwise tiie 
species of the two subgenera are closely alike, and it is 
impossible without examination of the antennae to decide in 
which of them any particular form should be placed. 

The difference is caused by the fusion of two joints — joint 3 
and the succeeding one — in Sericoderus, s. str. But in some 
species at least of this subgenus there is a fine transverse 
line on the third joint, showing where the division would be 
if it were present. Fig. 17, made from a balsam-preparation, 
shows the antenna of a British specimen in the Crotch Col- 
lection placed as S. lateralis ; fig. 17 a shows the elongated 
third joint more highly magnified, and it is clear, both from 
the shape of the joint and the presence of tlie transverse line, 
that it is made up of two joints fused. Figs. 16, 16 a illus- 
trate the antenna of S. (-4.) pubipennis, Sharp (Haw'aiian 
Islands), and figs. 15, 15 a give that of S. (A.) seychellensis, 
sp. n. In pubipennis the separation of the joints is complete, 
but not so marked as in seychellensis ; in pubij^ennis the two 
joints fit together very closely, while in seychellensis the 
distal one is distinctly narrowed at its base. The condition in 
S. {A.) pubipennis, therefore, seems to be transitional be- 
tween that in S. {A.) seychellensis and that in S. (s. str.) late- 
ralis. The antennae also exhibit other differences in length 
and in the proportions of the joints inter se. But appear- 
ances are sometimes deceptive, and much depends on the 
exact position in which the antenna is lying in the balsam. 

In many descriptions o( Sericoderus spp. no mention is made 
of the antennae, and the subgeneric position of some species 
is not satisfactorily established. Owing to this inadequacy 
of descriptions, it is hard to say exactly how certain described 
species are related to the Seychelles form. I have named the 
latter S. {A.) seychellensis, though it may possibly prove to 

Ann. ds Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 2 



1^ ]\Ir. H. Scolt on Covy\o\)\\\d.e from the 

be iJeiitlcal with some tlescribdl species wlii^li I have not 
sfeii. 

CoinUlion of hind icings: see ante (p. 4) anil !jel)\v. 

9. Scricoderus (Am'.someristes^ sei/chellnn.tis, sp. n. 
{l»i. TI. figs. \[]~ir>:) 

Obconicus, nitidus, iiiiicob)r fiavo-testaceus, pedibiis aiitennisque 
tlavosi-entibus, haniiu clavis baiul nigricaiitibus, sat bjuge aureo- 
])ilosus ; prothorace subtiliter ])uiictat(), inter punctos laevi ; 
elytris fortius punctatis, inter puuctos paruin asperutis ; auteuuis 
curtis. 

Long. Corp. 0-75-1-0 mm. 

Obeoiiic, of tiie form characteristic of Sricoderus — that is, 
\\\i\\ tiionix broader than elytra and produced at the hind 
alleles, and wifli elytra narrowing gradnailv from the bat^e 
backwards, subtruncate at the apices, and with sides straight, 
not curved. -S. \A.) seijchellensis is narrower in proportion 
than some of its congener.s. It is shining, unicolorous yellow^- 
testaceous, with legs and antenna} yellowisii, the clubs of the 
latter not (or only very slightlv) darkened. Body covered 
above and below with golden pubescence, rather coarser and 
longer tlian, and not quite so close as, in some species, lliorax 
smooth, very finely punctured; fZ^/ra rougher, with coarser 
|)nncttiatioii, which extends right to the base. Wings con- 
siderably longer than elytra (mounted in balsam). 

Of all the forms which I have seen, the Hawaiian S. (-1.) 
jiuhij>ennis, Sharp*, is nearest to S. {A.) sei/chellensis, but it 
is larger and lias the pubescence and ])unct nation denser. 
It also differs in the form of the antennal joints (figs. 15, 15 a). 
In setichellensis the antenna) are short, less than 1^ limes the 
breadth of the head, while in pubipennis they measure over 
1^ times the breadth of the head. In seychellensis joint 2 
is fhort and conspicuously broad in proportion, 3 and 4 are 
short and transverse, and the division between them is con- 
Si)icuons, 4 bjing narrowed at its base, 5 is very little broader 
than long, 6 much more transverse, 7 cons])icuously larger 
than 8, and the club-joints are short, 9 and 10 both being 
broader than long. Jn puZiiyjeWi/ft- (figs. 16, 16 o) joint 2 is 
proportionately much longer, 4 is differently shaped and 
much less narrowed at its base, 9 and 10 are longer, being 
about as long as broad. Perhaps characters of a more defi- 
nite nature than some of those hitherto used may be found in 

* Tr. Dublin Soc. ill. 1885, p. 128 ; Matthews, Mun. CorjlopLidse, 
p. 121 ; Scott, * Fauna Hawaiiensis,' iii. p. 417 (1908). 



Seychelles and Rangoon. 19 

tlie antennae to di.stingulsli ti^number of forms superficially 
much alike. 

Among species vvhicli I have not seen, 8. eichelbauml, 
Reitter (1908, p. 62, E. Africa), seems to resemble S. {A.} 
seycliellensis in some respects, but to differ (as, according to 
Reitter, I. c, does also the Australian S. pallidulus, Reitter) 
in iiaving the punctuation of the elytra obsolete towards the 
base; also eiclnlhaami and pallididas presumably belong to 
the subgenus Sericoderusj s. str., though this is not actually 
state 1. Certain forms have been described from Austrab'a 
by Lea * and from New Zealand by Broun f, but it is 
impos-sible to say exactly how they are related to S. (A.) 
S'l/cfiellensis. S. (A.) pecirkanus^ Reitter (1908), fro^n 
Egypt, is, according to the description, different in sha[)e, 
cohjui-, and nature of the pubescence. 

Log. Seychelles : Silhouette and Mahe, 1903-9. 

Over fifty specimens, varying considerably in size. . In 
Silhouette several were swept from a grassy clearing at over 
1000 feet, 30. vii. 1908, and a large number were beaten 
all together from one place on the edge of the forest at Mare 
aux Cochons, over 1000 feet, in the late aftertioon of 18. ix. 
1908; others were found in various localities both in the 
high forests and at lower elevations. In Mahe examples 
were taken in the high forest of Morne Blanc^ on Casca«le 
Estate, &c. 

DaubANIA, gen. nov. 
(PI. I. fig. 18 ; PI. 111. figs. 19, 21-24.) 

Anteuuse (ut in OUgarthro) S-articulatte, sed ab eis OUgarthri in 
forma articulonim differentes. Caput sub x>ronoto omnino ob- 
tectuin. Genus in forma mandibulorum, masillarum, labii, 
Coryloplio affinis, sed ab hoc genere in uiimero articulorum 
antenuarum differfc. 

Form (fig. 18) oval, narrowed behind, moderately convex, 
glabrous above. Head entirely concealed beneath pronotum. 
Antennce (fig. 19) 8-jointed ; joint 1 long, thickened, curved 
towards base ; 2 pyriform, over twice as long as broad ; 
3 slender at base, a little longer than broad ; 1 small, a little 
broader than long; 5 may be reckoned as part of the club, it 
and 6 are about as long as broad ; 7 is rather broader than 
long; 8 is longer than broad and tapers to a blunt apex. 
Labrum (fig. 21) transversely oblong, anterior angles 
rounded, anterior margin slightly bi.sinuate. Mandibles 

. * Proc. Liuu. 8oc. New South Wales", vol. x. p. 309 (1895). 
t Mail. New Zealaiid Col. part 5, p, I07l> (,189a). 

2* 



20 Mr. H. Scott on Coiylophiclw//c»»j tke 

(rig. 22) armed on the inner nlaifi'ii with a comb of long fine 
teeth, becoming gradually sliorter towards the base. Maxilla 
(rig. 23) with the lobe finely setose; inaxillarij ^w//) with 
joint 2 large, obliqnelv truncate at apex, greatly produced 
and rounded at the outer aj»icid angle, which bears six long 
slender hmiinate processes (ef. Cvrylophus, !Matth. Mon. 
pi. iv. fig. Do), each of" which becomes gradually broader 
from the base outwards, then tapers to a siiarp apex ; the 
outermost one is much the longest and is curved, the others 
become gradually shorter inwards, the innermost ones being 
almost the same length; joint 3 very short, transverse; 
joint 4 a little broader than long, produced at the inner apical 
angle, rounded olf at the outer angle, bearing short hairs on 
the almost truncate apex. Labium (fig. 24), so far as can be 
discerned, shaped like a spear-head ; ligula very large and 
broadly spatulate, truncate at apex, narrowed at base; labial 
palpi short and broad ; joints 2 and 3 both broader than long, 
2 shaped like an asymmetrical cup produced on the outer 
side, 3 a little narrower at its base than the apex of 2, its 
truncate apex shortly setose. Prothora.v semicircular, ante- 
rior margin explanate, base bisiinuite, liind angles produced. 
Scidtllum triangular, broader than long, apex blunt. Elytra 
very slightly broader behind the shoulders than the base of 
the thorax, gradually narrowing behind ; outer margins not 
much curved, explamite for about f of their length, the 
explanate margin disappearing in the posterior^; posterior 
outer angles broadly rounded oflp, posterior inner angles 
slightly rounded ; a fine sutuial stiia is present, but vanish<\s 
in the anteiior j of the elytra. Wings ample (mounted in 
balsam). Pj/gidium rounded, projecting a little beyond tiie 
elytra. Middle coxce moderately, hind coxce widely, distant. 

Type of the genus, Daubauia nei/chellarum, sp. n. 

Tlie only other known genus of Corylophidje with 8-jointed 
antenna? is Oligarthrum, Matthews (Mon. p. 127, pi. iv. 
fig. C), established for a single species, 0. ivaterhousei, 
Matth., described from a unique example from Chili. lu 
Oligartlirnm, however, antenna! joints 2-5 differ absolutely 
in actual form and relative proportions from the corresponding 
ones in ]}auhaiii t, as will be seen by comparing fi^•s. 19 and 
20. tiie latter of which is copied from Matthews's Monograph ; 
so that, unless many intermediate gradations come to iiglit, 
the two insects can liardly be classed in one genus. 

The mouth-p irts of Oligarthrum have not been dissected, 
but Matthews states that, so far as he could see, they re- 
sembled those of Coryloylius. This resemblance is also 
ma ked in J)aubania, as will be seen by comparing my 



Seychelles and Rangoon. 21 

figures of the latter with Matthews's illustrations of Cory, 
tophus. 

Dauhania is dedicated to Monsieur and Madame Edouard 
Dauban, owners of the island of Silhouette, Seychelles. 



10. Dauhania sei/chellarum, sp. n. 
(PI. I. fig. 18 ; PI. ill. tig.s. 19, 21-24.) 

Nitida, supra glabra, prothorace rufo, elytris piceo-nigris ad apicem 
parum dilutioribus, ore antenuis pedibus rufo-testaceis, aiiteii- 
narum clavis iufuscatis ; prothorace subtiliter obsolete puactato, 
elytris sat dense strigoso-punctatis. 

Long. Corp. 0'8 mm. 

With the characters of the genus. Colour: thorax red, 
anterior margin paler, tiauslucent ; scutelluni and elytra 
pitchy black, the latter diluter towards the apex ; underside 
reddish brown ; legs, mouth, and autennse reddish testaceous, 
the antenuEe with clubs infuscate. Sculpture &c. : disc of 
thorax finely and obsoletely punctured; elytra closely punc- 
tured, punctures separated by more than their own diameter, 
produced into channels or striae, the general direction of 
which is longitudinal, though near the suture they become 
oblique ; though quite distinct, these striai are not very deep, 
and under high lights sometimes only the actual punctures 
are visible. Fygidium finely pubescent. Metasternum with 
surface finely alutaceous at the sides, smooth in tlie middle, 
and with punctuation and pubescence very scanty ; in one 
specimen examined it is bare of pubescence in the middle, 
the first abdominal segment is also nearly bare and has a 
median longitudinal depression ; in another example this 
depression is absent, the segment is more pubescent, and the 
metasternum has some scanty pubescence in the middle in 
front. These differences possibly may be in part sexual 
(cf . Rhypohias, p. 26) . The other ventral segments are finely 
punctured and pubescent. 

This species is quite distinct in general appearance from all 
other Seychelles Corylophida3 by its minute size, strigosely 
punctured elytra, &c. No species of any genus in Matthews's 
collection superficially resembles it. Oligarthrum icater- 
housei is quite different, being larger, unieolorous blackish, 
with hind angles of thorax less produced and elytral punc- 
tures not drawn out into striola?. 

Loc. Seychelles: Silhouette, Mahe, Praslin Islands, 1908-9. 

Fourteen examples : in Silhouette, collected at Mare aux 
Cochons plateau or from the forest near by, over 1000 feet ; 



22 ]\Ir. II. Scott on Corylopliiclfe /»•<??» the 

ill Malie, from country above Port Glau'l, 500-1000 feet, 
and from tlie forest on Casca'le. Estate, between 800 and 
2000 toet ; Piasliii, Cotes d'Or Estate. 

T>EWisiUM, Mattliews. 

(PI. III. figs. 25-28, 30; PI. IV. fi-s. 31, 32, 34, 35.) 

Lewisium, Matthews, Mou. Corj-lophidas, 1S99, p. 164, pi. v. fig. A. 

Lewishim was establislied for two s})ecies — L. ceylonicum, 
Matth. {op. cit. p. 166), and L.Japoniatm, Matth. {op. cit. 
)). 1*37), and no further representative of the genus has since 
been described. My material contains a long series of a 
epecies from the Seychelles, which is referred to Lewisium 
on account of its A'ery close general resemblance to L. cey- 
liiiicum, but which in the form of its antennae and mouth- 
])arts differs from that species and in some ways more closely 
lesenibles Catoptyx hoicringi, Matth. (Java), the type of 
the genus Ca/o/?/j/.f*. Tlie Seychelles form (L. seychellea- 
juim, sp. n.) thus seems in some respects intermediate between 
the types of Lewisium and Catoptyx, ami an examination of 
the actual parts in L. ceylonicum and L. aeychelleanum, and 
comparison with Matthews's figures of Catoptyx renders one 
rather doubtful whether the differences between Z/et^-?5a</H and 
Catoptyx are more than sj)ecific. But one of the chief 
diagnostic characters of Catoptyx is that it has the anterior 
aiuiles ofthe pronotinn ahruptly infexed and closely fitted to 
the tildes ofthe head, and of this there is no trace in L. sey- 
chclleamun. Therefore 1 do not propose to sink Lewisium as 
a synonym of the earlier name Catoptyx. 

Antetincp^ mouth-parts, d;c. — Tlie antenna of L. seychelle- 
anum (figs. 25, 25 o) has the basal joint much thicker, the 
third joint proportionate ly much longer, than that of L. cey- 
lonuum (figs. 26, 2Qa). This forms a ready means of 
distinction in balsam -preparations. The labrnni of L. sey- 
cheWeonxivi (fig. 27) is intermediate between that of Leioisium 
and tiiat of Catoptyx hoicrinyi as figured by Mattliews 
(copied in figs. 28, 29), being considerably more tapering 
than the former but niucli less acununate than the latter. 
The mandiJiIes of L. seychelleannm are bifid at the distal 
extremity, each of the two apices being armed with two or 
three hooks (figs. 30, 30a) — i. e., rather more complex than 
those of Cotoptyx lionrivyi, which, according to Matthews 
(pi. vi. fig. B4), have only a single hook at each apex, but 

* Catriptyx, ilatthe\v.«, Ann. it Ma^r. Nat. Hist. (5) vol. xix. 1887, 
p. Ill ; Won. Cor} loph idee, p. 107, ])1. vi, lig. B 1-7. 



Seychelles and Rangoon. 23 

w'itliout llie pcrrations tliat exfend ?onie way down tiie 
niMn<lil)ks of L. veylonicum {<f. Malthfwr^, pi. v. fig. A 4). 
Md.villort/ jalpi ot L. styckdleaiAun (fig. 31) with joint 2 
imicli le.«s curveil aud iiifliited outwardly, and ilio. a[)ic:d joint 
sliorter and blunter, t'.ian ihose of L. ceylonicum (fig. 32) ; 
maxillarij ivies cf L. sei/chelleanuvi slender, sharply pointed, 
with inner edge serrate near the apex [Mutthe\\s tigures the 
lobes in Lewisium as unarmed ; but a ba!.<am-|)re|t;ualion of 
the maxilla of L. c^'ylonicum (ti;^. 32) shows about six minute 
teeth near the apex, though these are scattered on the j-uifaco, 
not arranged in a serrate edge as in L. seyc}ieUtaiiitm~\. 
Fig. 33, copied Ironi Matthews, shows the maxilla ot* Caio- 
ptyx boicriiuji for comparison. Labial palpi of L. seyche/lt- 
anam (Hg. 3-1) lyiiig nearly contiguous, not sprend apart as 
in L. ceylonicum (fig. 35) *; iig. 3(3, copied from Matthews, 
shows the parts in Catoptyx hoxcringi. Tiierefore in tl\e 
niaxil'se and labium L. seychtlleanum seems in several points 
to resemble Catoptyx howriugi more closely. Tarsi of all 
three pairs in L. seychelleanuni broadly dih.ted and bilobed, 
the lubes pubescent. 

11. Leicisium seyclifUi^annw, sj). ii. 
(PI. III. figs. 25, 27, 30 ; PI. IV.'figs. 31, 34.) 

Late ovale, postice perparum angustatum, valde convexum, uiti- 
dissimum, supra glaVjrum ; piceo-uigrum, prothoracis margiiie 
antico pallide testaceo et pellucido, disco prothoracis ante scu- 
tellum, scutello ipso, elvtrorura sutura et marginibus exterioribus 
(his anguste) piceo-rufis, antennis pedibusque rufo-testaceis, 
antennarum clavis baud nigricantibus ; protborace fere impunc- 
tato, ehtris dense sat fortiter confuse punctatis. Lewisio ceylonico 
simile, sed statura minus, et difl'ert in forma antennarum, man- 
dibulorum, &c., quse vide supra. 

Long. corp.»l-(J5-l'l mm. 

Broadly oval, slightly narrowed behind, very convex, very 
shiniiig, glabrous. Pitchy black, with anterior margin of 
the thorax pale testaceous and pellucid, and the middle of the 
disc of the thorax before the base, together with the scutellum 
and suture of the elytra, lighter — i. e., ])itchy reddish ; outer 
margins of the elytra also narrowly reddish [in a few speci- 
mens the reddish colour is more extended and the whole body 
is a little lighter] ; underside pitchy reddish, centre of meta- 
sternum and first abdominal segment darker; legs, mouth, 

* Too much reliance must not be placed on this difference, which may 
he partly due to greater pressure of the covtrslip iu one preparation than 
in the other. 



24 Mr. H. Scott on Cory lopliidoe /row the 

niul anteniije reddisli tftstaceous, clubs of the antennae not 
l>li>ckened. Thorax and scnteUum under a powerful hand- 
lens appearing impunctate, but under a compound microscope 
the tliuiax is seen to boar numerous very fine subobsolete 
j.uncturt's. ^///^-a closely and strongly puncturetl, punctures 
separated by once to twice their own diameter ; sutural stria 
not distins^uishable. Wiiiys dissected out and found to be 
ample. Sletasteruum rather closely and stron<;ly punctured 
towards the sides, but with the elevated central part almost 
im|)unctate. Ahdomen ventrally clothed with fairly close, 
tine, short h:iirs. 

In general appearance closely resembling L. cei/lonicum, 
Matth., which is, however, distinctly larger. The example 
of L. ceyJoniciini before me appears a very little less convex, 
has scarcely any reddish colour along the suture of the 
elytra, the eh^tra even more strongly punctured, and the 
metasternum almost impunctate at tlie sides as well as slightly 
less elevated in the middle. But differences of a more 
delinite character lie in the form of anteinife and mouth-[)arts, 
as stated above. 

L. seycheUeaninn is quite distinct in size and general 
appearance from the other previously described species of the 
genus — /. e., L.japonicum, Matth., and also from Catoptyx 
boivrin(/{, Matth. A second species of Catoptyx has been 
described recently by t^ahlberg (1913) — C. levantinus, from 
the Lebanon ; but this is said to have the elytra " obsolete 
punctata" and the third joint of the antenna as long as broad, 
and must be quite different from L. seychelleanum. 

Loc. Seychelles : Silhouette, Mahd, Long, Praslin, and 
Felicito Jslands, 1908-9. Found much niore abundantly 
than any other species, over 190 specimens being taken ; the 
distribution seems fairly general, from sea-level and the 
cultivated country up into the endemic forests. In Silhouette 
many examples were collected from near Mont Pot-a-eau, 
ca. laOO feet, and from ]\Iare aux Cochons ; a number were 
swept from long grass; one is recorded as beaten from dead 
palm-leaves ; two were found in fallen dry branches con- 
taining nests of the ant JPhtidole punctulata, Mayr (A. Forel 
det.), on the coast near Pointe Etienne, 17. ix. 1908. In 
Mah<$, generally distributed from the cukivated country up 
to elevations of over 1000 feet. In Long Island, a cultivated 
islet near Mahe, a specimen was taken from the beach just 
above high-water mark. 



Seychelles aixd Rangoon. 25 

RiiYPOBius, Lecoiite. 

Rhypohius, Leconte, Proc. Ac. Philad. vi. 1852, p. 141. 

Moroiiillas, Jacfju.-l)uval, Aiiu. 8oc. Eiit. France, 1854, Bull. p. 38 ; 

Cieu. Col. Eur. vol. ii. 1857-59, p. 2:34. 
Nee Gloeosoma, WoUastou, Iiis. Mader. 1854, p. 480, pi. x. fig. 7. 

Rhypoldua^ founded on the North-American R. marinusy 
Leconte, was origiiiall}' (but erroneou.sl} ) de.'^cribed as having 
y.jointed antenise. Moronillas was erected to contain the 
European M. mjicollis, Duval, and was correctly described 
a.s having the antennge of eleven joint*. In 1883 Leconte 
and Horn [Classif. Col/. N. Amer. (Smith.son. Misc. Coll. 
xxvi.) p. llii] asserted that R/iypobius and Morunillus are 
really the same, and admitted tluit Leconte had wron^^iy 
stated the number ot antennal joints in his original descrip- 
tion o'i RJiy2)obias. Matthews also followed these writers in 
regarding- Mironillus as a synonym of Rhypobius (Mon. 
('orylopit. p. 173). Ganglbauer, iiowever (Kaf. Mitteleur. 
iii. 189y, p. 283, footnote), was not sati.stied that the number 
of antennal joints is really the same in the two cases, and 
tiierefore enij)loyed the name JSIoronitlus as distinct from 
Rhypobius. I have made a balsam-preparation of the an- 
tenna of a S])ecimen of R. marinus, Leconte, from Matthevvs's 
Collection. It is undoubtedly 11-jointed, and closely resembles 
that of R. aquilinus, sp. n. (fig. 38). Leconte and Horn and 
Matthews were therefore right in regarding the number of 
joints as the same in the type-species of Rhypobius and 
Moromllus. The character separating the two disappears, 
and MoroniUus must be treated as a synonym of Rhypobius, 
A preparation of the antenna of the West-Indian R. brevi- 
cornis, Matth., also shows eleven joints. 

These remarks, however, do not apply to Glwosoma, 
"Wollaston. This genus was "founded tor Gloiosoma velox, 
"Woll., which was described from a unique example found in 
Madeira, but of which other examples, subsequently taken 
in North Africa, are also to be seen in the British Museum. 
Wollaston described and figured the genus as having 10- 
jointed antennffi (an assertion which I am glad to be able to 
confirm, below). But Duval, in his Gen. Col. Europe, sank 
Gloeosoina as a synonym of his genus Moronillas. To this 
WoUa.ston replied in his ' Coleoptera Atlantidum^ (1865, 
pp. 93-5, and footnotes), saying that he had carefully 
re-examined the type of (J. velox, and was convinced that his 
original figure and description were correct, that the antennse 
were really 10-jointed, and that the joints differed in form 



26 ^\r. II. Scott 07i Corylophida3/rowi the 

inter se from tliose of Moro7iiUu^. Nevertlieless, Leconte and 
Hon) and Matthews n'^arded UloP'^soma (like Moronillus) as 
a synonym of liki/pohius ; but Gan<;lb;iuer (/. c.) was not 
coiivinct'd, and Casey (1900, p. 65) wrote that G/teosoma is 
altogether distinet from Uhijpohlus. I have examined the 
type of G. velo.v under the highest power apjiiieable to a 
carded spceimen, and found tliat the antenna; appeared almost 
certaiidy 10-jointed ; but being still not satisfied, I mounted in 
balsam the antenna o£ one of the North-African specimen?, 
which seem absolutely identical with the type. This antenna 
(tig. 39) is 10-jointed, having between the second and the 
next large joint one small joint less than in RhjpohiuH, and, 
as stated by AVoUaston, the form and proportions of the joints 
differ from th'se of lihi/pohius. The three joints (5, 6, 7) 
preceding the three club-joints are all much longer in propor- 
tion than the corresponding three (6, 7, 8) in li/n/pobtus, and 
the large middle one of the tin"ee especially is of a different 
shape. 

If the number of Jintennal joints be used as the criterion 
for separating the gencia, the matter may be summarized 
thus : — 

Rhyj-iobms { = Moronillus) , antennte 11-jolntcd. 

Glceosonuif antennae 10-jointed. 

Secomliiry Sexual Characters. — I do not know of any 
reference to these in lihypohius. But the material before me 
includes three specimens of a species, apparently new, two of 
Avhich have a n)arked impression on the nietasternum, while 
in the third this is quite .absent. In comparing certain other 
S] ecies with mine, it was seen, that some eNani[)les have 
impressions on the metastenium and sometimes on the first 
abdominal segment as well. Having before me two speci- 
mens of i?//?/^yc/i/»s 7w//7co//i&- (Duval), one of which has the 
sternum impressed while the other has not, I dissected these 
and found tiiat the insect with impressed sternum is ^ , while 
the other is ? . I therefore infer that the ventral impressions 
are a ^ character, though further study is needed to prove 
whether they are present in all or only in some sfjecies. 
Those in which they have so far been observed are: — 

(i.) It. rvficoUis (Duval), ^ : a lather faint and narrow 
longitudiial impression on the posterior ^ ot tiie metasternum, 
and a long narrow impiession down the n.iddle of the lirist 
abdominal segment. 

(ii.) li. breviconiisj Matih., J : a deep and rather broader 
longitudinal im|;ression on the imtasternuu) ; on the first 
abdominal segment a veiy broad and deep impression, 
extending the whole h-ngth of the segment and nearly the 



StycheUes and Rangoon. 27 

wliole distance between tlie biutl coxa3 ; on eitlier side of tlie 
impres.sioii the segment is rai.sed into a ridge which bears 
rather long pubescence. 

(iii.) R. aquUi.nus^ sp. n._, (^ : a marked longitudinal irn- 
pressionj broadening behind, along- the posterior | of the 
inetasteriiuin, the pubescence in the iinpressiDU being mucli 
closer tiian on either side of it ; first abdominal segment with 
no im|nession, but with a little median group of hairs. 

Gondition of hind ivinjs : see ante (p. 4), and below. 

12. Rhypohhis aquiUnus, sp, n. 
(PL IV.' Hg. 37 ; Fl. V. fig. 38.) 

Oralis, postice baud fortiter attenuatus, supra subtusque subtilissime 
nlataceus, tborace rul'o-flavo, elytris castaneo-brunneis postice ad 
suturam intordum rut'esceutibus, perlibus autennisque flavescenti- 
bus, harum olavis baud nijiricantibus ; tborace impunctato ; 
elytris punctis dupHcibus sat cont'ertini munitis ; metasterno S 
in medio longitudinaliter valde impresso, segmento I*' abdominis 
baud impresso. 

Long. Corp. 0"85 mm. 

OutHne sliown in fig. 37 ; the thorax appears a little 
.shorter than it actually is, owing to its being bent down ; 
length of the elytra very nearly equal to their combined 
breadth, which is greatest a little before the middle. Body 
above shining, glabrous ; finely and closely alutaceous above 
and beneathr Colour', thorax reddish yellow, elytra dark 
castaneous brown, in the type-specimen lighter and more 
reddish in the posterior half near the suture ; ventral surface 
castaneous brown, antennae and legs yellowish, clubs of the 
antennce not blackened. Antennie (fig. 38)^ a little longer 
than the wiiith of the head from eye to eye. Thorax nar- 
rowly niargined at the sides, with base very shallowly 
sinuate on eitlier side of the middle, and hind angles (seen 
from the side) slightly less than right angles; surface im- 
])Unctate. Scutdlani rounded. Elytra wdth lateral margins 
narrowly reflexed, but in viewing a specimen from vertically 
above the margins are oidy visible behind the shoulder and 
again for a short s))ace behind the middle ; sutural stria 
quite absent; surface with fine double punctures, each con- 
sisting of two slightly elongated punctures lying close side 
by side*; in a transverse direction the double punctures are 
about their own diameter apart, but in a longitudinal direc- 
tion about twice this distance. Wings: no trace of these 

* The alutaceous surface and double punctures are cbaracteristic of a 
number of other numbers of the genus. 



28 Mv. 11. Scott on Corylopliidae/V(?m the 

organs cnn be seen niuler the partly opened elytra of the 
siiiiile ? , but actual dissection and search tor minute 
vestinri;il win.2;s is prevented by the necessity of preservinji: 
the specimen intact ; the two ^ have ample wings, folded 
under the elytra ; one of these or<>;ans is mounted in balsam, 
but I have failed to unfold it completely, so cannot state its 
proportions to the elytron accurately ; it is, however, con- 
siderably longer than the elytron (see p. 4). Metnsternum 
(J with a marked median longitudinal impression broadening 
behind, on the ])osterior f of its length ; surface of the meta- 
sternum almost impunctate, with pale short hairs, closer in 
the impression, very scanty at the sides ; in the $ the meta- 
sternum is convex and glabrous in the middle. F(rst ahdo- 
minal segment : c^ , with no impression, but with a median 
group of a few short hairs, on either side of which it is bare, 
but has a few other hairs near the lateral margins ; ? , no 
median group of h;iirs. U"he other segments bear scanty pale 
pubescence. 

This species is quite distinct from any I have seen. The 
form most closely resembling it superticially is li.hr evicornis, 
Matth. (West Indies). A j of this, now before me,. is the 
same size, but more attenuated behind ; the reticulation of its 
thorax is slightly less marked, while irs elytial punctures are 
a little stronger ; and it diflfers decidedly in the nature of its 
(J ventral impressions {vide supra, p. 26). 

Loc. Aniirantes Islands. Three specimens from Eagle 
Island, 1905 (H.M.S. ' Sealark ' Expedition). 

Named ^' aquilinus" in allusion to the island of its 
discovery. 

OiiTllOPEHUS, Stephens. 
(PI. IV. tigs. 40, 41 ; PI. V. figs. 42-44.) 

Tlie material includes at least two, possibly three, species 
of this genus : a new and very distinct form from Rangoon ; 
a single J from the Seychelles, referred to a species known 
from S. America and W. Indies ; and a single indeterminable 
specimen from Rangoon, possibly the ? of the preceding, 
possibly distinct. 

Diverging Slrice on Meias/ernuni. — I have found in the 
literature no mention of diverging striaj or lines on the meta- 
sternum, curving round behind tlie middle coxse (tig. 41, I.) ; 
yet they are ])resent in a number of species. Tiiey recall 
the diverfring striae found in a similar position in Acritus 
and other Histeridse, but in these there is a second pair of 
diverging striae behind the hind coxse on the first abdominal 



Seychelles and Rangoon. 29 

segment, while in the Orthoperi there is only the pair on tlie 
metastfinuin. The species in which I have seen tliem are : — 
ceqitalis, Siiarp, ati.mnriiis, Heer, hrunrnpes, Gyll., coriacens, 
Key, crofchi, ]\Iattli., kluki, Wank., munue, sp. n., ovatus, 
Matth. I liave not examined the other species of tiie genus 
as to whether these strije are present or not. 

Sucondary S/^.vual Characters. — More than one writer has 
noted thai the front tibiae of some Orthopenis are long and 
incurved at the apex. Thus Matthews, in his description of 
the genus (Mon. p. 182), '' [anterior] tibite often very long 
and much incurved, abruptly incurved at the apex^'j and 
again, in his descriptions of some of the species, "anterior 
tibiae very long and strongly incurved,*' or, contrariwise, 
" anterior tibipe nearly straiglit " (see also his figure, pi, vii. 
fig. A 1). But it does not seem to have been stated that this 
difterence in the form of the tibiaj is, in some species at least, 
sexual. Tlius, in 0. ninnice, sp, n., the front tibiw of some 
specimens, which 1 infer to be (J , are more incurved towards 
the apex, and have a sharp heel or spur at the inner apical 
angle (fig. 42) ; while those of other exam])les, presumably 
? , which in ail other external characters appear identical 
with the preceding, are straighter and have no such heel 
(fig. 43). hi this case tlie curvature of the (^ tibia is nut 
very markeJ, but it is much greater in 0. minutissimus, 
Matth. (Hg. 44). Dr. Sharp has pointed out to me the same 
kind of sexual difference in the form of the front tibiae in 
some of our British O'thoperus. The divergence of the sexes 
in this respect is sometimes quite sufficient to be seen with a 
hand-lens. 

Casey (1908, p. &o^ describes for certain Nortii-American 
forms a new genus Eutrilia, one of the principal characters 
of which is that it has the front tibise more flattened and less 
incurved at tlie apex than in Orthoperus. It will be necessary 
to discriminate between sexual and other differences before 
the liniiis of the two genera are made quite clear. 

lo. Orthoperus muuice, sp. n. 
(IM. IV. rig^. 40, 41 ; PI, V. tigs. 42, 43.) 

Ovatus, valde coavexus, nitidissimus, glaber, piceo-fuscus, pedibus 
autennisque testaceis, harum clavis infuscatis ; thorace serie 
basali punctoruni fortium ad latera hand attiiigento, in medio a 
basi magis distante, munito, disco subtilissime ac subobsolete 
punctato ; elytris sat dense sed subtilissime ac subobsolete punc- 
tatis ; (S tibiis anterioribus ad apicem parara incurvatis, angulo 
apicali interiore producto. 

Long. corp. 0-7 mm. 



iiO ^Ir. II, Scott on {'ovy\o\)\udcG from iha 

Ovate, very convex, sliiuiiii^, smootli (not ;it ;ill aluta- 
cpous), anil qnitt; i^lrthrous above; 1) »dy al)ove ami b.MUiath 
and head pitcliy tiiscoiis; li'i;".s, palpi, and aiitL'iiiire tcstace >iis, 
clubs of tlie latter infuscate. Head iinpiinctate. Thorax 
with It.s base sinuate on eithei' si.le and produced backwards 
in the middle, with lateral margins (seen tVoin tlie side) 
slif^iitly sinuate in the niiddle, hind ani;les nearly rii^ht 
angles; with a strong basal series o£ rather elongate pnnc- 
tures, becoming ol>solete at the sides, further removed from 
the actual base in the midtlle than at the ends of the series 
[it recalls the basil series ol: some speoies of AcritHs'^\ ; diss 
l)earing a numlxM' of very fine sul)obsolcte punctures, but in 
some lights and [)Ositions tliese are scarcely visible. Ehjtr i 
of nearly the same length as their combined breadth, con- 
siderably larger than the abdomen, the outline of which is 
shown in fig. 40 appearing through the elytra as a dotted 
line (perhaps some allowance must be made for shrinkage 
of the abdomen) ; lateral tnargins not visible from directly 
above; the elytra have no trace of a sutural stria, and are 
finely and rather closely punctate; the punctures under a 
high j)0wer appear as '(\\\q elongate dashes, closer at the 
base and suture, and almost obsolete towards the apex (like 
those on the thorax., the punctures in some lights and 
asp.-cts are difficult to see owing to their shallowness). 
Winqs ample. Metastervum (fig. 41) ver}' convex, im|)une- 
tate in the niiddh;, finely |)nnctured at the sides, the diverging 
.striai behind the iniddle coxie are punctured and run in a 
continuous curve from the anterior to the lateral margins of 
(he metasternum. Abdomen in several specimens tapering 
t«i a blunt point, first segnient almost impunctate, each seg- 
ment with a series of very fine short hairs, rather wide apart. 
Front tibio' of J (fig. 42) slightly incurved towards the apex, 
wiiii the inner apieal angle produced into a sharp iieel ; in 
both J and ? (for the latter sex, see fig. 43) the excavation 
of the outer margin towards the apex is conspicuous. No 
oilier external .<exual distinction is visible. 

No species in Maithews's Collection resembles this at all 
closely, and those desciibed since his time seem quite diffe- 
rent. 0. japo)iicusj Mattli., has a basal thoiacic series of 
pnnctnres, but they are ninch finer; it is much larger than 
O. vtuniw, has a minutely reticulate surface, and much closer 
elytral and thoracic punctuation. 

Loc. Rangoon. Six example.-, found in nest of Mania 
striata, U. x. 1!>11 {Jh: U. II. Marshall). 



Sez/cheUes and Rangoon. 31 

14. Orthoperus niinutissimus, Matthews (?). 
(PI. V. tig. 44.) 

Orthoperus 7ninutis?imus, Matthews, Mon. Corylophidas, 1899, p. 196. 

A sin<;Ie ^, in bad jn-eservatioii. Pitchy fuscous, legs 
and anteinue lighter, shining and quite glaTirous above. 
Tliovax not (or scarcely) punctured. Elytra finely and sub- 
obsoletely puncture^], the punctures more than their own 
diameter apart. Ventrally the metasternum is impunctate 
in the middle, bat its sides and the first abdominal segment 
have verv fine punctures several times their own diameter 
apart. Wings not examined. 

So far as can be seen in its bad icondition, the specimen 
agrees in size, colour, and punctuation with an example in 
Matthews's Collection from Grenada, West Indies, placed as 
O. minutissi/nus*. The two agree particularly in the form 
of the front tibire, which are sharply incurved at the apex, 
the inner apical angle forming a sharp heel. Fig. 44 shows 
the right-hand front tibia in the West-Indian specimen. 

Loc. Seychelles : Silhouette, from Mare aux Oochons, 
1000 feet or more, ix. 11)08. 0. tninutissimus^ Matth., is 
recorded from South America and W^est Indies. 

1"). Orthoperus sp. 

Among the material from Rangoon is a single specimen, 
peiliips not fully mature, of a very minute species, quite 
distinct from 0. munice by the absence of the basal thoracic 
series of punctures. In size and [/unctuation of the upjier 
surface it is not unlike the example from Silhouette describe I 
above and referred to 0. minutisshnus. It is just possible 
that it is a ? of that species, since it probably belongs to the 
$ sex, the front libiainot being incurved anii having no sliarf) 
heel. The nutaslernum appears quite impunctate, even at 
the sides ; diver<^ing striae perfectly distinct but not punc- 
tured. Deterniinati'ii or further de-ciiption of this form is 
ini])Ossible in the absence of more material. Wings not 
examined. 

• The name and description of O. «n'rtJ<^iW/«?/s are published in square 
Lrackets iu Matthews's ^lonoizruph, from his own MS. notes, by P. B. 
Mason, editor of the Monoj^mph. Mason gives reasons for thinking that 
Matthews probably intended to sink this name as a synonuu of O. per- 
ptmlUts, Matth. I have, however, pro\-isioually retained the name 
iniHutissimus, since lime has not admitted of an examination of ^latthews's 
material sufficiently close to decide whether ininutissiimis and perpusillus 
are identical or not. 



32 On CorylopljiJae //•(?»» the Seychelles and Rangoon. 

Length about 0'7 mm. 

Loc. Rnnooon : from nest of Mania striata, D. x. 1911 
{Dr. II. II. Marshall). 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Note. — The figures of wliole insects are approximately, but not exactly, 
to scale : they are iiiagnitied between 4" and 57 diameters, in most cases 
50-53 diameters. 

Platf. 1. 

Fig. 1. Saciiim pivaultiannin, 9,^. w. 

Fiif. 2. Ditto. Meiituin. 

Fi(]. 3. Ditto. Under-iide of prothorax and anterior coxaj. 

Fifj. 4. Saciuin i/rosiiniauum, sp. n. 

Fig. 5. Ditto. Mentnni. 

Fig. 6. Ditto. L'nderside of prothorax and anterior coxae. 

Fig. 7. Sncium roxhinidnnm, sp. n. 

Fig. 8. Ditto. Meiituin. 

Fig. 9. Sacium rochotiinniiin, sp. u. Mentum. 

Fig. 10. Arthrolips insu/cf-longee, sp. n. Outline. 

Fig. 11. Ditto. Punctuation and pubescence of thorax and elytra, to 

larger scale. 

Fig. 18. Daubania seychellarum, gen. et sp. n. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 12. Meioderus qninK^uanui^, sp. n. 

Fig. 13. Sf.rivodcniA (Anisomeri^tes) segchelloms, sp. n. Outline. 

Fig. 14. Ditto. Sculpture and pubjsceuce of thorax and elytra, to 

larger scale. 
Fig. In. Ditto. .A-ntenna. 1") r/, joints .3 and 4 more highly magnified. 
Fig.\Q. Sericoderus {Anisoi/ieris/cs) piibipenni$,Shiii'p. Antenna. 16 «, 

joints 3 and 4 more highly nuignilied. 
Fig. 17. Sericoderus (s. sir.) lateraiis, (jyW. Antenna. 17 «, joint 3 more 

highly maguitied, showing transverse line. 

Plate HI, 

Fig. 19. Daubania segchellaium, gen. et sp. n. Antenna. 

Fig. 20. Oiigarthrum tcatcrhousei, Matthews. Antenna (from Matthews, 

Mon. Corylopli. pi. iv. tig. C 7). 
Fig. 21. Daubania .^ei/chellannn. Labrum. 
Fig. 22. Ditto. Mand.ble. 
Fig. 23. Ditto. Maxilla. 
Fig. 24. Ditto. Labium. 
Fig. '26. Lctcisiumsegchelleanii7n,sp. n. Antenna. 25 a, joints 3-6 more 

highly magnified. 
Fig. 26. Leicisiuin ceylonicuni, Matthews. Antenna. 2G a, joints 3-6 

more highly magnified. 
Fig. 27. Letoisium segchelleunum. Labrum. 

Fig. 28. Lewisium .sp. Labrum (from Matthews, pi. v. fig. A 3). 
Fig. 29. Catoptii-v bowriitgi, Matthews. Labrum (from Matthews, pi. vi. 

fig. 13 3). 
Fig. 30. Lewisium seychelleanum. Mandible. 30 «, apex of another 

specimen fr<)m a different point of view. 



Mr. 0. G. Lamb on Exotic Chloropidse. 3:5 

Plate IV. 

Ftff. 31. Letvisiiim sei/chelleanum. Maxilla. 

Fifj. 32. Lewisitan ceylonicum. INIaxilla. 

Fif/. 33. Cafopfj/.r bowrinf/)'. Maxilla (from Matthews, pi. vi. fig. Bo). 

Fiff. 34. Letviitium sei/chelleanum. Labium. 

Fif/, 35. Leivisinm cej/hmicum. LaLiiim. 

Ft'ff. 36. Catoptfjx boivriNf/i. liabium (from Matthews, pi. vi. fig. 15 0). 

Fiff. 37. HJii/pobiiis aquilinus, sp. n. Outline. 

Fiff. 40. Orthoperiis mimice, sp. n. 

Fig. 41, Ditto, Metasternum and first abdominal segment, middle and 

posterior coxal cavities shaded ; /., diverging metasternal line 

or stria. 

Plate V. 

Fiff. 38. Rhypobius (iquilinvs, sp. n. Antenna. 
Fig. 39. Gloeosoma velo.c, Wollaston. Antenna. 
Fig. 42. Orthoperiis municp, sp. n. Anterior tibia and tarsus, J. 
Ftff. 43. Ditto. Ditto, 2 . 

Fig. 44. Orthoperus minutissimus, 3Iatthews. Anterior tibia and 
tarsus, c? . 



II. — Notes on Exotic Chloropidae, By C. G. Lamb, 
M.A., B,Sc., Clare College, Cambridge. 

The following notes are based on material from two sources. 
The larger portion is the collection of Diptera in the Zoolo- 
gical Department of Cambridge University, and will be 
referred to as '' Cam. Coll." In 1904 Mr. F." Muir presented 
a very large collection of Diptera from Africa to the Cam- 
bridge IMnseum, and his specimens will be marked " F. ^\." 
In addition, the Museum was indebted to Dr. G. A, K. 
Marshall for many other specimens from the same region, 
and there have been various other small accessory collections 
incorporated from time to time. The other ])ortion consists 
of specimens kindly submitted to the author by Dr. G, A. K. 
Marshall — they are part of the extensive collection being 
formed by the Imjierial Bureau of Entomology ; this will 
be referred to as " Bur. Coll.'^ 

All the insects listed and described in the paper will be 
deposited in the British Museum, and hence no indication 
of the situation of the type-specimens will be given after 
the descriptions; they will all be in the British Museum. 

The task of dealing with this family is enormously 
lightened and simplified by the valuable and complete 
monographs of Th. Becker, which bring the information 

Ann. tfc Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 3 



:U Mr. L'. G. Lamb on Exotic Cliloropitl^. 

available up to tLe dates of publication of the same, and 
liciice save much labour in searching out old records. 
These monographs are : — 

I. Theil. Paljeavctic Region. 

' Archivum Zoologiciiin,' i. 1910. 

II. Tlieil. Ethiopic Region. 

Aim. Mils. Nat. Hung. vii. 1910. 

III. Theil. ludo-Aiistraliau Region. 

Ann. Mu.?. Nat. Hung. ix. 1911. 

IV. Theil. Nearctic Region, Neotropical Region, and Addendum. 

Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. x. 191 1\ 

The last brings the list oi known species in all the regions 
up to date ; it also contains a discussion of Enderlein's new 
genera (Sitz, d. Gesell. Nat. Freunde, 1911); and clears up 
many points in that paper which at one time seemed likely 
to throw the classification into confusion. 

These monographs will be shortly referred to by the 
numbers I., 11., III., IV. after Becker's name. 

As is so often the case, a considerable number of single 
specimens occur in both collections. Where the characters 
are quite unmistakable and striking, these single specimens 
have been described as the types of new species. "When the 
specimen, agrees with fair accuracy with any published 
description, it has been thought best to place the insect 
under the existing name ; but in general it will be found 
that this fact is referred to, and any differences recorded. 

The Chloropidie form a very protean family and include 
great numbers of genera that run fairly closely into one 
another. It might be said that almost every positive 
character which limits the family may be separately absent 
in some genera — in fact, the allocation of an insect to the 
family is in many cases practically due to a " trained eye," 
and cannot be logically justified by the limits of the defini- 
tions of the family. This is possibly more true of this 
family than of any of the other Acalyptrate groups. 

It naturally results that the generic limitations follow the 
same tendency, and that the original limits of a genus, as 
set by its founder, have to be transgressed, so that finally 
the "genus" sometimes bears little resemblance to the 
limited form originally prescribed. A good example of this 
is to compare Gaurax as founded by Loew with Becker's 
latest concej)t of the species forming that assemblage. 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic ChloropiJae. 35 

Such a sequence of events is, from tlie nature of the case, 
inevitable, though it leads to much ditficulty both in tracing 
species and in assigning genera. The fact is that in some 
groups of the Oscininae there is no natural line or lines of 
demarcation ; even the known forms merge into one another 
and share characters that should belong to different genera 
as originally defined; and when the world forms are really 
adequately studied there can be no doubt but that this 
tendency will be increased. 

It will follow that it is quite possible that the author may 
have assigned species to definite genera which, in the opinion 
of more experienced students, should be placed elsewhere. 
For this reason tlie descriptions are often made a little 
fuller than would be necessary to enable one to discriminate 
between the species of a sharply bounded genus such as 
Chyliza. For the same reason it will be found that he has 
been compelled to place species in genera whose specification 
does not exactly meet the case. A good example is Lagaru- 
ceras anomalum ; if the head were removed it would be 
impossible to distinguish this species from one of the 
described forms of Becfker's L. megalops ; but the antenna 
and vertical triangle are both considerably at variance with 
the forms descril)ed as characterizing the genus. Wide 
interpretation of generic limits is unavoidable in this family, 
for if definite and fixed generic characters were to be adheretl 
to, the family would mainly consist of monotypic genera. 

The author hopes to be able to continue with some other 
of the Acalyptrate families if time and opportunity permit. 

Note. — To save space certain abbreviations will be used. 
When describing the head the word '^ triangle^'' will refer to 
the fronto- vertical macula usually found there, thouuh its 
shape varies greatly. The antennal joints will be referred 
to by number only — thus "3rd" will mean third joint of 
the antenna. In the case of the thorax the word ''callus" 
will refer to the front thoracic callus unless qualified. lu the 
wings the veins will be referred to by the old system of 
numbers as being more convenient and simple in this case ; 
thus, " 2nd " will mean the second long vein. Similarlv, the 
costal segments will be referred to by the numbers of the 
long veins that end there — thus " 2 to 3 " means costal 
distance between ends, of second and third lou"- veins 
measured on costa. 



36 



Mr. C. G. Lunilt on Ewod'c Cliloropida?. 



ClILOROPIX^. 

Pachylophus, Loew. 
The following species were in tlie collections : — 

P. lufjens, Loew. Cam. Coll., Durban {F. M.). 
P. splendidus. Ad. Cam. Coll., Durban {F. M.). 
P. proximus. Ad. Cam. Coll., Durban {F. M.). 
P.fossulatus, Ad. Cam. Coll., Durban {F. M.). 
P. varipes, Ad. ; a very pale-legged form. Cam. Coll., 
Durban (F. M.). 

In addition, there were many specimens included in the 
ordinary black-vertexed section. To this section belongs 



Fier. ]•. 




Fi^^. 2. 



Fior. 3. 





Fig. 1. — Wing of large form of P. frontalis. 
Fig. 2. — Wing of small form of P. frontalis. 
Fig. 3. — Wing oi P. frontellinus{?). 



Loew's species P. frontalis ; Becker, in his monograph, only 
recognizes as valid that single species in the section with 
black triangle, prominent head, and pale femora. He sinks 
as synonyms both Bezzl's P.iellinn and Speiser's P.fron- 
tellinus. As regards the first, he makes out what is appa- 
rently a good case, but gives practically no reasons for the 
second. If one studies the fairly long series in the Cam. 
Coll., it can be seen at once that there are two quite definite 
venations present, shown in tigs. 2 and 3. The species with 
the cross-veins fairly apart has a dullish frons, with the 
triangle little marked, but a raised shining black central 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Chloropidas. 37 

line, and this form agrees quite well with the description of 
frontalis. The species with the more approximate veios is a 
little smaller and its vertical "triangle" is more shining ; 
the raised central line tends to be multiple — in fact, it agrees 
very closely indeed with Speiser's description of frontellinus 
(Kilimandjaro Meru Exp., Diptera, s. p. 198). In the Bur. 
Coll. are specimens §till more robust than the first species, 
with venation as in fig. 1 and with rather more glassy wings, 
but otherwise practically identical with the first series. 

It appears best to consider the first and last sets of speci- 
mens as belonging to frontalis, and the other to frontellinus ; 
in none of the published descriptions is any figure of the 
venation given. 

P.frojitalis. The large form : Bur. Coll., Durban (L. Bevis). 

The smaller form : Cam. Coll., Durban (F. M.^. 
P. frontellinus. Cam. Coll., Durban {F. M.). 

Three species in the collection belong to the smaller 
section of the genus with a pale vertical triangle. Hitherto 
there are described but two species in this section (Becker, 
II., p. 388). Neither of these species accords with the 
specimens in the collection, and hence they must be con- 
sidered new. 

Pachylophus lituraticrus, sp. n. 

This species belongs to Becker's section with pale legs 
and triangle (II. p. 387). 

Head (top view) : — Vertex nearly as broad as twice the 
visible eye-l)readth, somewhat transversely concave on the 
front, bright dullish yellow ; the triangle is shining orange 
without furrows &c., extending not quite to the frons, with 
a rounded darkened tip, very slightly concave sides, and with 
the vertical base just less than the eye-distance; the ocellar 
spot black. In profile the angle between the vertical and 
facial tangent-planes is a little less than 90°, the frons being 
just visibly prominent. The pale yellow cheeks ai-e about | 
the depth of the 3rd joint; the latter is quite normal, yellow 
except for the part below aristal insertion; the latter is 
black and of usual form. Palpi yellow. Hind head orange; 
a darkening behind the ocellar spot, and a pale spot each 
side just at the top angle of the eye, on which the tiny 
vertical bristles stand. 

Thorax : dorsum elegantly striped ; along the middle 
is a broad stripe of reddish brown bordered by pale narrow 



38 Mr. C. G. Laiul) on Exolic Cliloropiflas. 

stripes, wliicli are less covered with the tiny bristles clothing; 
the rest of the dorsum — hence these pale stripes are 
made more conspicuous ; beyond these down to the noto- 
])hural suture the dorsum is afjain reddish brown, thouf!;li 
less intense ; callus with a black central spot surrounded 
by yellow ; pleura orange, shining. Scutelhnn with its 
middle third occupied by a bright yellow longitudinal stripe, 
bounded by black, though the extreme hind angles are pale ; 
teruiiual crossed bristles just at the end of the black 
stripes; the surface is very faintly aiul sparsely striate. 

The venation is exceptional ; the cross-veins are much 
ap|)roximated. being separated by a distance rathe r less than 
1^ times the length of the hind cross-vein. Tliediscal cross- 
vein is a little beyond the costal ending of the 1st ; wings 
clear, with pale orange veins. Halteres white. 

Legs all yellow except for an infuscation on the front 
til)ia and tarsus and on the last joints of the other tarsi, A 
very striking and constant chai'acter is a darkened " brand'* 
on the back of the hind tibia; this brand occupies about ^ 
the length of the tibia. Similar structures can be just seeu 
on the legs of other species, but are not coloured in them ; 
they also occur in other Chloropid genera. 

The abdomen is the same colour as the thorax, the margins 
narrowly paler, and has a well-marked interrupted darkened 
middle line. 

The intensity of the reddish colour of the insect varies to 
a fair extent. 

Length (exchading antennae) nearly 3 mm. 

A long series in Cam. Coll., Durban {F. M.). 

Note. — It is just possible that this species is the same as 
Becker's P. contractus (11. p. 393) ; but it is unlikely that 
so careful an observer sliould not mention the " brand " or 
the relation of the cross-veins. 

Var. — There is a single specimen with a slightly paler 
triangle and no visible dark brand. This is in the Bur. 
Coll., Manganallur, Tangore. Although the localities are 
so far apart, the insect is not specifically separable, 

Steleocekus, Beck. 

S. tepidojAis, Beck. Cam. Coll., from Chirinda Forest 
(G, A. K. M.). 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Chloropiilte. 39 

Steleocerus nigricornis, sp. n. 

This species is next to Becker's S. longicoUis (II. p. 401), 
but differs as follows : — 

The halteres are grey, not white ; the jowls are larger, 
about ^ the depth of the third autennal joint ; the tongue is 
pale, not black ; the antennse are all deep black, not red ; 
legs a little paler ; wings more normal, Avith rounded anal 
angle. 

Size 5^ mm. 

Cam. Coll., Durban {F. M.). 

S. ensifer (?), Thoms. 

A single specimen agrees fairly with Thomson's descrip- 
tion (Eug. Resa, p. 605), but it is possible that we have 
another species here. Tlie legs are quite pale ; the frontal 
triangle is not all yellow, but is very much suffused with 
shining brown, which does not, however, entirely cover the 
triangle, but occupies the base and shades otf forward. 
One cannot be sure of the identification from this single 
specimen. 

Bur. Coll., Mysore. 

There is an immature specimen in Bur. Coll. from Coim- 
batore, Madras, which is near S. formosus, Beck. 

Steleocerus quadrivittatus, sp, n. 

From the Chirinda Forest, S. Africa, we have a few 
specimens of a species of the ensifer-tenellus group. 

Head (top view) : — Frons yellow and dull, the triangle 
equilateral, with nearly straight sides ; basally it practically 
touches the eyes and extends by a sharp point right to the 
front ; it is suffused with shining brown, which leaves narrow 
yellow side-lines and broader boundaries on the hind head, 
where the black part of the triangle's base extends as a 
broad stripe down the hind head. Side view : outline fairly 
circular, the frontal and facial tangent-planes making about 
90°, and the hind jowls large ; eyes oval, oblique forwards, 
with narrow lower jowls less than half the width of 3rd ; all 
the side is whitish yellow. Antenna? rather large, the 3rd 
projecting backwards a little, so as to be a longish oval with 
axis parallel to body-axis ; it is yellow, but darkened dorsal ly ; 
2nd yellow, arista normal. Face, palpi, &c., all pale yellow. 
Though there are but few specimens, the thorax varies 
somewhat in amount of darkening : dorsum with a broad 



40 Mr. C G. Lamb on Exolic Cliloroplcla?. 

l)l:n'k central stripe, sometimes getting browner behind, and 
extending forward right on to the prothorax ; each side is a 
grey pollinated line of ochreous tone, which is moderately 
distinct till jnst before the sentellum, where it snddenly 
becomes very marked and forms an elongate spot at each 
side of scntellar base ; similarly in front, jnst at level of 
ealli, it again forms bright long sjjots ; beyond these grey 
lines the dorsum is as the mid-line, but is more darkened in 
front of the cross-suture, in one case quite black there. 
Calli shining, rather orange. Pleura all somewhat shining 
orange, with brownish boundaries to the sclcrites ; the black 
spot over middle coxa may or may not be present. Scu- 
tellum darkened orange, in one case paler in centre ; terminal 
bristles long and crossed, and a few smaller marginal ones. 

^Vings clear witli brown veins, 2nd ending about 3 down 
costa between 1 and 3. Halteres white, with orange stalks. 

Legs orange, with front tibia and tarsus a very little 
darkened, 

Al)domen yellowish at sides, the dorsum forming a broad 
daikened continuous stripe. 

Size (ex. antennae) just under 2 mm. 

Cam. Coll., Chirinda Forest, S.A. (G.A.K.M.). 

The second species is represented by but a single specimen, 
but It is very distinct from all the others. 

Steleocerus flavipes, sp. n. 

Head (top. view) : — About 1^ times as long as broad ; 
from vertex to the slightly prominent frons it is all bright 
yellow ; the triangle is very shining, especially along its 
concave side boundaries ; these are slightly depressed, and 
the hair-lines oii them are exceptionally well marked ; the 
sharp-pointed apex projects between the somewhat swollen 
antennal pits; basally it does not quite occupy the whole 
vertical breadth; eye-margins narrowly silvery, especially in 
front; ocellar circle black ; liind head absolutely pale except 
for two excessively narrow dark lines from vertex. Side 
view : — The angle between frontal and facial planes is about 
70° ; antenme all tpiite pale yellow, except that the 3rd joint 
is orange just at the insertion of the black arista, which is 
more elegantly and regularly haired than in the other 
species. Jowls pale ytllow ; palpi pale. In front the 
mouth-margin is seen to be very narrowly darkened. 

Thorax reddish orange, with the following greyish polli- 
nated stripes : — Cenirally a short narrow one extending but 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Cliloropidse. 41 

a little distance on the disc, each side of this another whicli 
runs to the outer angles of the scutellum, diverging as they 
go ; beyond these the orange is very slightly suffused with 
grey ; calli shiny orange, pleura the same. Scutellum 
blackened orange, slightly punctate. 

Wings yellowish^ with orange veins ; small cross-vein 
just perceptibly beyond the costal ending of the 1st ; hind 
one about 3 times its length from the torraer, and \^ith its 
distance iVom the lower end to the 5th vein-ending about 
1^ times the distance apart of the cross-veins. 

Halteres quite white, with yellowish stalks. 

Legs entirely yellowy Avith no darkening at all. 

Abdomen all darkened orange, with very narrow palish 
hind margins. 

Size nearly 3 mm. 

Cam. Coll., Mozambique (F. M.). 

Steleocerus latiseta, sp. n. 

There is a single specimen of a very distinct species. 

Head (top view) : — Frons dull orange, lighter over an- 
tennae, the triangle is remarkable in form ; basally it just 
does not touch the eyes ; the margins are formed by raised 
straight ridges; about halfway a sudden diminution in 
breadth occurs, so that the side boundaries at that point are 
suddenly shifted inwards ; the space between these forward 
parts of the ridges is necessarily a little depressed, but down 
the centre runs a very fine raised ridge, which goes to the 
front of the head to just behind where the side-ridges meet 
in a slightly rounded curve ; the whole is shining bluish 
black except the extreme tip, over which the frontal orange 
runs; ocelli bright chestnut. Back of head entirely black. 
Side-view: — Eyes very large, only leaving very narrow lower 
and fairly narrow hind orange jowls ; the orange frons is 
just visible, the 3rd is orbicular and all orange ; the arista 
is a little broader than usual and tapers to a fine point. 

Thorax : dorsum dullish black, })ollinated more and more 
strongly Mith brown pollen towards the scutellum ; the pre- 
scutellar depression is present, but is not sharply demarcated 
from the rest. Scutellum as thorax, w itli divergent bristles, 
'llie calli and an area below all orange, the pleura shining 
dark brown, with a few lighter areas interspersed. 

AVings clear, with brown veins, but with a faint smoky 
cloud between 3 and 4 extending nearly to level of costal 
ending of 2 ; the second vein long, as in lepidopus. 

Ilalteics witli white knobs. 



42 Mr. C. G. Lamb on F.rolic CliloiOj)iilge. 

Legs entirely yellow, except that the last two joints or the 
very slightly dilated front tarsi are suffused. 
Abdomen all rather shining brownish black. 
Size (ex. antennae) 2 mm. 
Cam. Coll., Chirinda Forest, S.A. (G. A.K.M.). 

Meromyza, Meig. 
M. capensis, Loew. 

There is a long series in Cam. Coll. which shows the very 
consideraljle variation in abdominal and other iufuscation 
that occurs in this species. 

Cam. Coll., Durl)an (F. M.). 

Cam. Coll., Salisbury, Mashonaland (G. A. K. M.). 

Bur. Coll., Zomba, Nyasalaud {H. Stanius). 

EuRiXA, Meig. 

Eurina oculata, sp. n. 

There are two females in the Bur. Coll. which belong to 
this genus, but do not fit with any of the hitherto described 
species. The eyes are larger than in most, being more of 
the proportion shown by Meigen in S.B. vi. tab. Iv. fig. 10, 
though the frons is less protuberant. 

Fie:. 4. 




Eurina oculata, X 40. 

Head (top viewj : — Breadth nearly twice the distance 
from vertex to tip of frons ; vertex concave ; eyes promi- 
nent and practically bare ; frons ending in a rounded cap 
containing the antennal bases. The colour of frons &c. is 
\)ix\c brown, dull ; the rather darker triangle is nearly equi- 
lateral, more shiny, M'ith base about | vertical cross-breadth ; 



Mr. C. G. Lamb 07i Exotic Chloropidse. 43 

it ends in a very sharp raised ridge extending to the an- 
tennal cap ; the boundary is formed by two darkened 
furrows bordered interiorly by two or tliree smaller parallel 
furrows ; the frons itself (along eye-margins exteriorly to 
the triangle) has two very deep and broad furrows extending 
along the sides of the triangle from the vertex to end of the 
triangle ; the minute ])airs of vertical bristles stand at the 
beginning of these furrows. Ocelli brown, with tiny ocellars 
each side of the front ocellus. The hind head is darkened 
behind the ocellar triangle except along the actual vertex, 
■which is yellow in tw o long confluent spots ; the rest of 
hind head is brownish yellow. 

Side-view : — The eyes are larger than usual, nearly circular, 
though slightly longer horizontally than vertically ; the 
frons is hence less prominent than usual, the distance from 
antennal base to eye-margin being about 03 of the hori- 
zontal eye-breadth ; the profile is less triangular than 
usual, there being well-marked horizontal jowls of abou,t ^ 
the eye-depth running into the frons by a concave face-line. 
The side is all brown-yellow except that the frons is there 
infuscate. Antennae black, small 2nd joint, 3rd elliptical ; 
arista pale, but brown on the swollen basal joint. The pale 
face has a slight central swelling below anteunse. Palpi 
orange. 

Thorax discally grey ; two mid-stripes darker, extending 
from front to back, just separated till towards the scutellum, 
where they meet; alongside these stripes is an interrupted 
dark stripe forming a spot about the position of the cross- 
suture, and a longer continuing stripe extending to the 
scutellum ; just above the side-suture is a similarly broken 
indistinct line ; callus and pleura dull orange-brown. Scu- 
tellum orange, swollen, rounded in profile, hairy, especially 
on the margins, though no true bristles are present ; it is 
darkened discally, with the orange showing through as a 
narrow stripe. 

Wings normal, with thick veins; the thinning out of the 
4th vein occurs suddenly at about ^ of its length ; cross- 
vein rather oblique. Halteres orange, with dark stalk. 

Legs all orange-brown like the pleura, but slightly in- 
fuscate dorsally on all the femora (less so on the front pair), 
on the tibite, and hind tarsi. 

Abdomen somewhat flattened, dark brown, with sharp 
narrow whitish margins ; ventrally all pale. 

Size 4 mm. 

Bur. Coll., riagari, Madras Presidency. 

Note : — "Feeding on icaf-pareuchyma of grass." 



44 ]\Ir. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Cliloropidse. 

LagaroceraSj Becker. 

There appear to be five species that fall within the limits 
of this genus, of which at least three appear to be un- 
clcscribed. They all agree with Becker's diagnosis very 
fairly, except that in two of them the 3rd antennal joint is 
broader than he figures for his type-species, and is more 
simi)ly a long oval ; there appears, however, to be no good 
reason for not placing them in his genus. 

L. megalops, Beck. 

There is a single specimen which agrees very fairly with 
Becker's description and figure ; the dorsum is quite 
blackened all over, so that the three stripes are here 
confluent. 

Cam. Coll., Mozambique [F. M.). 

Lagaroceras anomalum, sp. n. 

There are several specimens of a species which very closely 
resembles the above specimen in thoracic and abdominal 
colour, in the legs and general facies, but is a little larger. 
The differences are, however, marked and constant; they are 
(1) the triangle, which has a different form; it is not truly 
leaf-siiaped, as in the generic diagnosis, but is practically 
triangular, with concave (not convex) sides ; it extends to 
the front of head : (2) the antennae are relatively shorter, 
though still nearly as long as the face ; the third joint is not 
quite twice as long as the second and is about 1^ times as 
long as broad ; it is oval in form, with the upper tip sharply 
rounded. 

Size (excluding antennae) 3 mm. 

Cam. Coll., Durban (F. M.). 

Lagaroceras pulchellum, sp. n. 

This is a fine handsome species of the megalops group. 

Head (top view) : — As broad as thorax ; frons black except 
anteriorly just above the antennae, where it is orange ; the 
surface is dusted with greyish poUeu and has many small 
hairs ; the triangle is highly polished black and is of a 
pointed leaf-shape, the sharp stalk extending right to the 
base of the antennae ; the ba^e is rounded and occupies a 
little over § of the vcitical breadth. The head-bristles are 
well marked ; the back of the head is black. Side-view : — 
Profile a little more trapezoidal than normal, the line from 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Cbloropidae. 



45 



antennal base to mouth-edge nearly straight ; jowls about 
equal in breadth to that of the 3rd anteunal joiut — they are 
silvery, as are the hind jowls. The aiitenuse are inserted 
just on the edge of the orange frous and are just about as 



Fig. 5. 



Fiff. 6. 





Fig. 7. 





A. 



-B. 



Fiof. 8. 




I 



Fig. o. — Lagaroceras anomalum, X 50. 
Fig. 6. — Layaroceras lonfficorne {?), X 50. 
Fig. 7. — A. Lagaroceras megalops, x 35. 

X 35. 
Fig. 8. — Lagaroceras pulchellum, x 35. 



B. Lagaroceras anomalum, 



long as the face is deep ; they are all darkish orange, except 
that the upper half and the tip of the 3rd joint are black- 
ened ; this joiut is about 1.^ times as long as the 2nd5 which 



46 Mr. 0. G. Lamb on E.vot'ic CliloropicUe. 

is itself rather miusually long; arista M'hite and clo'^ely 
pubescent as usual, with the smooth basal joint yellow. 
The face is shiniu}? black, with silvery lines from the an- 
tennal bases to the mouth and with silvery lower eye- 
margins ; paljji black. 

Thorax: the dorsum is finely granulated; the general 
ground-colour is dark greyish, witli the following black 
mai'ks : — a broad median line vanishing about halfway, a 
very fine black line running down the centre of each of the 
rather obsolescent furrows ; beyond this a broadisli line 
from just in front of the callus to the side of the scutcllum, 
interrupted by the grey gi'ound where the cross-suture 
should be ; last d. c. well developed ; pleura shining black, 
with oblique row of three pale yellow spots — a triangular 
one just behind the humeral callus, a sloping one on the 
mesopleura, a horizontal one above the mid-coxa. Scu- 
tellum pale orange, nearly flat, hairless, with long crossed 
terminal bristles and small accessory ones beside the main 
ones and close to them. 

"Wings clear, with brownish veins ; the venation is not 
quite as given by Becker for megalops (T., tab. iii. fig. 47) ; 
the 2nd vein is quite parallel to the 3rtl all the way, and the 
distances between the ends of 2 to 3 and 3 to 4 are nearly 
equal. 

Legs orange ; femora progressively more infuscate from 
front to hind ; last tarsal joints dark. 

Abdomen entirely deep dull black, smooth. 

Size (ex. antcnnie) 3^ mm. 

Cam. Coll., Durban {F. M.). 

To the section with dark and rather rugose scutcllum 
belong two species. One of these will pass for L. lungicorne 
of Thomson (Eug. Resa, p. 604). It agrees quite well with 
what Mould be a dark form of the species, though not so 
well with Becker's description (L, p. I08j. The remarkable 
antennae are even longer than may be inferred from the 
description ; the thorax can be described as black, rather 
rugose, with three narrow, smoother, gi'ey stripes ; the 
scutellum like thorax, centrally black, with the sides orange. 

It is possible that we have a new species here, but as there 
is but the single specimen, it is left provisionally in this 
species. Thomson's species was from China, this is from 
S. India. 

Size (ex, antennae) nearly 3 mm. 

Bur. Coll., Coimbatore, Madras Presidency. 



]\Ir. C. G. Lamb o)i Ed'odc Cliloropidne. 47 

The following is a second species of this section ; it occurs 
also as a single specimen which, like L. anomalum, has a rela- 
tively stout antenna — in fact, the antenna is practically as 
shown in fig. 5 (p. 45). 

Lagaroceras infuscatum, sp. n. 

Head (top view) : — Frons all palish ochreous brown, dull 
and black -haired, the triangle shining dark orange-brown 
and of peculiar shape ; the basal part is about | as broad as 
the vertical cross-breadth ; it continues normally along the 
frons, but about midway is suddenly constricted, and then 
continues like a narrow spear-head to the antennal base ; 
each side of the constricted point is a yellow raised spot on 
the triangle ; the surface is somewhat variegated in stria; 
and the middle area is rather darker than the rest; just at 
the hind eye angles occur the usual pale spots carrying the 
vertical bristles. The f. o. b. small, but distinct. Hind head 
all black. Side-view : — Frons a little prominent, covering 
the antennal base, brown ; face-outline nearly linear, if 
anything slightly concave, from antennae to mouth. The 
total length of the antennae is about equal to the face; the 
2nd joint about half as long as 3rd, which is a little less 
than twice as long as broad ; rounded oval in outline, all 
darkened except for a tiny spot of orange on the base of 
3rd joint below ; arista normal, white and pubescent, with 
smooth pale yellow base. Jowls, lower and hind, palish 
yellow, the former about half the depth of 3rd joint. Palpi 
black. The face is darkened with a narrow emarginate 
paler mouth-margin ; the eyes have short silvery margins. 

Thorax : dorsum black and finely punctate, with three 
very narrow grey lines. Scutellum flattisb, similar to thorax, 
with a dark orange median line, two teimiual and one adja- 
cent smaller bristle each side. Pleura very shining brownish 
black, except for a yellow stiipe just below the mesopleura. 
Wings with venation similar to pulchellum, 2nd and 3rd 
quite parallel, but the cross-vein is slightly slo[)ed backAvards. 
Halteres white, with a brown stalk. 

Legs orange, the femora progressively more infuscate 
from fore to hind pairs, the laNt tarsal joint darkened. 
Size (ex. autetmie) 2^ mm. 
Cam. Coll., Durban (/', M.). 

Haplegis, Leew. 
Haphfjis nitenSy sp, n. 
A small form, considerably more shining tliau H. tarsata. 



48 Mr. C, G. Lamb on E.otic (Jiilorop'ulye. 

Head (top view) : — Entirely black and somewliat sliiiiinji^, 
even on eye-borders ; the trianfjle fairly close to eye ou 
vertex, extCndinji: uith the usual straight sides to a sharp 
point over antenna:^, excessively shiiiiiijr, Avith the usual 
shallow but sharp depressed middle troujih ; the l)orderiug 
liair-rows very indistinct. Hind head all black. Side- 
view : — Lower jowls dull orange and very narrow ; antenna; 
of normal form, 3rd black and round, 2iid bright orange; 
arista black and finely pubescent, the longish basal joints 
more orange. Face fairly silvery ; tongue and palpi 
blackened. 

Thorax all entirely shining black, including the scutellum, 
which has two longish end-bristles ; the whole dorsum has 
a regular clothing of very fine brown hairs; the pleura is 
faintly orange in some parts. 

Wings clear, normal in venation, brown veins. Halteres 
with almost white head. 

Legs entirely clear orange, including front coxa and all 
the tarsi. 

Abdomen shining Ijlaek. 

•Size 2 mm. 

Cam. Coll., Durb.m (F. M.). 

]*]L.\cniPTKRKicrs, T3eek. 
E. bistriatus, Beck. 

Specimens from Durban, Cam. Coll. (F. M.). 

Camaiiota. ^leig. 
(Modo, Oscinis, I. all.) 

C angustifrons, Bezzi. 

Specimens from Durban {F. M.) agreeing well with Bezzi's 
description. 

?Jetapostigma, Beck. 
M. sauicri. 

Specimens in Bur. Coll. from Coimbatore, ^Madras. 

Chalcidomyia, de Meijere. 

This genus was described in Tijd. v. Ent. (vol. liii. p. 156) 
as a Drosophilid, the error being due to the insect possessing 
a remarkable bipectinate arista. Becker redescribed it in its 



Mr. 0. G. Lamb on Exotic Cliloropidae. 49 

proper family as Hemisphtprisoma (III., p. 47). The syno- 
nymy was given by de Meijere in Tijd. v. Ent. (vol. Ivi. 
p. 571). lu both cases the specific name selected for the 
typc-s[)ecies had been politiis, but for some reason de Meijete 
clianj^ed it to beckerl, though both types were the same 
species. 

C. poUta, de Meij. 

Specimens in Bur. Coll. from Taliparamba, Malabar, 
with the uote : — " In ginger-stems attacked by Dichocrocis." 

CUROMATOPTERUM, Beclc. 

Chromatopterum lacteiventre, sp. n. 

This species has the pubescent arista of the Indian species 
C. pubescens, Becker (III., p. 82), but its facies is that of the 
African C. dtlicutum, Becker (II., p. 413). 

Head (top view) : — Frons almost entirely covered by the 
brilliant shining black "triangle/' which has its sides con- 
tiguous with the eyes and a rounded front margin reaching 
to the autennal base ; its sides converge slightly to the 
front ; the only part of the frons left uncovered by it are 
two small, dull orange, triangular patches each side in front; 
tile surface is broadly and sliallowly depressed ; the ocellar 
hump is slightly raised and carries chestnut-coloured ocelli. 
Side-view : — Tiie semicircular eyes cover the whole, pro- 
jecting beyond the face and leaving practically no lower 
jowls and only a small hind eye-border, which is shining 
black, as is the whole hind head. The antennal 3rd joiut is 
almost orbicular, just a little longer than deep, orange on 
lower half, blackened on top ; arista inserted basally, hair- 
like except for the small pale basal joint, finely pubescent ; 
2nd joint yellow. Face darkened orange ; palpi black. 

Thorax (including scutellura and pleura) all shining 
black, the dorsum just before the scutellum and thescutellum 
itself very lightly dusted with orange pollen; the rounded 
and slightly swollen scutellum witli moderately long sliglitly 
divergent end-bristles and a few accessory side-liairs. 

Wings with venation as figured by Becker (II., tab. xiii. 
fig. 10), but the blackening is ditferent ; the front blackening 
is confined to the first part of first vein, the space between 
it and where the auxiliary vein would be (like a long stigma), 
and the thickened black costa itself, from which a faint 
suffusion runs on to the neighbouring cell ; the end spot is 
smaller and discrete, it touches the costa midway between 

Ann. d; Mag. N. Hist. Sor. 8. Vol xix. 4 



50 Iklr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Cliloropiclas. 

the cnls of 2 and 3, but docs not extend to the end of wing 
or down to vein 3. 

llnltercs with ivory-wliite lie?ds. 

Lojr^ mainly oranp,e, all the coxffi black and all femora 
broadiy ringed witli black. 

AhdonuMi : dorsum fattened, a little lonp^er than broad, 
and ta|)ering in outline from tlie ba-e ; it is of a quite unique 
colour, being all suffused with a drnse milky-blue glaze; 
the last segment is considerably longer than tlie others; 
beneath, the abdomen is orange ; the last segment, which is 
bent under, is all shining black. 

Size about 1^ mm. 

Cum. Coll., i'eradeniya, Ceylon (J. C. F. Fryer). 

Ops, Becker. 
O. madncjuscariensis, End. 

A specimen in Cam. Coll., Durban (F. M.), differs from 
the ordinary form only in the femora being somewhat 
darkened. 

0. callichroma, Loew. 

There are two specimens of this species — the one in Bur. 
Coll. from ISyasaland, in Mhich the abdominal cross-bands 
are rather weak and indefinite. The other is a very bright 
and shining form, which miglit be taken as a subspecies. 
It is a little la-gcr, and the '•triangle'' covering nearly all 
the frons is very deep excessively shining black instead of 
being shiniiig brown. The abdominal markings are also 
very clear atul distinct ; they consist of the following on the 
vdlow background : — 1st seiiment with very short central 
bar ; 2nd arched bar with the springings situated basally ; 
3rd broad, only leaving narrow hind nuugin yellow; 4th 
median, of halt to;al breadth of segment; the pointed 5th 
has a narrow basal band. 

A specimen iu Cam. Coll., Durban (JP. M.). 

Ops nigra, sp. n. 

The whole oF head and thorax entirely shining black, 
except for the orange antenna} and blight yellow scutellum. 
The vertical triangle does not cover the whole of the fi'ons, 
but leaves eye-margins narrowly widening right from the 
vertex. 

Wings quite normal, clear. 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Chloropidae. 



51 



Legs orange, with coxa black ; ferrmr very dusky except 
at tip. Knobs of haltcres wliitish orange. 

Abdomen orange, with dark l)ands somewhat similar in 
form to last species, but all of them broader in proportion 
and less well demarcated. 

Size 2 mm. 

Cam. Coll., Mozambique (F. M.). 

Chloropisca, Loew. 

There are two siugle-spccimen species — one resembling 
obscurella, but with a rounder head, the other like a true 
Chlorops, but Avith somewhat flattened scutellum. It is not 
advisable to describe from these single specimens. 

Chlorops^ Meig. 
C. contribula, Loew. 

Cam. Coll., Durban (F. M.). 

C. IcEvigafa, Beck. 

Cam. Coll., Durban (F. M.). 

Chlorops zeylanica, sp. n. 

There is one species which will not accord with any of 
Becker's species in the Indian fauna. Jt has a somewhat 
exceptionally prominent head (see fig. 9) and belongs to the 
feection with fine white arista. 



Fio-. 9. 



Fi£r. 10. 




Chloropf ZpyUmica, X -jO. 



Head (top view) : — Frons (fig. 10) dull pale ocln-eons 
yellow covered with black haiis ; tlie triangle very large, 
witl) its boundary well defined nearly up to the vertex, hut 
there less so ; it extends to the extreme front, -nilli slight! v 



52 ]\Ir. C. G. Lamb on Exotic ChloropiJas. 

concave sides bordered with liair-lines, and it is the same 
colour as the t'roiis but shining and suliused across the 
middli' with pale brown, as shown l)y tlie dotted boundary- 
line in the figure; the ocellar spot is black; a very distinct 
but narrow I'urrow runs from front ocellus right to edge of 
frons. Hind head broadly black, witli pale yellow bordering 
stripes starting from the vertical bristles. Side-view as in 
hi;. 1) ; all yellow, the liaired frons more oi'ange, rest quite 
bare except for a few oral hairs. Anteunaj with yellow 
basal joints, deep black orbicular third ; arista white, basal 
joints a little suffuse, pubeseeuce very tine. Face all pale 
yellow; palpi pale, but just perceptibly infuscate outside at 
tip ; tongue yellow. 

Thorax : dorsum moderately shining yellow, with black 
hairs ; three broad black stripes, the middle one beginning 
on neck and extending to scutcllnm, the side ones abbre- 
viated in front but meeting the middle one behind, so that 
they form an almost uninterrupted band on hind dorsum ; 
small side-lines above the wings run into the main pair ; 
liumeri pale yellow. Pleura pale yellow ; a shining oval 
black spot on the lower front angle of the mcsopleura, the 
nsual black triangle over the middle coxa, and a smallish 
black oval spot over the hind coxa. 

^Vings normal, clear, thick-veined ; in one of the two 
specimens both the hind cross-veins are broken in the 
middle. Halteres bright whitish yellow, with darkened stalk. 

Legs entirely yellow except that the front tarsus and last 
joints of the otheis are very faintly infuscate. 

Al)domen: dorsum all brown-black, slightly shining, the 
liind margins of all segments but last very narrowly yellow, 
the last broadly so ; venter paler. 

Size (ex. antennae) 3i mm. 

Cam. Coll., Peradeniya, Ceylon {J. C. F. Fryer). 

Parectecephala, Beck. 

Parectecephala varifrons, sp. n. 

A species in the Cam. Coll. is best assigned to this genus; 
the triangle is rather longer than normal according to the 
descriptions of the known species. 

Head (top view, fig. 12) : — Frons about 2\ times as broad 
as one eye and about 1^ times longer than broad, projecting 
about \ its length beyond a line touching the eyes in front; 
eye-margins parallel, the projecting forehead narrowing a 
little and ending in a broad pointed tooth overhanging the 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Chloropidse. 



53 



antennal pits ; frons bright dull orange, with small scattered 
black hairs ; the triangle has its base about | the breadth at 
vertex ; the bouiuling lines are nearly straiglit, a little raised, 
very narrowly yellow, and meet just beyond the level of 
the eyes ; they continue nearly to the front in a shining 
yellow stalk ; inside these narrow lines the triangle is 
mainly shining chestnut, but is variegated by lighter colours, 

Fiff. 11. 




Parectecephala varifrons, sp. n., X 50. 
Fig. 12. Fif^. 13. 




Parectecephala varifrons, sp. n., X 40. 



SO that the most prominently visible chestnut part is a 
rhombus extending from the triangle's tip to the front 
ocellus ; this area is also very shallowly hollowed out ; the 
lighter parts consist of (1) a pair of oval dull brightish yellow 
spots each side of the ocellar area, and extending thence 
right to the sides of the triangle ; (2) two more orange and 



54 Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exoiic Cliloropidse. 

more shining spots extending from liind ocellus to the outer 
angles of the triangle. The hind head is orange except for a 
large black patch extending from the base of the triangle. 
Side-view (fig. 13) : — All pale whitish yellow, the side of 
frons orange ; eyes very nearly circular ; jowls about depth 
of Mrd ; face somewhat concave ; antennae as fig. 11, hut the 
arista for its last -H is very faintly white pubescent, not bare 
as fignnd, 3rd joint orange with blackened tip ; tongue and 
palpi yellow. Face whitish, uid<eeled, but depressed, the 
actual facial ridges being marked with a nan-ow pale grey 
line ; antennal pits Meli marked with dark shining chitinous 
edges. 

Thorax : dorsum dull palish orange ; abroad black central 
stripe from neck to end of scutellum — this is very intense 
up to about the middle of the dorsum, then gets much 
fainter, till it is very faint on the scutellum ; each side is 
another uniformly black iine_, rounded and abbreviated front 
and l)aek, and diminishing that way in breadth ; below is 
another very thin blackened line extending forward from 
just above the wing for about | the pleural length. Scu- 
tellum (as above) suffused centrailv, sides orange, not 
flattened, a little hairy, pair of terminal bristles ; meta- 
notum darkened ; the pleura all rather shining pale yellow, 
witli a small elongate spot. 

Wings normal, clear, with brown-orange veins, the 
distance between cross-veins about equal to the last part of 
5th ; halteres with whitish knobs. 

Legs long, all yellow except for the last two darkened 
tarsal joints. 

Abdomen shining brownish orange, with very narrow 
pale segmental margins ; venter paler. 

Size 4^ mm. 

Cam. Coll., Durban (F. M.). 

Pemphigonotus, gen. nov. 

In the Bur. Coll. are three s) ecimens (1 ^J, 2 ?) of a 
remarkable insect from Melville Island which exhibits 
marked sex-dimorphism. 

Characters common to both sexes : — Texture horny, 
raacroeha'tes quite absent, though body hairy ; scutellum 
vei'y large, s\»ollen, standing in profile veil above tlie 
thoracic level (see fig. 14), with a flattened area of different 
texture; abdomen oval and flattened ; wings with very long 
discal cell (see fig. 14), the auxiliary and anal veins just 
visible as " shadows " of veins ; legs long ; antenna like that 






Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exodc ChloropiJ.Te. 



55 



of a true Chlorops ; the triangle narrow and ill-rlefined, 
witli a better-defined narrow central line^ only differen- 
tiated by sliine from the rest of frons. 

The male has a remarkable arcli in the first part of the 
costa^ which carries a fringe of very long hairs ; the mid- 
femur and tibia are also clothed with abundant long tangled 
hairs. 

Fij?. U. 




Pemphigonotus mirabilis, X 12. 
Fiff. 15. 




Pemphigonotus mirabilis, x 22. 



Pemphigonotus mirabilis, sp. n. 

The insect is all red-orange, slightly darkened in various 
places except where otherwise mentioned. 



5(i Mr, C G. L.unb on Exotic Ohloi'opithe. 

cJ . — Ilead (top view, fij;^. 1")) : — Frons bare, dull except 
for tlie very narrow redder mid-line extending from ocellus 
to fondiead and the narrow ill-bounded main triangle; no 
eve-mar,;ins ; hind head hairy at n[)per corners behind eyes. 
Side-view (Hg. 14) : — Antennic aiul palpi clear yellow ; 
arista hair-like, pale ; tongue lleshy and hooked at tip. In 
front the face is wide, with no keel except a tiny bar be- 
tween unteniue; margin of mouth arched. 

'riiorax b;ire on dorsum, which is flattened and dull except 
for a central shining line exteiniin-g to the shining base ; the 
sides above the nott)pleural sutni'e and all the jdeura are 
abundantly clothed with long pale hairs. Scutellum enor- 
mously swollen both sideways and upwards, smooth exi'cpt 
for an extraordinary flattened area on the disc, which 
is slightly dimpled ; the base towards thorax has two large 
blackened areas with a pale line between; it is hairy, with 
pale liairs, which are longest and regular ou the margin ; 
notopleura smooth. 

AVings as fig. 14, the costal elevation from base to 1st 
vein with a row of long, dark, silky hairs; the whole surface 
much suffused except a rather narrow lower margin from 
axillary angle to near the end of the 5th, and again from 
beyond that end to just across the 4th. 

llalteres practically white. 

Legs long, hairy, all pale oratige except for a slight suffa- 
sion on the front tibia and the darkened tarsi ; all the tarsi 
somewhat swollen. The middle femur and tibia with abun- 
dant long pale hairs. 

Abdomen flattened, long-nval, the maximum breadth 
being about twice the thoracic breadth. 

The ? differs as follows: — Thorax not so dull and not 
flattened ; wings with no costal elevation, the whole costa 
being very gently curved in a continuous manner; no long 
hairs on costa; no long hairs on middle legs. 

Size about 5 mm. 

Ijur. Ccdl., Melville Island, N. Australia (G. F. Hill). 



Bathyi'aria, gen. nov. 

Becker describes a genus Euryparia (III., p. 84) which 
occurs in Formosa ; it has very deep jowls, quadrate 3rd 
antennal joint, and is covered with white hairs. Among 
the Durban species there are several specimens of a very 
handsome small Chloropid that have the above characters, 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on E.volic Chloropidwe. 57 

especially the bright silvery clothinf;^, aiul even a faint 
central wing-cloiul, in common with Becker's S|)ecies; but 
they differ greatly in that the eyes are long-oval and the 
antennae are smaller. The thorax in the species represented 
is black and not striped, and scutellar bristles are present. 
They must form the African equivalent of the Asiatic genus. 

Head (see figs. 16 & 17) : — The facial and frontal tangent- 
planes meet at about 120° ; eyes long-oval, with axis nearly 
upright; jowls very deep, about half the depth of the long 
eyes ; antennae nearly as long as face, with a practically 
rectangular 3rd joint about twice as long as broad, and a 
very fine, slender, bare arista, thickened basally. Frons 
parallel-sided, with a long rather narrow triangle from 
vertex to front only just differentiated by its extra shinine^s 
from the rest of frons. Wing-venation as fig. 18, the 3rd 
and 4th veins just not reaching the edge. 

The whole insect is covered with brilliant shining white 
hairs even on the frons ; these are very stout and bright on 
the thorax and head, but less so on the abdomen. Unlike 
Euryparia, there is a pair of scutellar bristles inserted in 
the same manner as in OjiS. 

The palpi are quite peculiar, being rather stout, long, and 
spoon-shaped. 

Bathj/paria prcBcIaj'a, sp. n. 

Head (top view) : — Chestnut-brown, the triangle more 
shining ; the silvery hairs along the triangle's border bend 
across it ; eye-margins broad and very silvery ; the verticals 
and ocellars white ; hind head all black except just on vertex 
behind ocelli, where is a long yellowish stripe along the 
vertical ridge. Side-view : — Similar in colour, the broad 
hind eye-margin very silvery, as is the hind jowl. Antenna 
slightly darkened brown ; arista pale at base. The palpi 
are long, spoon-shaped, and silvery grey ; tongue dark. 
Face the same brown colour, side-ridges well developed ; no 
median keel, so that the antennae nearh'^ touch basally. 

Thorax : dorsum, meso- and sternopleura all shining black 
and punctate, covered with bright silvery-white hairs arising 
from the punctures ; the rest of pleura bare. Scutellum 
bright yellow, with approximated pale terminal bristles and 
silvery hairs like thorax. Notoplcura black and dull from 
very faint shagreen. 

Wings (see fig, 18) clear, with brown veins ; in several 
specimens the central part is very faintly tinged with browu. 
Halteres pale yellow. 



58 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Chloropidse. 



Legs long, with slightly dilated tarsal joints, all covered 
with the fine white silky liairs ; front pair all blick except 
for orange troohanter and knees ; middle with orange tro- 
chanter, bKick femur, the rest nearly white; hind with dark 
orange trochanter, femur black with pale knee, tibia pale 



Fii?. 16. 



Fijr. 17. 





Fi-. 18. 




Bathyparia praclara, X 40. 



and more or less darkened about the middle, tarsi nearly 
white. 

Abdomen smooth, shining blaclc, the silky hairs evident 
but sparse and fine, a little longer at upper angles. 

Size 2^ mm. 

r^m. Coll., Back Beach, Durban (F. M.). 



Mr. G. J. Arrow on Melohntlnne Coleoptera. 59 



III. — Some Sijstemaiic Xoies on Meldonthine Coleoptera. 
By GiLBEJiT J. Aruow. 

(PuLlislied by perniissiou of tlie Trustees of tlie British Museum.) 

Mr. L. PerIXGUEY, in his " Catalogue of the Coleoptera of 
S. Africa" (Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. xiii. 1904, p. 174), puts 
at the head o£ the genus Sparrmannia a species which he 
calls vertiamiwi, Pall, (with the names alopex, F., and 
bruntiipennis, (jast., as synonyms), nientioniiig a typical 
form with pale testaceous colour as inhabiting the Karroo 
region, and a form with " light ■" (apparently meaning dark) 
chestnut elytra in Naniaqualand, Biishnianlaud, and Damara- 
land. The recent Catalogue of Dalla Torre ado])ts this 
synonymy, but separates as a variety the dark form hrunni- 
pennis. 

Dr. H. Brauns has lately sent a series of this dark form, 
wliich he has found in abundance in the Uniorulale district of 
Cape Colony, while the light form is equally abundant in the 
Willowmore district, oidy 42 miles to the south, but separated 
by the range of the Zwaarlberg running from west to east 
across the continent. Examination has proved that the two 
forms are quite distinct, and Fabricius's description shows 
that it is the dark form which is the true S. alopex. It was 
Fabricius hiniselt who, in his Syst. Eleut. ii. p. 163, identified 
this insect with the Scarabceun vertumnus of Pallas, but with 
strange carelessness, tor the latter is a Russian species, 
ap|)arently belonging to the genus Rhizotrogus, 

The light-coloured Sparrmannia, described at length by 
Peringuey, is therefore without a name, and I propose to 
call it 

Sparrmannia flava, sp. n. 

In addition to the pale-coloured elytra, this species differs 
from S. alopex in their more distinct and regular punctura- 
ti<ui, in the longer tarsi of both sexes, and especially in the 
longer middle tarsi and more dilated hind tibiae of the male. 
The aideagus is figured by Pei ingiiey. That of S. alopex is 
much shorter and blunter. Dr. Brauns states that, while 
S. fldva occurs together with S. alopex north of the dividing 
range, he has never seen the latter south of the mountains, 
and tiiat no specimens of intermediate coloration are touiul. 
S.jlava generally appears at Willowmore towards Christmas 
time, wiiile S. alopex is latei', generally appearing in January 



no Mr. G. J. Arrow on Melohnthme Coleoptera. 

and Fi'hruary. Both arc nocturiuilj and hide in loose soil 
during the day. 

There is anotlier closely similar species, of which specimens 
are probably included aniaii*^st those enumerated by Perin- 
gupy, and which I have wronti;ly dcteiinined as S. ver- 
tuiunns in D^nkschr. Med. Nat. (jresellscli. xiii. 190S, p. 438. 
I now call it 

''^p irnu'innni sunilis, so. n. 

Pullido flava, capite, pronoto, scutello, pectore abdorainoque l<)np;e 
et densissime lanatis. S. JJaviv vaklc siinilis, sed clypco paulo 
minus profunde excise, elytris crebrius sed minus distiacte 
puiictatis tarsiscpie paulo minus elongatis. 

Lung. 22 mm.: lat. ll'o mm. 

flab. S.W.Africa: Hereroland. 

This has an extremely close re-?emblance to S. Jlava, bat 
the elytra are finely and confusedly, instead of stronojly and 
sparingly, punctured, the clypeus is acutely, but less deeply, 
notched in the middle, and its sides a little less rounded, and 
the tarsi, or, at least, the middle ones of the male, are not 
quite so long. The sedeagus of the male is drawn out into a 
tube just behind the orifice. 

Upon p. 287 of his Catalogue already referred to, Mr. 
Perii:guey recognizes two Soutli-African species only of the 
genus Asthenopholis — subfasciatus, Blanch., and crassus. 
Arrow ; but the species to which he has wrongly applied the 
latter name is evidently the true A. adspersus. Boh. { = trcms- 
vaalensU, Brenske), and in A. subfasciatus he has included 
the quite distinct A. minor, Brenske. These four species 
may be distinguished as follows : — 

I. Scutellum well punctured ; hind tibia little 

dilated at the end. 

a. Scales of the upper surface long and hair-like . snhfasciatus, Bl. 

b. Scales of the upper surface short and broad . . viinor, Brenske. 

II. Scutellum smooth or almost smooth ; hind tibia 

stronglj' dilated at the end. 

c. Pr.motum moderately covered with long setae . adupersus, Bohem. 

d. Prunotum closely covered with oval scales . . crassus, Arrow. 

A. subfasciatus seems to be confined to Cape Colony, 
A. minor to Natal, A. adspersus to Natal and the Transvaal, 
whilst A. crassus is known only from British East Africa. 
)irenske's species were determined for me by himself, and 
Mr. Peringuey has certainly determined them wrongly. 



Mr. G. J. Arrow on Melolonthlne Coleoptera. 61 

altliouoli lie lias had the assistance of type-specimens. The 
genitalia of the males are quite different in the three species 
he has united, notwithstanding his statement. 

Mr. Periiiguey lias founded a genns FAironycha , but has 
not included in his Catalogue the genus Triodonta, of which 
many African species are known ; and as the sole character 
by which he differentiates Euronycha (a feature of the male 
alone) is found iu Triodonta^ they must be considered the 
same. 

The type of ITeterochelus cfonager, F., in the British 
Museum is the species called by Burmeister H. longipes, as 
}\y. P^ringuey has recorded upon my authority (Trans. S. 
Afr. Phil. Soc. xiii. 1908, p. 698) ; but the quite different 
species to which the name gonag<-r was applied both by 
Burmeister and by himself in vol. xii. of tiie above work 
remains without any available name. 1 propose to call it 

Heterochdus melanopygus, sp. n. 

The two following species of South-African Hopliini were 
described several years ago at Professor Poulton's request, 
but the descriptions have remained unpublished. The insects 
were amongst those collected more than a century ago by 
the African traveller Burchell, and now in the British and 
Oxford Museums. The data are taken from Burchell's note- 
books in Professor Poulton's possession. 

Gouna hurchelli, sp. n. 

Rather large, broad, sooty blacky naked above^ beneath 
thinly clothed with black hairs and a few white scales at the 
sides ; head broad, rather convex and rugose above, clypeus 
short, not angulate but bilobed ; prothorax rather broader 
than long, strongly contracted in front, front angles acute, 
hind angles very obtuse, surface finely punctate, with a faint 
longitudinal channel ; scutellum small, almost semicircular; 
elytra broad, faintly costate, irregularly and inconspicuously 
punctured ; pygidium (male) large, inturned, transversely 
punctate-riigose ; legs (male) rather long, hind ones slightly 
thickened, unarmed, front tibiai tridentate, the innermost 
tooth rather small and distant, all the claws single and 
minutely cleft, but those of the hind legs hardiy visibly. 

Length 9 mm. ; greatest breadth 5 mm. 

Localid/. Burchell's two specimens (nos. 318 and 319) 



G2 My. G. J. Arrow on Melolontldne Coleoptera. 

■wove cnjitiired on tlie nioniins: of Nov. 3, 1814, at Dnyker 
Rivor, ill the soulh of Ca^ie (Juloiiy, a little to tiie west of 
Mos>*i'l B;iy. 

The tvpe is ono. of throe spfcimen^i in tlie Brlti>ih Museum 
■deriveil from the Pascoe OoUection. There an^ also four from 
the Fry Coilectiou and one from the R'iche Cellection. All 
these, as well as the two hrou^ht hy Burchell, are males, and tlie 
other sex remains still unknown. The species was wrongly 
identilied with Monochchm sniuipes, F., by h'eiclie, and has a 
general resemblance to that insect, but its .structural characters 
are not those o\ Monocluhts. Tiiey ;igree with those formulated 
by Mr. Peiinguey for hi.s genus Goxina, one of those created 
by the dismemberment of the old Gi/mnohma. This dis- 
memberment is very unsatisfactory, since by a process of 
elimination the orijiinal cenus is left without tangible differ- 
ential features at all. The present form, howevi r, is nearly 
related to Gymnolonm lineolatn^ the tyfjc of Gonim, although 
much larger and broader. Its comparatively large size and 
Booty-black surface render it easily recognizable. 1 at first 
euspected that the absence of scales from the upper surface 
niijiht be due fo age; but the specimens are in general well 
preserved, and, as all agree in being smooth on the upper 
surface, they are evidently in their natural condition. 

Dicranocnemtis J)urcheUi, sp. n. 

Fuscous, with the elytra and legs i-eddish. Kather elon- 
gate, the thorax distinctly longer than wide and not gibbous, 
Clypeus parabolical, the front margin very slightly reflexed 
and with scarcely visible angles. Upper surface of the head 
uniformly iinely rugose and pubescent. Prothorax mode- 
rately convex, the sides regularly rounded and converging 
forwards. Front angles acute, hind angles obsolete. 

cJ . Prothorax finely rugose and densely clothed with 
rather short tawny pubescence, which changes into scales at 
the posterior margin, 'i he median sulcus is deep behind, but 
vanishes beyond ti)e middle. The scutellum is clothed with 
elongate whitish scales and the elytra with round scales 
varjing in colour from chocolate to pale yellow, the light 
ones forming a median longitudinal stripe wiiich is broadest 
near the shoulder, a sutural stripe broadest at the apical end, 
and a quadrate patch between these. The })ygidium and 
propygidium are densely covered with orange scales, with a 
darker band at the base of the former. The claws of the 
middle feet are without a basal appendage 

Length 5'5 mm. 



Mr. G. J. Arrow on Melolontlune Coleoptera. 63 

? . The protliorax is witliout a median sulcus. It is not 
finely lU^^ose, but stroii<;ly {)unctured, and clotlied with 
grcyisli liair, longer but less dense than that of tiie male. 
There are no scales. The elytra are more thinly clothed with 
decumbent setai ot an almost uniform tawny colour. 

Length 4"0 mm. 

IJal). Burchell's eight specimens, all of which are accounted 
for, were captured in flower.^, five of them at Uitenhage 
(Nov. '28 and Dec. 1, 18113), and two between Kra Ka Kamma 
and Van Stade's Kiver (Feb. 7, 1814), near (S.VV. of) 
Uitenhage. Two from each locality are in the British 
Museuu), but there is no means of associating these specimens 
with their precise da'a. 

Types ( (^ and ? ) in British Museum. 

Tlie desciiptiou is based upon nos. 1303 and 1305 in the 
British Museum. The specimen numbered 1308 is rather 
smaller and shorter, and may possibly prove to be distinct ; 
but it is most likely only an aberrant individual of the same 
form. 

From the description, this species must be very nearly 
related to D. Ii/jpocn'/a, Peringuey, -which has on each 
elytron two discoidal bauds of pale scales coalescing at the 
middle, whereas only one is present in our form. In the 
female no pattern is traceable. A male and female of the 
species were compared by Mr. Gu^- Marshall and Mr. Perin- 
guey with the Peiiiiguey type at Cape Town and the ? (293) 
named IJelerochelas longipes, Burm., the ^ (294) Dicrano- 
cneiiivs fiquainuf-us, Buruj. Both, however, show the form of 
frotit tiLiia distinctive of Dicranocn'^inus, while D. squnmosus 
is cliaracteriised by a peculiar formation of the middle claws 
of the (? which is absent here. D. hurchelli is one of the 
very numerous species of this group of which the sexes are 
quite dissimilar, so that, in the absence of sufficient evidence, 
tliey are frequently associated wrongly. Tlie question has 
been settled for us in the present instance by Burchell. 
Four males and four females were taken by him, and of these 
one of each given to the British Museum were placed on the 
same pin, showing his conclusion that they belonged to a 
single species. It will be seen in the above description that, 
in addition to a difference of shape, the elytra of the male ai-e 
decorated with orange scales, with a paler sutural patch and 
longitudinal stripe upon each, while the female is uniformly 
clothed with giey hair. Hence it is not surprising that, m 
the absence of direct evidence, they should have been assigned 
to different species, and even different genera. 



64 Mr. G. J. Arrow on Melolonthhie Coleoptera. 

Both generic and specific names of Blackburn's Neolepidiota 
ohscura are redundant, the insect being a common Indian 
species, Holotrichia serrata, F., of which an oKl specimen in 
bad conditio!! and of unknown origin unfortunately fell into 
Blackburn's hands. It is now in the British Museum. 

I believe Lepidiota bovilli, Blackb., to be identical with 
L. rothei, Blackb. In spite of a careful comparison of his 
types, I am quite unable to detect the differences mentioned 
by him. 

NemaTOSEUICA, gen. nov. 

Corpus nonnihil eloni^atiira. Mesosternnm hand productum, sat 
latum. Pedes graciles, tibia antica lata, l)ideutata, postica modice 
au^usta, fortiter s[)inosa, tarsorum posticoram articulo priiiio 
quani secundum diiplo loiigiori. Ungues profunde tissi, parte 
interna brevi et lata. Anteuiuc lO-articulatte, clava ( c? ) quadri- 
articuluta, longissima, lamellis aiqualibus ; ( $ ) triarticulata. 
Clypeus (vix angustatus, margine antico retlexo, subtiiiter 
siuuato, superficie anteriori liaud lato. Oeuli baud magni, 
remoti. Prothoracis latera postice sinuati, angulis posticis acutis. 
Elytrorum margiues postici arcuati, ad suturam dopressi. 

JSeni'doserica cccrulea, sp. n. 

Cserulea vel viridi-ca^rulea, sericea, clypeo tibiis tarsisque nitidis, 
antennis nigris ; modice elongata, convexa, capite, corpore suUtus 
pvgidioque palbdc setosis, elytrorum luteribus fortiter nigro- 
setosis, clypeo parce puuctato, margine vulde reflexo, antice sub- 
tiiiter siuuato ; pronoto parcissime puuctato, lateribus bisinuatis, 
angulis posticis acutis, paulo productis, ba&i utrincpie late 
inipresso ; elytris fortiter sulcatis, sulcis sat vage punctatis, 
apicibus separatim arcuatis, parte postica ad suturam depressa, 
corpore subtus opaco, grosse setoso ; pygidio sat fortiter punctate. 

Long. 5-5*5 mm. ; lat. max. 'S-'d'o mm. 

Hab. Borneo (Sarawak) : Puak {G. E. Bri/ant, April, 
May). 

Type in the British Museum. 

This beautiful little in.sect is chiefly remarkable for the 
length of tiie 4-jointed antennal club of the male, which is 
relatively longer than in any other species f)f Sericin;e known 
to me. The tour lamellaa are of equal length — at least five 
times as long as the foot-stalk — and little shorter than the 
elytra. The bright blue or gieenish-blue colour is also, so 
far as I know, unique. The u|)per surface is silky and sub- 
opaque, with the ciypeus aloue shining, the margin of the 



On new Pyralidae of tJie Subfamily Pjralina;. G5 

latter broadly rcflexecJ, the front margin very gently excised, 
and a row ol'stiff bristles traversing tiie middle from side to side. 
Tlie eyes are ratlier small and far apart. The lateral margins 
of the prolliorax are dislincily siiiuated in their |)osleiior half, 
the hind angles a little produced and acute and the bise 
impressed on each side. The elytra are sulcate and the sulci 
contain rather coarse but shallow punctures. 

The genus is apparently related to Teraserica, which I 
do not know, and which has been described from the male 
alone, the antenna of which has the last four joints rather 
long but much less elougate than in the present insect. This 
has not the foreiiead narrow and the eyes very hirge and 
prominent, as in Tenifserica. Tne strongly bisiniiated sides 
ot the prothorax and acutely produced hind angles are very 
characteristic, and another [)eculiarity wdiich, so far as I know, 
is not found elsewhere is in the sha[)e of the elytra. These 
are separately rounded at their hinder margins, with tiie 
sutural angles extremely blunt, so that a wide angle is formed 
and a considerable part of tlie abdomen ex|)osed. The 
peculiar apptarance, however, is chiefly due to the fact that 
this part ot" the elj'tra is strongly depressed along the suture. 



IV. — Descriptions of New Pyralidce of the Suhfamilies 
Epipaschianse, Chrysauginse, Endotrichinsej and Pyralinae. 
By Sir George F. Hampson, Bart,, F.Z.S., &c. 

[Concluded from vol. xviii. p. 373.] 

(2 6) Pj/ralis nigrlcillalis, sp. n. 

(5 . Head and thorax creamy white tinged with purplish red, 
especially the tegulst' ; antennaj purplish red ; abdomen creamy 
white mixed with purplish red and dorsally banded with black 
except at base and extremity. Fore Aving creamy white mixed 
with purplish red, the basal area suffused with black except at 
base of inner margin, the costa black, rather diffused towards 
apex ; antemedial line defining the black area, creamy white 
slightly defined on outer side by purplish-red and black scales, 
excurved below costa ; the medial part of costa with thi-ee Avhite 
points ; a round white spot defined by purplish red at ujoper angle 
of cell, another below the lower angle conjoined to a patch of 
confluent annuli beyond the lower angle, and another annulus 
on vein 1 ; postmedial line white defined on each side by purplish 
red, oblique to discal fold, then slightly waved ; ciha black mixed 

Ann. t^ Man. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 5 



66 Sir G. F. Iliunpson on new 

witli ^ > ui.- purplish i-ed. Hind u iiig creaiuv white uiixetl with 
purplish re.l, the basal area suffused with black ; an oblique 
sliijlitly sinuous white untem.vlial line delined on outer side by 
purjdisli pink and some blaek scales ; a white patch defined by 
purplish red and witli purplish-red point in centre at lower anj^le 
of cidl ; p.)st:iledial line white defined on each side by purplish 
re I and some black scales, waved; an interrupted purplish-re 1 
line with some black scales on it before termen ; cilia black 
mixed with some purplish red. ITn lerside purplish red ; fore 
wing with the costa black with white points on it to beyoni 
middle ; hind wing with waved white pjstmedial line defined hy 
deeper purplish red. 

f[fib. Br. E. Africa, Nairobi (Anilenion), 1 J ; Bi{. C. Afhka, 
M\. Mlmje (X/'dre). I d typ.'. £.rp. 10 mm. 

(2 c) Ft/ rails frifolialis, sp. n. 

6 • Head, thorax, and abdomen white mixed with purplish red, 
the antennae and teguhe purplish red, the abdomen irrorated with 
some blackish scales ; sides of frons and jxilpl blackish, the latter 
with the extremities of 2nd and 3rd joints white ; fore legs 
blackish, the tarsi ringed with white ; pectus, mid and hind legs, 
and ventral surface of abdomen white tinged with I'ed-brown. 
Fore wing creamy white mixed with purplish red and irrorated 
with a few black .scales, the terminal area more suffused with 
purpli.sh ivd ; antemedial line white delined on each side by 
purplish red, sliglitly sinuous, a small white spot defined by 
purplish red on its outer side at vein 1 ; the medial part of 
costa black with four white ])oints on it ; a small white spot 
with purplish-red annulus at upper angle of cell, others below 
the lower angle of cell and on vein 1, and a trifoliate patch 
beyond lower angle of cell ; postmedial line white defined on 
each side by pvu'plish red, expanding at costa, excurved to near 
termen at middle, and ending at tornus ; cilia fuscous black with 
a fine white line at base. Hind wing with the basal area white 
mixed with black and some purjilish red, the medial area purplish 
red irrorated with blaek especially towards inner margin, the 
terminal area purplish red mixed with whitish and black ; a 
slightly sinuous white antemedial line defined on each side by 
blackish ; a figure-of-eight-shaped white di.scoidal spot defined 
by blackish and with black points in its upper and lower parts ; 
postmedial line white defined on each side by blackish, waved, 
excurved between veins 6 and 8 ; cilia fuscous blaek with a 
fine white line at base. Underside whitish suffused with red- 
brown ; fore wing with the costa black with white jjoints on it 
to beyond middle ; hind wing w ith the postmedial line whitish 
and indistinct. 

Hah. ti(jLD Coast, Kumasi (Sanders), 1 J Ivpe. JS.rp. 
12 mm. 



Fyiali.Ue of the Sah family Pyralinse. 67 

i-d) FyralU alriii[jars(tU.-<, sp. n. 

2 . Head whitish suffused with purplish pink ; thorax and 
abdomen purplish pink mixed with some whitish and strongly 
irrorated with black, the pectus, legs, and ventral surface of 
abdomen less strongh' iiToi-ated. Fore wing purplish pink mixed 
wdth some whitish and strongly irrorated with l)lack, especially 
on basal area except towai'ds costa ; antemedial line strong, 
whitish defined on each side by black, oblique to submedian 
fold, where it is angled outwards, angled inwards at vein 1 ; a 
small blackish discoidal spot ; a whitish patch on costal area 
towards apex, the whitish subterminal line arising from it, 
excurved to vein 8, then incurved ; the termen purplish pink. 
Hind wing whitish tinged with purplish pink, the terminal half 
suffused with fuscous and irrorated with black towards tornus ; 
a whitish postmedial line, excurved at middle and angled out- 
wards at veins 8 and 2, then oblique to tornus ; the termen 
pm-plish pink ; cilia whitish, mixed with pink and black at tips. 
Underside whitisli mixed with pink and fuscous ; fore wing with 
the subterminal line indistinct, except the patch on costal area ; 
hind wing with whitish postmedial line excurved at middle. 

Unh. X. XiGiERiA, Zungeru {Macfie), 1 $ type. Exp. IS mm. 

(8 a) Pyralis costinotalis, sp, n. 

S • Head and thorax pale rufous ; abdomen whitish suffused 
with i-ed-brown ; antennae brownish ; palpi and legs whitish suf- 
fused with red-brown. Fore wing rufous tinged with purplish 
red; antemedial line white defined on outer side by black, 
expanding into a wedge-shaped mark at costa, to which it is 
slightly incurved ; the medial part of costa with alternating 
black and white points ; a slight blackish discoidal spot ; post- 
medial line white defined on inner side by blackish, expanding 
into a wedge-shaped mark at costa, then excurved and very 
slightly waved ; a faint maculate brownish terminal band ; a fine 
whitish line at base of cilia. Hind wing Avhitish suffused with 
rufous to the postmedial line except on costal area, the terminal 
area irroi'ated with brown ; an oblique sinuous Avhite antemedial 
line, joined at inner margin by the white postmedial line, which 
is excurved at middle, then slightly waved ; a terminal series of 
small brown spots ; cilia with a brown line near tips. Underside 
whitish suffused with reddish brown ; fore wing with series of 
whitish and dark brown points on costa to the postmedial line ; 
both wings with slight blackish discoidal spot and slightly waved 
whitish postmedial lin(; defined on inner side by brown and 
excurved at middle. 

(13 a) Pyrcdis rufibasalis, sp. n. 

S ■ Head and thorax red-brown ; abdomen white suffused with 
pale olive ; legs red-brown ; pectus and ventral surface of abdnmeu 







* 



6tf Sir G. F. Hamp.son on new 

whitish tinged with reJ-brown. Fore wing with the basal area 
rut'i)us irrorated with red-brown, the rest o£ wing white tinged 
with olive ; a small black discoidal spot ; the carved postmedial 
line indicated by a faint olive shade on its inner side. Hind 
wing white tinged with olive; a diffused black patch on basal 
area ; a small black discoidal spot ; a diffused curved olive post- 
medial line. Underside white thickly irrorated with black-brown ; 
hind wing with small black discoidal spot and diffused curved dark 
postmedial line. 

Hub. Gold Coast, Kumasi {Sanders), 1 c? ; S. Nigeeia, 
Ilesha {Humfrej/), 1 6 tv|)e. I^.rp. 14- IG mm. 

(13 b) Pi/rii/ifi roxf'itincfa, sp. n. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen white tinged with pale red- 
brown. Fore wing white suffused with pale red-brown except 
towards the costa and t^rmen ; a curved white antemedial line 
with a patch tinged with rose-pink before it except at costa and 
inner margin ; a .slight red-brown discoidal spot; a sinuous white _ 
postmedial line with a rose-pink shade beyond it. Hind wing 
Avhite suffused with pale red-brown except at termen ; a curved 
white antemedial line ; a white postmedial line excurved at middle 
and above inner margin and with rose-pink shade be^'ond it. 
Undersiilc white tinged with rufous ; hind wing with curved white 
postmedial line. 

Hub. Bn. C. Africa, :Mt. Mlanje {Xeave), 1 S type. Exp. 

14 mm. 

(16 J) Pi/nills ti/rialis, sp. n. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish oehreous, the head, 
.thorax, and two basal segments of abdomen suffused with purplish 
crimson ; palpi, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen brownish 
oehreous. Fore wing brownish oclu-eous sutt'used with purplish 
crimson and slightly irrorated with dark brown ; a fine curved 
white antemedial line ; a small black discoidal spot : a white post- 
medial line, excurved at middle; cilia white and blackish. Hind 
wing brownish oehreous strongly suffused with purplish crimson 
and iiTorated with black ; indistinct curved white ante- and po.st- 
medial lines delined by ])lack scales ; a blackish terminal line ; cilia 
blackish. Underside oehreous suffused and irrorated with brown. 
Hab. Gold Coast, Bibianaha (SpiirreU), 1 9 type. Exp. 

15 mm. 

(16<?) Pt/rrtUs plicenicealis, sp. n. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen oehreous brown with a crimson 
band ou 2nd segment of abdomen ; ]mlpi with some dark brown at 
sides ; fore legs suffused with dark brown. Fore wing silky 
oehreous brown ; the costal area in'orated Avith some dark scales, 
the medial part of costa with series of black points and the 
terminal part of costa glossy black ; two indistinct crimson sub- 



Pyralidse of tJie Sahfanily Pyralinae. 69 

basal lines ; a crimson and blackish point in middle of cell and 
small discoidal spot ; a crimson point at middle of submedian fold 
and bar at inner margin ; a postmedial crimson point at discal 
fold and bar from submedian fold to inner margin ; a curved 
diffused crimson subtei'minal line and a terminal band except on 
the black costal area ; cilia deej) crimson. Hind wing glossy 
ochreous brown ; a crimson subb:is;il patch from cell to inner 
margin ; a discoidal patch with oblique line from it to inner 
margin ; a strong postmedial line somewhat excurved at middle ; 
a subterminal band expanding into a patch at costa, and a narrow 
band before the ochreous terminal line ; cilia deep crimson. LJnder- 
side ochreous suffused with fuscous brown : fore wing with some 
pale points on medial part of costa and both wings with pale curved 
postmedial line. 

Hah. Gold Coast, Eibianaha {Sjnirrell) 1 5 type. Uxjo. 
18 mm. 

(19 a) Pi/raVis exumhralis, sp. n. 

S • Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish ochreous. Fore wing 
ochi'eous ; a rather diffused fuscous patch below the cell ; a small 
black discoidal spot ; a fuscous subterminal shade, not reaching 
the costa and narrowing to tornus. Hind Aving ochreous ; a sub- 
basal patch of black irroration, the rest of Aviug irroi-ated with 
fuscous ; a curved whitish postmedial line. Underside ochreous 
irrorated with fuscous ; fore Aving with blackish discoidal point 
and both wings with whitisli postmefiial line. 

Hab. Gold Coast, Eibianaha (S^^urrell) 1 c? type. JEx/). 
16 mm. 

(1 5) Pyralis Jlavirubralis, sp. n. 

o' . Head, thorax, and abdomen purpHsh red mixed with some 
yellowish. Fore wing purplish red slightl}' ii-rorated with brownish, 
the medial area yellow irrorated with red and more suffused with 
red towards inner margin ; antemedial line whitish, slightly sinuous 
beloAV the cell ; a blackish discoidal point ; postmedial line whitish, 
incurved below discal fold ; cilia yellowish tinged with red. Hind 
wing purplish red thickly irrorated Avith fuscous; an indistinct 
obliqire slightly sinuous whitish antemedial line and curved slightly 
Avaved postmedial line ; cilia purplish red Avith a fine Avhite line at 
base. Underside ochreous Avhite irrorated Avith red ; both Avings 
with small blackish discoidal spot. 

Sab. TiiA>-svAAL, White E. (Cooke), 1 6 type. i:.rj>. 18 mm. 

(Id) Pyralis perjndverea, sp. n. 

2 . Head and thorax Avhitish tinged Avith rufous and irrorated 
with dark broAvn ; abdomen whitish tinged with rufous ; palpi, 
pectus, legs, and A-entral surface of abdomen rufous, the tarsi dark 
brown ringed with Avhite. Fore Aving laifous mixed with some 
whitish, especially toAvards inner margin and thickly irrnated with 



70 Sir G. K. Ilainpson o» 7iew 

fuscous ; a slight blaokish discoidal striga ; cilia black mixed with 
some givv, a jwlf reddish line at hase and some reddish scales at 
tips. Hind wing whitish tinged with rufous; cilia rufous with a 
fine whitish line at base and <lark line near tip except towards 
tonuis. Undei-side of fore wing ]jale fuscous brown, the costal and 
terminal areas rufous ; hind wing whitish tinged with red-brown, 
the a]iieal area rutV)us. 

JLili. Bn. C. AFiuCA, Mt. Mlanje {JVeavf), 1 $ type; Voiic. 
E. Africa, ]\It. C'hiperone {Xeare), 1 $. IJj-j). 22 mm. 

(If) Ti'i/tilifeiii irrtirdlix. sp. n. 

$ . Head, thoiax, and abdomen brownish grey irrorated with 
bliiek ; the anal tuft rufous ; antennaj whitish ringed with black. 
Fore wing brownish grey tinged with rufons especially towards 
costa and irrorated with black ; a series of whitish points on costa 
with some blackish between them except towards base ; a terminal 
series of black bars ; cilia fuscous with a tine whitish line at base 
and blackish line near tips. Hind wing l)rownish grey tinged with 
rufous and in-orated with black; an indistinct pale curved post- 
medial line detined on inner side by blackish ; a terminal series of 
black stria.' ; cilia fuscous mixed with grey, a tine whitish line near 
base and blackish line near tips. Underside of fore wing rufous 
iiTorated with blackish, the inner area whitish ; a series of white 
points on costa with black between them, a blackish discoidal 
striga, a jx^le subterminal line defined on inner side by blackish, 
angled outwards to termen at vein 8; hind wing pale rufous 
irrorated with blackish, a black discoidal point and postmedial line 
defined on outer side by whitish and excurved at middle. 

Hab. W. Africa {Dudgeon), 1 $ type; S. Nioekia, Lagos 
{Sir G. Carter), I $ . Exj). 10 mm. 

*^2b) Tff/ulifera purjiKrascens, sp. n. 

(S . Head and thorax purplish red with a few fuscous scales ; 
abdomen ochreous suffused with purplish red and irrorated with 
black, the extremity clear ochreous ; palpi black at tips ; pectus, 
legs, and ventral surface of abdomen ])urplish red irrorated with 
Vdack. Fore wing purplish red irrorated with black ; a rather irre- 
gularly waved almost medial black line defined on inner side by 
diffused ochreous ; the medial part of costa with some whitish 
points with black between them ; postmedial line black defined 
on outer side by diffused ochreous, waved, excurved between 
veins 5 and 2 and incurved at submedian fold ; a terminal series of 
black jjoints. Hind wing ochreous suffused wdth purplish red and 
iiTorated with fuscous ; traces of a curved blackish antemedial line 
and a distinct cm'ved postmedial line ; a terminal series of black 
])oints. Underside ochreous tinged with purplish red ; both wings 
with small black discoidal spot and curved postmedial line. 

Jlrib. S. Xjoeria {Sampson), 1 6 type. Exp. 22 mm. 



PyralkUe of the Sulfamily Pyrallnae. 71 

(2 d) Tegulifera elaomesa, sp. n. 

(S . Head and thorax pale olive-brown, the vertex of head and 
tips of patagia tinged with purplish red ; abdomen pale olive-brown 
suffused with purplish red towards base and u-rorated with some 
black scales towards extremity ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface 
of abdomen whitish suffused with purplish red and in-orated with 
black. Fore wing pale olive-brown, the terminal area purplish 
red irrorated -wTith black ; a curved whitish antemedial line with 
a purplish-i-ed patch irrorated with black before it from cell to 
inner margin ; the medial part of costa with some white points 
with black between them ; a black discoidal point ; a slightly in- 
curved white postmedial line with some black iiToration before it 
below the cell ; a fine white line at base of cilia. Hind wing 
pm-plish red UTorated with black ; two cm-ved whitish medial lines, 
the area between them suffused -with blackish ; a fine white line 
at base of cilia. Underside purplish red irrorated with black and 
mixed with whitish towards base ; both wings with obscure black 
discoidal spots ; fore Tving with the postmedial line indistinct ; 
hind wing with slightly waved, white, medial line defined on inner 
side by rather diffused black. 

Mab. Gold Coast, Aburi (Johnston). 1 J, Bibianaha {Sjjur- 
rell), 2 J type. Exp. \^ mm. 

(2y) Tegulifera ohovalis, sp. n. 

Head and thorax pale red with a few fuscous scales ; abdomen 
pale reddish, the base pm-plish red ; subdorsal black fasciae except 
at base, connected dorsally on 2nd segment and on two terminal 
segments ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen pale reddish. 
Fore wing pale rufous slightl}' iiTo rated with fuscous, the ovate 
terminal area chocolate-brown ; antemedial line whitish defined on 
outer side by blackish, rather oblique ; a small black discoidal spot ; 
the medial part of costa with whitish points with some black 
between them ; postmedial Hne whitish defined on inner side by 
blackish, incurved; a tine white line at base of cilia. Hind wing 
red-bi-own \vith a slight purplish-red tinge ; a cui-ved whitish ante- 
medial line defined on outer side by dark bi'own ; a small blackish 
spot at upper angle of cell ; postmedial line whitish defined on 
inner side by dark bro\vn, rather obliquely curved ; a fine white 
line at base of cilia. Underside whitish tinged with rufous espe- 
cially in and beyond the cell of fore wing and on terminal areas of 
both wings, the costal areas with some black irroration ; fore wing 
with the whitish and black points on costa extending to base, the 
postmedial line very slightly waved ; hind wing with dark ante- 
medial line from cell to inner margin, small discoidal spot and 
oblique slightly waved postmedial line. 

Ilab. Gold Coast, Kumasi (Whiteside), 1 J , 1 $ type; 
Xatal, Durban (Leigh), 1 § . JExj). 24^28 mm. 



72 Sir G. F. Hampson on new 

(2 /(f) TeguUfera semicircidaris, sp. n. 

$ . Head, thomx, and abdomen ■whitish suffused with pale red- 
brown. Fore wing wliitisli suffused with pale olive-brown and 
slightly irrorated with black, the semicircular terminal area deep 
choco!ato-red and detinod on inner side by an incurved white shade; 
antemedial line white deliiu d on inner side by brown, rather oblique; 
a black discoidal sjiot ; cilia white, tinged with rcddisli brown 
except at base. Hind wing whitish suffused with pale red-brown ; 
two oblique dark medial lines delined by white, the inner line on 
inner side, the outer on outer side, the area between them rather 
whiter; a tine red-brown terminal line; cilia pule reddish, white at 
base and with some dark scales at tips. Underside whitish suffused 
with rufous ; fore wing with black points on costa to beyond 
middle, a black discoidal point, the terminal area purplish red 
delined on inner side by an incurved white line ; hind wing with 
oblique very slightly waved reddish-brown postmedial line. 

Hah. Gold Coast, Bibianaha {Spnrrell), 1 $ type. Exp. 
28 mm. 

(2 /) Tegidlfera friparfifa, sp. n. 

c? . Head whitish tinged with red-brown ; thorax red-brown 
tinged with grey ; abdomen whitish tinged with red-brown ; legs 
dark brown, the tarsi ringed with white. Fore wing Avith the 
basal and terminal areas dark red-brown with a greyi.sh gloss, the 
medial area pale grey slightly tinged with red-brown and irrorated 
with dark brown ; antemcdial line white slightly defined on outer 
side by brown, excurved to submedian fold, then incurved; the 
medial part of costa with a series of white points with dark brown 
between them ; a small dark brown discoidal spot ; postmedial line 
white slightly defined on inner side by brown, slightly incurved 
below vein 3 ; cilia pale red-brown with a fine white line at base 
defined on outer side by a dark line. Hind wing greyish with dark 
red-brown irroration along vein 1 and on terminal half ; an oblique 
brown line from upper angle of cell to inner margin at the post- 
medial line which is pale defined on each side by brown, curved ; 
cilia pale rcd-brown with a fine white line at base defined on outer 
side by a dark line. Underside of fore wing reddish ochreous 
irrorated with bi-o-\\n, the tei'minal area suff"used with red-brown, 
the inner area white, the basal area darker to submedian fold, the 
costa black-brown with series of prominent white points to the 
postmedial line, which is dark defined on outer side by Avhite 
forming a small spot at costa. a blackish discoidal spot ; hind wing 
whitish tinged with rufous and irrorated with red-brown except on 
inner aix-a, a dark discoidal spot and curved postmedial line defined 
on outer side by whitish. 

Hah. Assam, Khasis {Xissary), 3 S type. JExp. 26 mm. 

(3 5) TeguUfera ochrimesalis, sp. n. 
$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen yellow, the tegulae tinged with 



Pyralidse of the Suhfamily Pjralinae. 73 

pTirplisli pink, the abdomen suffused witli purplish pink and irro- 
rated with black except at extremity ; pectus, legs, and ventral 
surface of abdomen ochreous yellow. Fore wing ochreous yellow 
tinged with purplish pink and slightly irrorated with dark scales, 
the medial area and termen almost clear ochreous ; antemedial line 
yellow slightly delined on outer side by brownish, curved; a blackish 
point at upper angle of cell ; postmedial line yellow slightly defined 
on inner side by brownish, slightly excurved at middle and incurved 
at submedian fold. Hind wing yellowish sufiiused with pui-plish 
pink and irrorated with blackish ; waved whitish medial and post- 
medial lines ; a terminal series of small blackish spots except 
towards tornus. Underside ochreous tinged with brown ; both 
wings with indistinct pale sinuous ante- and postmedial lines defined 
by brownish ; fore wing with slight dark discoidal spot. 

Hah. Be. C. Africa, Mt. Mlanje {JSfeave), 1 $ type. Exp. 
20 mm. 

(3 d) Tecjulifera fallidalis, sp. n. 

c? . Head and thorax ochreous tinged with reddish ; abdomen 
ochreous fainth^ tinged with purplish red and slightly irrorated 
with bi-own ; fore and mid legs suffused with red-brown. Fore 
wing pale ochreous slightly irrorated with brown, tlie terminal area 
tinged with purplish pink ; a series of slight dark points on costa ; 
a slight dark discoidal spot ; a straight pale ochreous postmedial 
line delined on inner side by brown and on outer by the pink 
terminal area ; a terminal series of dark points ; eiliia biownish 
ochreous. Hind wing ochreous white; a rather punctiform brown- 
ish terminal line except toAvards tornus ; cilia ochreous, tinged with 
brown towards apex. Underside ochreous white ; fore wing with 
the costal and terminal areas tinged with pinkish, some pale Tjoints 
on costa towards base, a small brov.-n discoidal spot, the postmedial 
line indistinct, whitish ; hind wing with the costa deeper ochreous, 
an oblique brown postmedial line from costa to discal fold. 

Hah. Uga>'DA, Gondotroro {JReynes-Cole), 1 S type. Exp. 
20 mm. 

(4 «) TeAjuJifera hostralis, sp. n. 

o . Head and thorax ochreous suffused with red- brown ; abdo- 
men ochreous irrorated with black-brown ; legs suffused Mith 
red-brown ; ventral surface of abdomen tinged with reddish. Fore 
wing with the basal and terminal areas red-brown, the medial area 
ochreous slightly irrorated Avith brown, more thickly towards costa; 
a pale antemedial line defining the basal area ; some pale points 
on medial part of costa ; a small black discoidal spot ; postmedial 
line pale, oblique, slightly excurved at middle, then incurved ; a 
terminal series of small blackish spots and a pale line at base of 
cilia. Hind wing ochreous tinged with red-broAvn, the terminal 
half suffused with pale red-brown ; an indistinct sinuous dark 
medial line defined on outer side by ochreous ; a terminal series of 
blackish bars ; cilia i-ed-brown with a pale line at base. Underside 



74 Sir G. F. IIanip«:on ou new 

of fore wing oolireoiis suffused with purplish red except on inner 
area, a series of wliitish points on costa with dark brown between 
them to the oblique jiale postniedial line ; hind wing ochreous, the 
costal area and terminal half tinged with purj)lisii red, a small 
blackish spot at upper angle of cell and oblique sinuous brown 
medial line. 

Hub. lin. K. Afhica, Kakumega Forest, Yala R. (J\'efirr'), 
1 2 type ; Transvaal, White K. (Cooke), 1 $ . i:j-p. 26-28 mm. 

(C)^) TcguUfera inetosarc'islis, sji. n. 

5 . Head and thorax ochi-eous mixed with dark brown ; abdomen 
ochreous ; antenna; brownish ; palpi dark brown irrorated with 
whitish ; legs suffused with dark brown, the tarsi black-brown 
ringed with whitish. Fore wing ochreous thickly irrorated with 
])in-plish red and some black excejjt on basal inner area ; a pale 
jxistmedial line, excurved below discal fold ; a terminal series of 
blackish bars ; cilia ochreous tinged with red. Hind wing flesh- 
])ink ; a small brown subterminal spot at submedian fold ; a black- 
ish terminal line except towards tornus. Underside ochreous tinged 
willi red; hind wing with obliquely curved red postniedial line. 

Hdh. Gold Coast, Bibianaha (Sptirren), I 6 type. JSxp. 
18 mm. 

(7o) Teyuliferajlaviccirnea, sp. n. 

6 . Head, thorax, and abdomen yellow^ tinged with reddish, the 
palpi, pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen more strongly 
tinged with red-brown. Fore wing yellow tinged with piirplish 
pink, especially on terminal half, and slightly irrorated with brown ; 
the costa with scries of white points with dark brown between 
them except towards base ; a pale subterminal line, excurved from 
below costa to vein 2 ; a fine white line at base of cilia defined on 
its outer side by a black line. Hind wing golden .yellow with a 
black line at base of cilia. Underside yellow, the costal and 
terminal areas tinged with pui'plish red and the former iiTOrated 
with dark brown ; fore wing with series of white ]joints on costa 
with black between them, a cm-ved white subterminal line defined 
on inner side by blacki.sh, a terminal series of small blackish spots ; 
hind wing with curved white subtei*minal line defined on inner side 
by blackish. 

Hab. BoR>"EO, Sandakan {Pnjer), 1 c? type. Exjj. 22 mm. 

(7 h) Tf'fjiilifera JJaveoIa. sp. n. 

5 , Head, thorax, and abdomen yellowish suffused with purplish 
red ; palpi dull pui-jilish red. F(jre wing yellowish suffused with 
dull purplish red and irrorated with blackish scales, the area fi'om 
middle of wing to the postmedial line more strongly suffu.sed ; a 
faint fLirk discoidal spot ; the postmedial line indistinct, excurved 
at middle and incurved below vein 2 ; a terminal .series of small 
blackish spots. Hind wing yellowish, suffused and irrorated with 



Pyralidjc of the Subfamily Pyraliiije. 7o 

dark brown to the indistinct curved ixtstmedial line, the terminal 
area very slightly irrorated ; a terminal series of small dark brown 
spots ; cilia with a dark brown line through them. Underside 
yellow ; fore wing tinged and irrorated with brown to the post- 
medial line, the terminal area slightly irrorated, more strongly 
towards costa ; hind wing irroratx^d with brown to the indistinct 
irregular postmedial line, the terminal area sparsely iiTorated from 
costa to vein 2. 

Ab. 1. Wings uniformly suffused with red and irrorated with 
blackish ; fore wing with the postmedial line hardly traceable ; 
hind wing with it indistinct ; the underside uniformly suffused 
with red and iiTorated with black, both wings with curved slightly 
Avaved blackish postmedial line. 

Hah. Cameeooxs, Ja K., Bitje {Bates), 3 $ type. Exp. 20- 
2-1 mm. 

1^7 c) Tegulifera chromalis, sp. n. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen golden yellow^ suffused with 
purpUsh red ; palpi yellow tinged with purplish red in fi'ont toAvards 
base ; fore coxa; and mid femora towards base deep piuiile, the 
fore and mid tibiae black-brown, the tarsi black-brown ringed with 
whitish. Fore wing golden yellow, the basal area to just below 
the cell purj^lish red. the apical area from middle of costa to termen 
at vein 1 suffused and irrorated with pmi^lish red leaving a conical 
ahnost clear yellow patch from postmedial part of costa to below 
vein 5, the inner area iiTorated with a few red scales ; some yellow 
points on medial part of costa ; the antemedial line represented by 
a yellow bar fi-om costa to median nervure ; the postmedial line 
faint and excurved fi-om vein 6 to 2, then incurved ; cilia glossy 
black-brown. Hind wing golden yellow in'orated with purplish 
red to the postiuedial line and on terminal area from apex to 
vein 4 ; an oblique cui-ved red antemedial line joined at inner 
margin by the curved slightlj" waved postmedial line : cilia glossy 
black-brown except towards tornus. Underside yellow ; fore wing 
more evenly irrorated with red, the costa deep pui"plish red with 
pale points on it to the indistinct curved A'ellow postmedial line ; 
hind wing with the costal area ii'rorated with red, a faint curved 
postmedial line formed by red scales. 

Hah. Camerooxs, Ja R., Bitje {Bates), 1 6 tvpe. Exp. 
30 mm. 

{Id) Tegulifera ochrealis, sp. n. 

$ . Orange-yellow. Fore wing with faint traces of curved post« 
medial line. Hind wing rather paler. 

Hah. MAsnoxALAXD {Dohhie), 1 § type. Exj). 20 mm. 

(9 a) Tegidifera coniialis, sp. n. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen greyish suffused with mid 
reddish brown: fore tarsi dark brown ringed \nth whitish ; dull 



76 Sir G. F. Ilampson on neio 

and hind tai*si wliitisli. Fore wing greyish tinged with red-brown 
and thickly irroratod with dark red-brown ; an oblique whitish 
anteracdial line dclined on outer side by diifused dark brown ; some 
v.hitish jxjints on medial ]iart of costa with dark brown between 
them ; a small dark brown diseoidal spot ; postniedial line whitish 
defined on inner side by dark brown, slightly waved and curved to 
vein 2 and incurved at sul)median fold ; a terminal series of small 
dark brown s]X)ts and whitish line at base of cilia. Hind wing 
whitish tinged and in-orated with brown ; a ti'rminal series of small 
dark brown sjx)ts. Underside whitish tinged and irrorated with 
purplish brown, the inner areas paler ; both wings with small dark 
discoiJal spot and cm'ved postraedial line ; fore wing Avith the 
cosii dark brown with white points on it to the postmedial line. 

Hab. Geeai. E. Africa, Dar-es- Salaam, 1 6 type. Exp. 
IG mm. 

(2) Elcealis mctachalcisiis, sp. n. 

6 • Head, thorax, and abdomen dark red-brown ; antennje whitish 
ringed with brown ; fore tarsi ringed with whitish, the mid and 
hind tarsi whitish tinged with red-brown. Fore Aving dark red- 
brown with a cupreous gloss ; a series of whitish points on costa to 
beyond middle and a postmedial whitish spot tinged with reddish. 
Hind wing golden cupreous irrorated with dark red-brown, the 
costal and terminal areas dark red-brown, the latter narrowing to 
tomus ; the underside reddish oehreous, the basal part of costal area 
and cell mottled with reddish oehreous defining a dark brown 
diseoidal spot, the terminal area dark brown narrowing to tornus. 

2 . Fore wing with narrow whitish postmedial band tinged Anth 
reddish. 

Hah. Be. E. Africa, Kikuyu Escarjiment, Ibea (Dohcrty), 2 J , 
1 2 type. Exjj. lS-20 mm. " 

(1 a) StetumafopJiora albicejjs, sp. n. 

Antennae of male with the basal joint very long. 

Head oehreous white, the antennte dark brown except the basal 
joint, the palpi with dark brown spot at side of 2nd joint, the 
3rd dark brown with white tips ; tegulae oehreous white iiroi-ated 
■with some dark brown scales and dark brown at sides ; thorax 
whitish, the patagia dark brown at sides ; abdomen reddish brown 
tinged with grey, the anal tuft oehreous ; pectus, legs, and ventral 
surface of abdomen dark brown tinged with grey. Fore wing 
dark reddish brown ; triangular white ante- and postmedial patches 
on costa with faint slightly curved whitish lines from them to 
inner margin and two white points between them on costa ; cilia 
with a fine white line at base and some whitish at tips. Hind wing 
dark reddish brown with curved whitish ante- and postmedial lines; 
cilia with a slight whitish line at base. Underside fuscous brown ; 
fore wing with the inner area whitish, a series of oehreous- white 
points on costa to an ochi'eous-white postmedial patch with slight 



Pyralidai <'f ihe Subfamily Pyraliii£e. 77 

line from it to inner margin ; hind wing with oblique whitish 
postmedial line defined on inner side by darker brown. 

Hab. X. NiGEiu.v, Minna (Jlacjle), 1 cS type, Zungeru (Macjle), 
1 J , 1 2 . £xj>., 6 1-1, $ 16 mm. 

(2rt) Stcmmatophora oleoalbaUs, sp. n. 

cT . Head and thorax white wdth a faint brownish tinge ; abdo- 
men whitish tinged with red-brown and iiTorated Avith dark brown 
scales ; antennte ringed with brown ; pectus and legs suffused with 
red-brown, the tarsi dark brown ringed with white ; ventral surface 
of abdomen dark brown towards extremity. Fore wing white 
tinged with pale olive and irrorated Avith a few black scales ; a 
slight black mark at base of cost.i ; the medial area black with 
white points on costa and denned by the diffused wliite ante- and 
postmedial lines, the former nearly straight, the Litter strongly 
excurved at middle, then incurved, a wedge-shaped rufous patch 
beyond it on costa ; a terminal series of faint black points. Hind 
wing white with a faint brownish tinge ; a faint curved dark post- 
medial line ; a terminal series of black points except towards 
tornus. Underside whitish tinged Avith rufous ; fore wing Avith 
whitish points witli black between them to the postmedial line, 
the medial area suffused Avith blackish ; hind Aving with slight 
dark point at upper angle of cell and rather diffused black post- 
medial line defined on outer side by Avhite and excurved at middle. 

Hab. Be. E. Afbica, Nairobi {Anderson), 1 S type. Exp. 
20 mm. 

(2 h) Slemmatophora cliloralis, sp. n. 

Btemmatopliora cliloralis, Longstaff, Butterfly Hxmting in Many Lands, 
pi. ii. fis-. 9. 

5 . Head white ; antennae with the extreme base of shaft black ; 
thorax AAdiite tinged Avith A^ery jxale blue-green ; pectus, legs, and 
abdomen white irrorated Avith a fcAv black scales, the tarsi slightly 
ringed with black. Fore wing Avhite very finely pencilled Avith 
pale blue-green ; a black striga from base of costa ; a black point 
on middle of costa ; an oblique black band, defined on each side by 
rather diffused Avhite from costa just beyond middle to inner 
margin, with some Avhite points on it at costa, expanding into a 
large elliptical black patch in and beyond the cell, then narroAving 
and again slightly expanding to inner margin ; a terminal series of 
slight black points with a more j^rominent point above tornus. 
Hind wing AA'hite. the terminal area slightly irrorated with black 
scales, extending on costa to middle and narrowing to tornus ; a 
slight fuscous mark at loAver angle of cell ; a terminal series of 
small black spots from apex to submedian fold. Underside of fore 
wing with prominent series of black strite on costa from base to 
the })ostmedial band Avhich is obsolescent. 

itab. Zambesi, Victoria Falls {Zonr/staf), 1 5 type, d' in 
Coll. Longstaff. Exp. 24 mm. 



78 Sir G. F. iiaaip.sou on new 

((j (•) Steininutophora ctipricolor, sp. ii. 

(S ■ Head, thorax, and abdomen pale red with a whitish tinge, 
tlie pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen whiter. Fore wing 
cupreous red slightly irrorated with black ; a whitish postmedial 
Une, oblique to vein (3, then sinuous ; a fuscous terminal line ; cilia 
fuscous mixed with whitish and with black line near base. Hind 
wing fiery red irrorated with blackish ; a blackish antemedial line, 
oblicjue to submedian fold, where there is a white patch before it, 
then sinuous and defined on inner side by vvbitish ; a curved white 
postmedial line slightly defined on iinier side by blackish ; cilia 
fuscous mixed with whitish and with black line near base. Under- 
side of fore wing grey-brown, a slight dark postmedial line defined 
on outer side by wliitish, oblique to vein 5, then slightly incurved ; 
hind wing brownish white slightly irrorated with brown, a slight 
curved brown postmedial line. 

Ilab. Br. C. Afhica, Mt. Mlanje (^Neave), 1 6 type: Exp. 
2G mm. 

(G d) StemmatopTiora oUvotincta, sp. n. 

S ■ Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish tinged with olive-brown ; 
pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen tinged with crimson. 
Fore wing whitish suffused with pale olive-brown ; a slightly 
curved white antemedial line ; the medial part of costa with series 
of white points with cbvrk brown between them ; a straight erect 
white postmedial line ; a slight crimson terminal line ; cilia bright 
crimson with a fine white line at base. Hind wing whitish suffused 
with pale olive-brown ; traces of a curved white antemedial line 
and a more distinct postmedial line ; a slight crimson terminal line ; 
cilia bright crimson with a fine white line at base. Underside 
white tinged with rufous ; fore wing with large patch of crimson 
suffusion in and beyond the cell and below lower end of cell with 
slight crimson suffusion beyond it between veins 5 and 2 ; hind 
wing with crimson antemedial line oblique to median nervure, the 
medial part of costa and a spot at upper angle of cell crimson, a 
strong rather diffused crimson postmedial line, the terminal area 
tinged with crimson towards apex and in submedian interspace. 

Ilah. Camerooxs, Ja R., Bitje (Bates), 1 9 type. E.vp. 
24- mm. 

(Oy*) Stemmatophora hemic yd alls, sp. n. 

Head and thorax ochreous tinged with rufous and irrorated with 
a few dark brown scales ; abdomen ochreous white iiTorated with 
dark brown scales forming diffused dorsal bands except towards 
base ; palpi and fore legs dark reddish brown, the latter with the 
tarsi ringed with white. Fore wing ochreous whitish irrorated 
with dark brown, the basal area suffused with red-brown, the costa 
dark brown with slight whitish yjoints to beyond middle ; a minute 
black discoidal spot ; postmedial line white, incurved from costa 
towards apex to tornus, tlie semicircular terminal area suffused with 



P_) ralida; of the S'lbfniniltj Pyraliiiaj. 79 

dark brown shading to red-brown at termen ; a terminal series of 
black points ; cilia greyish suffused with brown. Hind wing white 
irrorated with brown except on terminal area from apex to vein 3 
which is faintly tinged with rufous ; an indistinct obliquely curved 
dark postraedial line ; a terminal scries of small black spots ; cilia 
tinged with brown and with a brownish- line near base. Underside 
whitish ; fore wing irrorated with brown especially on basal half, 
an indistinct erect dark postmedial line ; hind wing with the costal 
area u*rorated with brown, an indistinct obliquely curved dark 
postmo.lial line. 

Hah. Transvaal, White R. {Cooke), 1 d , 1 $ tvpe. Exp., 
6 20, 2 22 mm. 

(11 a) Stemmatophora perruhralis, sp. n. 

$ . Head and thoi-ax fiery rufous ; abdomen j^ellowish tinged 
with rufous, the ventral sni-faee deeper rufous. Fore wing fiery 
rufous slightly irrorated with dark brown ; antemedial line pale 
slightly defined on outer side by black scales, rather oblique ; a 
small black discoidal spot ; postmedial line whitish slightly defined 
on inner side by dark scales, ahnost straight and erect ; a slight 
dark terminal line and whitish line at base of cilia which are brown 
and whiti.sh at tips. Hind wing ^adlowish suffused with fiery red ; 
a curved whitish ])ostmedial line slightlj^ defined on inner side by 
red ; a line whitish line at base of cilia. Underside yellowish 
suffused with fiery red ; both wings with faint red postmedial line 
defined on outer side by whitish. 

Hub. LouREXCO Marques, Shilouvane {Junod), 2 $ type. 
Exjj. 28 mm. 

(12 r/) Sfeminafophora viinimalis, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish suffused with pale red- 
brown ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen whitish 
irrorated with dark brown. Fore wing whitish suffused with pale 
red-brown and irrorated with blackish ; the costa with slight 
whitish points with blackish between them to the postmedial line ; 
a curved whitish antemedial line ; a faint dark medial line, slightly 
excurved to submedian fold, then incurved ; postmedial line whitish 
slightly defined on inner side by dark brown and slightly curved ; 
cilia brown with pure white tips. Hind wing whitish suffused 
with pale red-brown and irrorated with blackish ; an oblique whitish 
antemedial line curved inwards to costa; a straight white post- 
medial line ; cilia brown, pure white at tips. Underside Avhitish 
sutt"used with I'cddish and iiTor.ited with brown ; both wings with 
curved white postmedial line. 

Hah. Ceylox, Trincomali {Green), 1 d , 1 $ type. Exp., 
J 12, $ 14 mm. 



80 Sir G. F. llampson on neio 

(12/*) Stemmatophora excurvalis, sp. n. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish siiffusod with pale red- 
brown and irrorated with dark brown, the last with blackish dorsal 
bands on two medial segments. Fore wing whitish suffused with 
pale red-brown and irrorated with d:irk brown ; a narrow inwardly 
oblique whitish antemedial band; the medial jnrt of costa with 
slight whitish points with dark brown between them ; a faint 
blackish discoidal spot ; postmedial line whitish sliglitly defined on 
inner side by fuscous, slightly incurved to discal fold, then strongly 
excurved to vein 2, then incurved ; cilia Avith a white line at base, 
the tips fuscous and white. Hind wing whitish tinged with pale 
red-brown and irrorated with brown, the apical area more suffused 
with brown ; a diffused curved whitish postmedial line ; a terminal 
series of sliglit dark spjts ; cilia white with dark lines near base 
and tips. Underside white tinged with red-brown and irrorated 
with dark brown ; fore wing tiiickly irrorated except on inner 
area, the costa with whitish points with dark bi'own between them 
to the postmedial line ; a small blackish discoidal spot ; hind wing 
with small black discoidal spot and rather diffused blackish post- 
medial line defined on outjr side by whitish and excurved at 
middle. 

Hab. Be. E. Afetca, Nairobi {Anderson), 1 $ type. I^xp. 
20 mm. 

(I2y) Stemmatopliora postaurantia, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish tinged with rufous, the last 
irrorated with black on terminal half ; antennae slightly ringed with 
black. Fore wing whitish tinged Avith pale rufous and irrorated 
with black ; a patch of black irroration at base of costal area ; 
antemedial line black, diffused, slightly excurved at submedian 
fold ; the medial part of costa black with white points on it ; a 
black discoidal spot ; postmedial line black, diffused, slightly in- 
curved at discal fold and angled inwards at submedian fold ; a 
patch of black irroration on costal area towards apex ; a terminal 
series of small black spots. Hind wing reddish orange with a 
terminal series of small black spots. Underside of fore wing 
orange-red, the costal and inner areas whitish tinged with olive- 
brown, the costa with series of v.hitish paints with some black 
between them to the ditt'used black postmedial line, slightly 
incurved at discal and submedian folds, a black discoidal spot ; 
hind wing orange-red, the costal and terminal areas irrorated with 
a few blackish scales, an indistinct oblique postmedial line formed 
by blackish scales. 

Rab. Bh. C. Afeica, Mt. Mlanje {Neave), 1 d, 1 ? type. 
Exp. -20 mm. 

(13 «) Stemmatophorn evehaUs, sp. ii. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen red-bi-own largely mixed with black ; 
tarsi paie. Fore wing reddish brov.n verj- thickly irrorated with 



Py rail (la) oj the SuhfamUij Pyraliii.T. 81 

black ; a pale waved antemedial line ; the medial area with series 
of black and pale points on costa ; a black discoidal spot ; a pale 
minutely waved postmedial line defined by black on inner side and 
excurved at middle ; a terminal series of small black spots ; cilia 
reddish with dark lines at middle and tips. Hind wing fuscous 
with indistinct blackish discoidal spot; a pale curved postmedial 
line ; a fine black terminal liue ; cilia pale with diffused dark line 
through them. 

Hah. Gold Coast, Ajinak {Dudgeon) 2 J , 1 2 type ; N. Ni- 
geria, Minna (JIac/ie), 8 d" , 1 $ , Zungera {Macfie), 2 J , 2 $ , 
Bida {Macne), 3 $ ; :Mashoxaland (Bobbie), 1 $ . IJ.rj)., d 20, 
$ 26 muL 

{lob) StemmatophorafusilineaUs, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous suffused with rufous, the 
terminal half of abdomen with black strongly mixed ; fore legs 
black-brown, the tai-si ringed with white ; mid legs suffused with 
black-brown, the tai\si whitish ringed with black. Fore wing 
ochreous suffused with cupreous red and slightly irrorated with 
black ; a diffused curved black antemedial line ; the medial part of 
costa with series of white points with black between them ; a small 
black discoidal spot ; a diffused black postmedial line, angled in- 
wards at discal and submedian folds and with its outer edge 
minutely dentate ; traces of a waved subterminal line formed by 
black scales ; a terminal series of black strife ; cilia with blackish 
lines near base and tips. Hind wing ochreous suffused with 
cupreous red ; an indistinct curved slightly waved dark postmedial 
line ; a terminal series of black striae ; cilia with blackish lines near 
base and tips. Underside ochreous suffused with cupreous red ; 
fore wing with series of whitish points with blackish between them 
to the postmedial line, the other markings as above. 

Hab. Br. C. Africa, Mt. Mlanje {JSfeave), So", 1 $ type. 
Exy. 22 mm. 

(5 a) Herculia roseotincta^ sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white tinged with pinkish brown ; 
palpi and legs suffused Avith red-brown. Fore wing whitish suf- 
fused with brownish pink and faintly irrorated with brownish, the 
costal edge whiter; antemedial line white, angled outwards below 
costa, then oblique ; a slight brownish discoidal spot ; postmedial 
line white, oblique ; a whitish line at base of cilia. Hind wing 
white, the terminal half tinged with pink except towards tornus ; a 
faint white postmedial line slightly defined on inner side by pink; 
a terminal sei'ies of pink point* to sul)median fold ; the cilia tinged 
with pink and with whitish line at base to submedian fold. Under- 
side of fore wing rose-red, the inner area white, the costa with 
series of white points with brown between them to the obliquely 
curved white postmedial line ; hind Aving white, the costal area 
suffused and irrorated with pink, a slight pinkish discoidal point, a 

Ann. 6c Mag. X. Hiat. jSer. 8. Vol. xix. G 



82 Sir G. F. lI;inipson on new 

curved white pnstmedial luie slightly defined on inner side bv pink 
from costa to snbmedian fold. 

Hfib. Transvaal. White R. (Clli)h;), 1 $, Pretoria (Distant, 
Janse), 2 cT , 1 $ type. Exp. 22-2 1- mm. 

(15 n) Ilercitlia phimheoprunalis, sp. n. 

Head and thorax yellowish suffused with purplish red ; thorax 
and abdomen greyish suffused with ])urplish red ; peetus, legs, and 
ventral surface of abdomen purjilish red. Fore wing reddish brown 
with a leaden-grey gloss, the costiil area yellow suffused with 
purplish red ; a slightly curved brown antemedial line defined on 
inner side by yellowish ; a series of yellow points on medial part 
of costa with dark red-brown between them ; a slight brown 
discoidal striga ; the postmedial line almost subterminal, with a 
vellow bar from costa to vein 6, then a slight pale line excurved to 
vein 2 ; cilia yellow, dee]) red at base and apex. Hind wing 
reddish brown glossed with leaden grey ; a faint pale curved post- 
medial line ; cilia yellow, deep red at base. Underside whitish 
tinged with brown ; fore wing with the costal area yellow tinged 
with red and with yellow points on costa with brown between 
them to the postmedial line ; hind wing with curved brown post- 
medial line. 

Hah. W. Colombia, M. Jiminez, 1 $ , R. Dagua, I $ ; Vexe- 
ZUELA, Esteban Valley, Las Quiguas, 2 $ ; Kcuador, R. Pastaza, 
Alpayacu (Palmer), I 6 . Exp. 22- 30 mm. 

(22 h) Ilerculia perpidverco, sp. n. 

5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish ochreous irrorated with 
dark l)rown ; pectus, legs, and ventral sui-face of abdomen pale 
red-brown. Fore wing brownish ochreous thickly irrorated with 
dark brown ; traces of a curved brownish antemedial line defined 
on inner side by diffused ochreous ; postmedial line indistinct, 
brown defined on outer side by ochreous, strongly excurved ; a fine 
pale line at base of cilia. Hind wing brownish ochreous thickly 
irrorated with dark brown ; a faint curved dark postmedial line ; a 
fine pale line at base of cilia. Underside ochreous whitish tinged 
and irrorated with red-brown ; both wings with faint curved brown 
postmedial line. 

Ha}). (Jui-l> Coast, Kumasi {Handt'rs), 1 $ type. Exp. 
24 mm. 

(24 h) Ilercitlia (jriaeohrannea, sj). n. 

(5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen pmidish b)'own mixed Avith grey ; 
antennae whitish tinged with brown ; mid tarsi and hind legs 
whitish. Fore wing ]>urplish brown irrorated with grey ; ante- 
medial line white, excurved to submedian fold ; the medial part 
of co.sta with white points with dark brown between them ; post- 
medial line white, expanding at costa, then slightly waved and 



Pyralidae of the Suhfamily PyraliusR. S?* 

excurved at middle ; a fine wliite line at base of cilia followeil by a 
broun line. Hind wing whitish suffused and irrorated with purple- 
brown ; a curved white postinedial line ; a fine white line at base 
of cilia followed by a brown line. Underside white thickly irro- 
rated with brown ; fore wing with white points with dark brown 
between thera on costa to the postmedial line. 

Hah. Traxstaal, Grroenvlei (Janse), 1 d" , Merwe (Janse), 1 (^ 
iy^Q, Pretoria {Janse), 1 S • Exp. 18 mm. 

(2o a) Hercidia pnrpureorufa, sp. n. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen greyish suffused with purple-red ; 
bind legs whitish. Fore wing deep purplish red ; a cm'ved white 
antemedial line expanding into a patch on costa ; two white points 
on medial part of costa ; a white postmedial bar from costa to 
vein 6, then a fine line excurved at middle and above inner margin 
and incurved at submedian fold : a white line at base of cilia. 
Hind wing deep purple-red irrorated with a few dark brown scales ; 
an obliquely curved white antemedial line joined above inner margin 
by a similar postmedial line and both slightly excurved just below 
submedian fold; a fine white line at base of cilia followed by a dark 
brown line. Underside purple-red thickly irrorated with dark 
brown ; fore wing with white points on costa to the postmedial 
line ; hind wing with curved white postmedial line. 

TIah. Madras, Belgaum {Watson), 1 $ type. Exp. 20 mm. 

(26 &) Hercidia pyrerythra, sp. n. 

6 ■ Head, thorax, and abdomen purplish red, the anal tuft 
yellowish ; legs irrorated with black. Fore wing deep purple-red 
iiToi-ated with black, the medial area more thickly irrorated except 
towards costa ; a curved whitish antemedial line ; the medial part 
of costal area jialer with slight white points with black between 
them on the costa ; postmedial line whitish, expanding at costa, 
excurved at middle and above inner margin ; cilia fuscous brown 
with fine white line at base and diffused whitish line at middle. 
Hind wing deep purple-red irrorated with black, the medial area 
more thickly irrorated ; an oblique white antemedial line and white 
postmedial line excurved at middle and above inner margin ; cilia 
fuscous brown with a fine white line at base and more diffused line 
at middle. Underside purple-red thickly irrorated with black ; 
fore wing with white points on costa to tlie postmedial line ; hind 
wing with the postmedial line defined on inner side by black. 

Hah. N. Nigeria, Zungeru {Simpson), 1 <S t^^pe. Exp. 
16 mm. 

(26 c) HercuUa lacteocilia, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grej'ish suffused with pale purplish 
red, the last irrorated with a few dark scales ; fore legs dark brown, 
the tarsi ringed with whitish. Fore wing grevish tinged with 

6* ^ 



84 Sir G. F. lIainj)son on new 

purplisli reel and iiTontod with blackish, the terminal area suffused 
with fuscous brown ; traces of a ])ale curved anteniedial line ; the 
medial part of cost;\ with whitish points with black-brown between 
them, and with the costal area whiter; ]JOstmedial line whitish, 
oblique; cilia black-brown at base, pale yellow at tips. Hind wing 
pur|)lish red irronited with blackish ; oblique slightly sinuous 
whitish ante- and postmedial lines approximated at inner margin ; 
cilia black-brown at hase, ])ale yellow at tips. Underside whitish 
suffused with purplish red and iiTorated with black ; fore wing 
with white points on costa to the postmedial line ; hind wing with 
oblique white postmedial line. 

Ab. 1. Hind wing brighter purplish red ; cilia of both wings 
pure white at tii)s. 

Hab. VoAyDA., Tore, Mpanga Forest (Neave),l 6,^2 type; 
Bb. C. Africa, Mt. Mlanje (JSfeave), 1 d • I^^j)., 6 18, $ 20 mm. 

(32 b) Hcrcrdia pr-rridn'alis, sp. n. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen purplish red ; mid and hind 
tai-si whitish. Fore wing deep pui-ple-red ; antemedial line black 
defined on inner side by whitish, rather oblique ; some pale points 
on medkl part of costa with black between them ; a small black 
discoidal spot ; postmedial line black defined on outer side by 
whitish, rather oblique ; a terminal series of blackish points and 
fine whitish line at base of cilia. Hind wing deep purple-red ; an 
oblique blackish antemedial line and similar postmedial line defined 
on outer side by whitish ; a terminal series of slight dark points 
and fine whitish line at base of cilia. Underside pur]>lish red ; 
both wings with small l)lack discoidal spots and oblique postmedial 
line ; fore wing with wliitish points on costa to the postmedial line ; 
hind wing with the costal area irrorated with blackish. 

Hab. S. Nigeria, Itu {Farqualun-), 1 $ type. Exp. 28 mm. 

(34 fl) Ilerculia casianeornfa, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen chestnut-red ; antennae whitish 
tinged with red. Fore wing chestnut-red ; traces of a whitish 
antemedial hne ; the medial part of costa with yellow points with 
dai'k brown between theiu ; postmedial line 3'ellow, slightly curved, 
dilated at costa ; cilia glossy fuscous brown. Hind wing chestnut- 
red with a curved yellowish postmedial line ; cilia glossy fuscoas 
brown. Underside yellowish tinged Avith red and irrorated with 
brown ; fore wing with A'ellowish points with dark brown between 
them on costa to beyond middle ; hind wing with oblique dark 
brown medial line. 

Hab. Cameroo'S, Ja K., Bitje {Bates), 2 c? , 1 $ type. Exp., 
6 24, $ 2S mm. 

(34 b) Herculia Jlavirufalis, sp. n. 
Head, thorax, and abdomen yellowish tinged with red. Fore 



Pjralidse of the Su^'famibj Fyraliiu'C. 85 

■wing yellow tinged with fiery red and slightly irrorated with 
brown ; traces of a yellow antemedial line ; the medial part of 
costa with yellow points with black-brown between them ; a yellow 
postmedial line faintly defined on inner side by brown, slightly 
excurv^ed at middle ; a terminal series of slight brown points ; cilia 
glossy fuscous brown Avith a fine yellow line at base. Hind wing 
yellow suffused with fiery red ; indistinct curved dark ante- and 
postmedial lines defined by whitish, the former on inner side, the 
latter on outer; cilia glossy fuscous brown. Underside yellow 
tinged with red ; fore wdng with dark discoidal point and yellowish 
points on costa with blackish between them to the dark postmedial 
line defined on outer side by whitish ; hind wing with faint cm-ved 
dark postmedial line. 

Hab. CAiiEaoo>'s, Ja K., Bitje {Bates), 1 J , 1 § type. Exp. 
T2 mm. 

(34.<c) Uerculia ecrhodalis, sp. n. 

(S . Head and thorax pale purplish red ; abdomen whitish irro- 
rated with purplish red ; antennge whitish ; pectus and legs red- 
brown ; abdomen whitish tinged with red-brown. Fore wing 
whitish tinged with red and irrorated with purplLsh red, the 
terminal area suffused with purplish red ; traces of a whitish ante- 
medial line ; the medial part of costa with whitish points with dark 
brown between them ; postmedial line whitish, slightly excm'ved at 
middle. Hind wing whitish suffused with purple-red ; a curved 
wliitish postmedial line ; cilia with a whitish line at base. Under- 
side whitish suffused with red-brown ; fore wing with whitish 
points with dark brown between them on costa to the faint pale 
postmedial line ; hind wing with curved whitish postmedial line. 

Hab. Cameeooxs, Ja R., Bitje {Bates), 2 d type. Eip. 
18 mm. 

{34id) Uerculia echrunnealis, sp. n. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen greyish tinged with red-brown, 
the pectus and ventral surface of abdomen redder, the legs brownish 
with the tarsi ringed with whitish. Fore wing greyish tinged 
with olive-brown, the terminal area browner ; traces of a whitish 
antemedial line ; the metlial part of costa with wdiitish points with 
dark brown between them; a small dark brown discoidal spot; 
postmedial line indiistinct, dai-k brown defined on outer side by 
wliitish, excmwed at middle, a terminal series of black-brown points 
and fine whitish line at base of cilia, which are grev-ln-own. Hind 
wing greyish tinged with olive-bi"own, the terminal area browner ; 
a curved brown postmedial line defined on outer side by whitish ; 
a brown terminal line and fine white line at base of cilia, which 
are grey-brown. Underside ochreous suffused with rufous and 
irrorated with brown ; fore wdng with small blackish discoidal 
spot and whitish points with blackish between them on costa to 
the postmedial line ; hind wmg with dark discoidal [loint and 
curved postmedial line. 



86 Sir G. F. Ilainpson on 7ieio 

Hub. Cameboons, Ja 11., Bitje (Bates), 1 $ type. Exp. 
18 mm. 

(11) Tripliassta frichotihiaJis, n. n. 
Triphassa bilinea, Hmpsn. Motbs Ind. iv. p. 166 (nee Moore). 

Hdb. Ckylon. 

(Iff) SacaJa pajntana, sp. n. 

S ■ Head, tlmrax, and abdomen grey mixed with cliocolate- 
brown, the tegnhie mostly chocolate-brown ; pectus in front and 
the fringes of hair on fore legs more chocolate-red. Fore wing 
grey irrorated with choeolate-brown, the basal area from eosta to 
vein 1 choeolate-brown with some fiery inifous in snbmedian inter- 
space ; antemedial line grey, oblique to submedian fold, then 
inwardly obli(jue ; a reddish-brown diseoidal spot defined by grey ; 
postmedial line grey, oblique below vein 4, a broad chocolate-brown 
shade beyond it ; cilia dark brown mixed with grey. Hind wing 
purjjlish grey suffused with brown. Underside of fore wing 
])urj>lish red, the inner area grey, the postmedial line indistinct, 
whitish ; hind wing purplish grey, the costal area suffused with red, 
an indistinct curved whitish postmedial line ending at tornus. 

Hah. Br. N. GrixEA, Dinawa {Pratt), 1 J , Ekeikei {Pratt), 
1 c? type. Exp. 44— iS mm. 

(3 c) Sacada erythropis, sp. n. 

5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen purplish pink mixed with red- 
brown ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen chestnut- red. 
Fore wing puii^lish pink slightly irroi'ated with brown ; a large 
elliptical crimson-red patch from below costa to above inner 
margin before the strongl}' curved fuscous antemedial line ; a 
diseoidal bar fomied by liery red and black-brown scales with a 
pale striga in centre ; a diffused obliquely curved rufous line beyond 
the cell ; postmedial line fuscous slightly defined on outer side by 
whitish, rather oblique to vein 5, then inwardly oblique, a fiery 
rufous shade beyond it and a chocolate-brown patch between veins 
7 and 4 ; cilia black-brown mixed with red and with a fine whitish 
line at base. Hind wing dark reddish brown to the indistinct 
curved postmedial line, then purplish red irrorated with brown ; a 
fine whitish line at base of cilia. Underside of both wings dark 
brown to the curved black-brown postmedial line defined on outer 
side by white towards costa of fore wing, the terminal areas purple- 
red. 

Hah. S. Nigeria, Ilorin (Macjie), 1 $ type. Exp. 30 mm. 

(o b) Sacada albioculalis, sp. n. 

6 . Head and thorax greyifeh mixed with red-brown, the patagia 
dark red-brown except at base ; alidoinen gi-eyish suffused with 
n-d-brown : antenna' red-brown : j(#-tus. legs, and ventral sui-faco 



Pyiiilidjy of (he Snbfuuily Pyralliije. 87 

of abdomen bright red-brown. Fore wing rod-brown mixed with 
greyish, the basal part of inner ana and the medial area darker 
greyish brown ; a large fiery-red patch below the cell before the 
antemedial line, Avhich is white and sti'ongly excurved from discal 
fold to inner margin ; a white discoidal bar with its lower extremity 
slightly angled outwards and a small black-brown spot on its lower 
part ; postmedial line Avhite, rather oblique to vein 5, then inwardly 
oblique and sinuous to inner margin, where it is approximated to 
the antemedial line, some fiery red suffusion beyond it. Hind wing 
whitish suffused with pale reddish ; a faint curved dark postmedial 
line. Underside whitish suffused with pale reddish ; fore wing 
with faint dark postmedial line oblique and sinuous below vein 5 ; 
hind wing with faint curved dark postmedial line. 

Ab. 1. Fore wing with the ante- and postmedial lines confluent , 
at vein 1 and not reaching inner margin. 

Hub. Dutch N. Guinea, Fak-fak (Pratt), 2 6 tx^e. Exp. 
30 mm. 

(9«) Sacada nyascDia, sp. n. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen purple-brown ; the hind tarsi 
with the 1st joint whitish towards base and the other joints ringed 
with whitish. Fore wing purple ; a strongly curved fuscous ante- 
medial line with a broad chocolate-bromi shade before it ; a deep 
chocolate-brown discoidal spot with a whitish bar in centre, a 
chocolate-brown shade beyond the cell, oblique below vein 4 ; post- 
medial line fuscous slightly defined on outer side by grey, rather 
oblique to vein -4, then inwardly oblique, the apical area beyond it 
chocolate-brown, its lower edge running obliquely to termen at 
vein 4, and a chocolate-brown shade beyond the postmedial line 
from vein 4 to inner margin ; cilia chocolate-bro^vn. Hind wing 
pale purple-brown. Underside purple ; fore whig with fuscous 
postmedial line defined on outer side by white towards costa and 
oblique below vein 4 ; hind wing with fuscous postmedial line 
excurved at middle. 

Hah. Be. C. Afkica, Mt. Mlanje (Xeave), 1 $ tyj e. Exp. 
42 mm. 

(13) Sacada viridalis, sp. n. 

9 . Head and thorax dull apple-green ; abdomen grey suffused 
with brown ; antennie grey-brown ; pectus, legs, and ventral 
surface of abdomen white tinged ^N-ith brown. Fore wing dull 
apple-green, the costal edge red-brown with a series of white points 
on medial area ; antemedial line red-brown, sinuous to median 
nervure, where it is angled outwards, then oblique ; postmedial line 
red-brown, incurved below costa, excurved to vein 4, then incurved 
and very slightly waved ; cilia pale purplish brown with a fine 
white line at ba.se. Hind wing dull apple-green, the costal area 
purple ; an oblique purple-brown antemedial line and slightly 
sinuous postmedial line ; ciha pale purplish with a fine white line 



88 Sir G. F. IIani|)son on new 

at I'aso followed by a ilark lino. Underside wliilisli suffused with 
purple exeept on inner area ; fore wing with the costa red-brown 
with white jwints on it to the dark postniedial line, whieh is ex- 
curved at middle, a dark discoidal point; hind wing with dark 
discoidal point and curved postniedial line sliglitlv waved to 
vein 2. 

Hah. Cameboo>'S, Ja K., Bitje {Bates), 1 2 type. Ex^. 
30 mm. 

(2 rt) JPai'actenia palJiiJinihrn, sj>. n. 

S • licad and thorax whitish suffused with pale pur])lish red ; 
abdomen white. Fore wing whitish suffused with pale purplish 
red, the costa rather darker ; a small blackish discoidal spot ; post- 
• medial line indistinct, dark, rather dift'used on inner side and 
minutely dentate on outer, slightly excurved to vein 2 and in- 
curved at submedian fold ; a terminal series of slight blackish 
spots. Hind wing white faintly tinged with red-brown ; a rather 
punctiform red-brown terminal line. Underside white, the fore 
wing and costal area of hind wing faintly tinged with red ; fore 
wing with slight dark discoidal spot and oblicpiely curved post- 
medial line ; hind wing with faint discoidal point and postniedial 
striga from costa. 

ILab. BoMUAY, Deesa {Nurse), 1 6 type. Exp. 24 mm. 

(8 a) Paractenia viridicostalia. sp. n. 

Head vellowish white tinged with red ; thorax olive-brown 
mixed with black-brown and some whitish; abdomen yellowish 
white tinged with red, irrorated with black and dorsally banded 
■with black ; antennaj ringed with black ; palpi red-brown, ochreous 
in front ; pectus ochreous in front ; legs ochreous tinged with red 
and irrorated with blackish. Fore wing with the costal and 
terminal areas olive-green .slightly iiTorated with blackish ; some 
dark reddish-brown suffusion at base in and below the cell ; a broad, 
obliquely curved, diffh.ised dark reddish-brown fascia from near 
termen below apex to inner margin near base, a dark brown dis- 
coidal s|)ot ; a rather lunulate white mark from costa before apex, 
and broad oblique white postmedial hand from vein 5 to inner 
margin with a dentate brown subterminal line slightly defined on 
outer side by white on its outer edge with a reddish shade be3'ond 
it ; a terminal series of small blackish spots ; a line whitish line at 
base of cilia followed by small dark spots. Hind wing whitish 
suffused with jnu'pli.'^h red and slightly irrorated with brown ; some 
brown suffusion at base ; a curved slightly sinuous brown post- 
medial line defined on outer side by white except towards costa ; a 
tenninal series of dark bars sepai-ated by white })oints from apex to 
submedian fold ; cilia with a white line at base followed by a dark 
line. Underside whitish suffused with red and irrorated with 
brown ; fore wing with broad dark reddish-brown shade on costal 
area extendinsr to inner margin 1 ifor*: middle, a lunulatf whitish 



Pyralitlffi of the Sul>famVy Pjralinae. 89 

pa tell from costa towards apex and oblique waved brown sub- 
terminal Vmv. defined on outer side by whitish ; hind wing with 
rather diffused curved slightly waved dark brown postmedial line 
defined on outer side by whitish. 

Hub. Ditch N. Guinea, Snow Mts., Setakwa R. {Meek), 
3 6 type. Exj[). 26-28 mm. 

(4rt) Paractenia sanguitincta, sp. n. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous mixed with some 
purplish red ; pectus, legs, and venti-al surface of abdomen tinged 
with red and irrorated with black. Fore wing yellowish irrorated 
with purplish red, more thickly on basal costal area ; an oblique 
diffused pui-plish-red postmedial line, somewhat angled inwards at 
submedian fold ; a maculate deep red terminal line with some 
blackish scales on it; cilia white at base, blackish mixed with 
whitish at tips. Hind wing yellowish irrorated with purplish red 
and blackish ; a faint diffused curved reddish postmedial line ; a 
tine blackish tenuinal line; cilia white at base, blackish mixed 
with whitish at tips. Underside yellow tinged with purplish red 
and irrorated with black ; both wings with indistinct diffused dark 
postmedial line. 

Hah. Gold Coast, Kumasi {Sanders), 1 2 type. Uxjt. 
22 mm. 

{o a) Paractenia plianerostola, sp. n. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale glossy red-brown, the palpi 
and fore legs rather deeper red-brown. Fore wing pale glossy red- 
brown, the costa rather deeper red-brown ; a faint rather diff'used 
curved brown antemedial line ; a faint brown postmedial line, ex- 
curved to vein 4, then oblique. Hind wing pale glossy red-brown ; 
a faint diffused oblique brown antemedial line and rather more 
distinct curved postmedial line. Underside of fore wdng whitish 
suffused with red-brown ; hind wing whitish tinged wnth red- 
brown ; both wings with curved brown postmedial line. 

Hab. EcUADOK, R. Bobonaza, Canelos {Palmer). 1 $ type. 
JExp. 34 mm. 

(5 h) Paractenia castaneoniyra, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen chestnut-red, the last dorsally 
suffused with black ; legs suffused with black, the tarsi black 
ringed with chestnut. Fore wing chestnut-red, the base and the 
whole A\ang beyond the antemedial line suffused with black-brown ; 
antemedial line blackish, oblique to submedian fold, then angled 
inwards at vein 1 ; the medial part of costa with reddish -ochreous 
points ; postmedial line indistinct, ochreous, veiy slightly waved, 
exciu'ved at middle and angled inwards at submedian fold ; cilia 
blackish at base and with some ochreous scales at middle. Hind 
wing glossy black-brown with a chestnut-red tinge ; cilia black 
at Viase. bi'ight yellow at tips. Underside l>lack-brown : fore wing 



90 Sir G. F. ILimpson on rieio 

with the costal area ehestimt-red to the postmedial line, the costal 
edge black-brown with oehreous "{loints on it. the postmedial line 
yellow on costal area, then indistinct ; hind wing with the costal 
area and cell chestnut-red to the postmedial line, the inner area 
■whitish irrorated with black-brown, a yellowish postmedial line 
slightly incurved in submedian interspace. 

Ilcib. Camekoo>s, Ja K., Bitje {Bates), 1 d , 2 $ type. I^xp., 
d 28, $ 36 mm. 

(6 a) Paractenia sichimensis, sp. n. 

Head and thorax yellow mixed with brick-red ; abdomen yellow 
tinged with red and irrorated witli brown ; legs yellow irrorated 
with dark brown. Fore wing yellow suffused with red and irro- 
rated with brown, the medial area yellower with a nearly clear 
yellow conical patch from costa before the postmedial line and 
another patch below end of cell ; antemedial line brown defined on 
outer side by yellow, excurved to median nervure, then oVjlique ; 
the medial part of costa dark brown with yellow points on it ; 
a small brown discoidal spot ; postmedial line brown, diffused on 
outer side, inwardly oblique and somewhat incurved below vein 5 ; 
a terminal .series of blackish points ; a fine pale line at base of cilia 
folk'wed by a dark line. Hind wing yellowish white, the termen 
slightly tinged with red and iiTorated with brown ; a terminal 
series of blackish jwints and fine pale line at base of cilia followed 
by a dark line. Underside yellow tinged with red and irrorated 
with dark brown ; fore wing with the costal area suffused with 
brown, a small dark discoidal spot, yellower patch from costa 
beyond the cell, and diffused oblique dark postmedial line ; hind 
wing with sli<?ht brown discoidal spot and curved postmedial line. 

kah. SiKiUM {Flicker, Mailer), 8 d, 5 $ type. Exp. 20- 
24 mm. 

(7 ff) Bostra piirpurealis, sp. n. 

Head and thorax bright purple-red ; abdomen pale purple-red 
irrorated with brown ; antennae white above ; fore tibiae white on 
outer side, the tarsi white. Fore wing bright purple-red irrorated 
with brown, the medial area tinged with fuscous, the costal edge 
white except towards base ; antemedial line fuscous, oblique to 
submedian fold, then slightly incurved ; postmedial line fuscous 
slightly defined on outer side by white and slightly incurved in 
submedian interspace. Hind wing whitish suffused with pale 
purple-red and fu.scous brown ; a curved fuscous postmedial line 
defined on outer side by whitish from costa to vein 1 ; cilia bright 
purple-red. Underside grey with pale purplish-red streaks along 
the veins ; both wings with the costal area purple-red to beyond 
middle and with fuscous postmedial line ; fore wing with white 
scales on the costa. 

Rah. Br. C. Afbica, Mt. Mlanje {Keave), 3 d , 1 $ type ; 
PoRTUGrESE E. Africa, Mt. Chiperonc (Xeave), 1 d . Exp. 
30-32 mm. 



ryralidte of the Suhfamily Pyralinse. 91 

(7 h) Bostra ccenochroa, sp. n. 

ITead, thorax, and abdomen pale purplisli red tliickl}- irrorated 
with fuscous ; antenna; of male pale red. Fore wing pale purplish 
red thickly irrorated with fuscous, the costiil edge redder; ante- 
medial line rather diifused, black, excurved below costa then 
slightly incurved ; a small black discoidal spot ; postmedial line 
rather diffused, black faintly defined on outer side by whitish in 
male, and slightly excurved. Hind wing uniform glossy grey- 
brown with a purplish-red tinge. Underside greyish brown, the 
costa of fore wing purplish red irrorated with dark brown ; hind 
wing with faint curved dark postmedial line. 

Rah. Br. C. Afeica. Mt. Mlanje {Stave), 1 c^ , 2 5 tj-pe ; 
Thansvaal, White R. (^Cooke), 2 6 . Exp. 20-30 mm. 

(7 A) Bostra jyciUidifrons, a^. x\. 

S . Head white tinged with pale rufous ; thorax and abdomen 
grey-brown mixed with whitish; tibijB and tarsi whitish tinged 
with brown. Fore wing dark brown mixed with grey-white ; 
antemedial line diffused, whitish, oblique to median nervure and 
slightly incurved in submedian interspace ; the medial part of 
costa with white points with black-brown between them ; a small 
blackish discoidal spot ; postmedial line dififused, whitish, incurved 
below vein 4. Hind wing uniform grey-brown. Underside grey 
suffused and irrorated with brown ; fore wing with whitish points 
on costa with black-brown between them except at base and apex. 

Rab. Mashoxala>d, Enkeldoorn Distr. {Miss E. S. Younge), 
1 c? type. Ex2). 14 mm. 

(j j) Bostra lignealis, sp. n. 

Head and thorax pale brownish red ; abdomen whitish tinged 
with red and irrorated with blackish ; legs whitish irrorated with 
dark brown. Fore wing pale red-brown irrorated with blackish ; 
antemedial line whitish defined on outer side by blackish, almost 
straight ; the medial part of costa with white points with some 
black between them ; a small black discoidal spot ; postmedial line 
whitish defined on inner side by blackish, slightly excurved at 
discal fold and below submedian fold ; cilia with a white line 
at base. Hind wing p>ale red-brown irrorated with blackish, an 
oblique whitish antemedial line defined on outer side by blackish 
and joined at inner margin by a slightly sinuous whitish post- 
medial line defined on inner side by blackish ; cilia with a white 
line at base. Underside whitish suffused with red-brown and 
irrorated Avith blackish ; both wings with sinuous white postmedial 
line ; fore wing v.-ith blackish discoidal spot. 

ITah. Br. E. Africa, Nairobi {Anderson), 1 d, 1 $ type. 
Exp. 20 mm. 



92 Sir 0. F. Ilumpscn on new 

(Off) Bostra rusinalis, sp. n. 

c? . Head and thorax rufous with a few daik hrown scales ; 
ahdomon whitisli tinged with rufous. Fore wing rufous spai'sely 
irrorated with dark bro^\^l, the basiil costal area suffused with 
blackish ; traces of a waved dark anteiuedial line ; the medial part 
of costa with whitish points with dark brown between them ; a 
small dark discoidal s])ot ; postmedial line indistinct, dark, slightly 
excurved to vein 4 then slightly incurved. Hind wing whitish 
tinged with rufous, the termen and bases of cilia rather deeper 
rufous ; the underside with the costal area suffused with rufous 
and irrorated with dark brown. 

Hub. Gold Coasst, Appan, 2 6 type. jE".)-^. 22 mm. 

(10 ff) Bostra pnUidicoloi', sp. n. 

6 . Head and thorax whitish tinged with pale red and irrorated 
•with a few dark brown scales ; abdomen wdiite faintly tinged with 
red and slightly iiTorated with brown ; palpi and pectus in front 
redder. P^ore wing whitish tinged with purplish red and irrorated 
with brown, the red rather deeper on basal costal area and forming 
diffused streaks in discal and submedian folds; a very faint diffused 
dark aiitemedial line angled outwards at submedian fold ; a black 
discoidal spot ; postmedial line indistinct, dark, diffused, oblique 
below vein 4 ; a terminal series of minute blackish spots. Hind 
wing ochreous white ; a tenuinal series of slight brown points i'rom 
apex to vein 2. Underside white ; fore wing with the costal area 
bright rufous with the costal edge white, then tinged with ochreous 
and irrorated with brown except on inner area ; hind wing with tb,e 
costal area tinged with rufous and UTorated with brown, a blackish 
spot at upper angle of cell. 

$ . Head and thorax greyish tinged Avith piirjilish red ; abdomen 
whitish thickly iiTorated with brown ; fore wing greyish uniformly 
tinged with purplish red ; hind wing suffused with pale reddish 
brown ; underside of fore wing suffused with broAvn except on 
costal area, the hind wing tinged Avith broAvn and Avith curved 
brown postmedial line fi'om costa to submedian fold. 

Hah. Tbaxsvaal, Pretoria {Distant, Junse), 1 J , 1 $ tA'pe. 
Exp., 6 30, 2 2G mm. 

(10 c) Bostra denfilinealis, sp. n. 

Head and thorax whitish tinged with red-broAvn and irrorated 
with a few black-brown scales ; abdomen suffused Avith fiery red 
and irrorated Avith black. Fore Aving Avhitisli suffused Avith pale 
red-brown, sometimes tinged Avith olive-green and in-orated Avith 
black-broAvn ; an indistinct dentate blackish postmedial line some- 
Avliat incurved at submedian fold ; a terminal seines of black striaj ; 
cilia Avith reddish-brown lines near base and at tips. Hind Aving 
Avhitish suffused with fiery red and slightly iiTorated with brown : 
a curved dentate blackish postmedial line, rather diffused on inner 



Pyialulffi of the SuhfamVy Pyralinse, 93 

side ; a terminal series of Llack-Lrown l)ars ; cilia with a red line 
near base. Underside whitish suffused with red and irrorated with 
dark brown ; both wings with slight dai'k discoidal strise and 
diffused curved dentate postmedial line. 

Rah. Be. C. Africa, Mt. Mlanje {Neave), 1 J , 3 $ type. 
Exp. 21 mm. 

(11 a) Bostra pyrochroalis, sp. n. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen bi-ight fiery red ; the antennjE 
blackish except at base ; the irons and palpi whitish, the latter 
black at tips. Tore wing bright fiery red slightly irrorated with 
blackish, especially before the antemedial line and on terminal area ; 
antemedial line whitish, excurved below costa, then slightly 
incurved ; postmedial line whitish, slightly excurved beyond the 
cell, then slightly incurved, both the lines faintly defined by 
fuscous. Hind wing brigiit fiery red slightly irrorated with 
blackish, especially on apical area ; faint oblique whitish ante- and 
postmedial lines slightly defined by fuscous and somewhat approxi- 
mated towards inner margin. Underside of both wings with 
blackish discoidal point and cmwed white postmedial line ; fore 
wing with series of white points on costa to the postmedial line. 

Hah. Be. C. Africa, Mt. Mlanje {Neave), 1 ^ type. Exp. 
14 mm. 

(10 i) Bostra jlavalis, sp. n. 

c5" . Head, thorax, and abdomen yellow with a faint olive tinge ; 
palpi fuscous below ; til;)ige with the spurs fuscous at base. Fore 
wing yellow with a faint olive tinge ; antemedial line formed by 
slight black strise defined on inner side by white, slightly sinuous ; 
the medial part of costa with black and white points ; a slight 
blackish discoidal striga ; postmedial line formed by black scales 
defined on outer side by white, slightly excurved below costa and 
at middle and incurved at discal fold and below vein 3 ; a terminal 
series of black strise ; cilia with some blackish at tips. Hind wing 
yellowish white tinged with fuscous brown ; a curved fuscous post- 
medial line slightly defined on outer side by white ; a terminal 
series of blackish strise ; cilia with a slight brownish line near base. 
Underside of fore wing suffused with brown except on inner area 
to the postmedial line ; hind wing irrorated with brown ; a curved 
dark postmedial line. 

ILah. Formosa, Kanshirei (7f77e;/w»), 2 J type. Exp.X'oram.. 

(19 e) Bostra phcenicocraspis, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen olive-yellow, the last tinged with 
crimson at extreniity ; antennse whitish tinged with brown ; fore 
and mid tibi.e and the hind tibise at extremity crimson, the fore 
legs and ventral surface of abdomen except towards base irrorated 
with brown. Fore wing olive-yellow irrorated with a few red- 
brown scales ; a faint red-brown antemedial line, oblique to sub- 



94 Sir 0. F. llanipson on new 

median fold ; the iiu-dial part of oosta with whitish points with 
blackish between them; a slii^ht brown discoidal striga ; postmedial 
line slight, brown, somewhat oblique to vein 4 and slightly ex- 
curved above inner margin ; a terminal series of black bars ; cilia 
deep crimson at base, then paler crimson with the tips blackish to 
vein 8. Hind wing olive-yellow ; an obscure line formed by brown 
scales from lower angle of cell to inner margin and a similar 
sliglitly curved postmedial line; the terminal area irrorated with 
a few brown scales ; a terminal series of black striie ; cilia deep 
crimson at base, paler crimson at tips. Underside of fore wing 
crimson irrorated with black excej^t on costal area to the post- 
medial line and below vein 8 to termen, the costa with series of 
quadrate black spots to the postmedial line which is black, ex- 
curved from below costa to vein 8, then erect, a black discoidal 
point ; hind wing suffused with crimson and irrorated with black 
to the postmedial line and on apical area, the termen then narrowly 
crimson, the postmedial line blackish, obliquely curved to vein 2, 
then sinuous. 

JIab. Camerooxs, Ja K., Bitje (Bates), 1 c? , 2 5 tvpe. E.rp. 
22 mm. 

(10^) Bosfra phopnicoxautha, sp. n. 

S ■ Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish .sviffused with dull 
purplish red ; antennse ringed with brown ; fore legs crimson ; 
pectus, mid and hind legs, and ventral surface of abdomen ochreous. 
Fore wing brilliant crim.>*on with a yellow medial band except on 
costal area, defined on inner side 1)V the faint curved crimson ante- 
medial line and on outer by the similar postmedial line excurv^ed at 
middle ; a blackish terminal line ^.-xcept towards tornus. Hind 
wing brilliant crimson, with a broad yellow medial band defined 
on inner side by the slight curved crimson antemedial line and on 
outer by the similar jiostmedial line excurved at middle ; a black 
tenninal line exce])t towards tornus ; cilia whitish at tips. Under- 
side with the crimsftn ])aler and duller. 

Hah. Eh. C. AriucA, Mt. Mlanje {Neave), 2 6 type. Exp. 
20 mm. 

(21 n) Bostrn viacitlilinen, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white mixed with cupreous red and 
irrorated with black, the ahdomen suffused with black towards 
extremity; antenna; white ringed with black; fore tibiie and the 
tarsi black ringed with white. Fore wing cupreous red thickly 
irrorated with black ; some white at base of inner margin ; ante- 
medial line white defined on outer side by rather diffused black, 
slightly waved ; the medial part of costa with white points with 
blackish between them ; postmedial line white defined on inner 
side by diffused black and forming a small white spot at discal 
fold and larger spot in submedian interspace, slightly waved, ex- 
curved at middle and incurved in submedian interspace ; a black 
terminal line ; cilia white with blackish lines at base and middle 



rvralii^fe of the Suhfamibj l'*yralina\ 95 

and at tips. Hind wing white tinared with red-hrown and irro- 
rated with fuscous ; a curved slightly sinuous white postmedial 
line ; a black terminal line : ciUa white mixed with fuscous and 
witli black line near base. Underside of fore wing Avhitish suffused 
with fuscous, the costal area chestnut-red to the white postmedial 
line, the costal edge fuscous with white points ; hind wing white 
tinged with red and irrorated with fuscous, a white postmedial line 
deiined on inner side by black, slightly incurved at discal fold, then 
excurved. 

Ab. 1. Fore wing with the antemedial line obsolescent towards 
costa, the postmedial line obsolescent at middle. 

Hah. Br. C. Africa, Mt. Mlanje {Xeavc), 8 J, 4 $ type. 
Exp. 1-i-lS mm. 

(21 h) Bostra igniri(hralis, sp. n. 

6 . Head, thorax, and abdomen fiery red, the last slightly 
irrorated with blackish ; antennje whitish tinged with red ; palpi 
and legs deeper red with some blackish mixed, the mid and hind 
tarsi whitish tinged with red. Fore Aving fiery red ; antemedial 
line brown defined on inner side by whitish, very slightly curved ; 
a slight blackish discoidal spot ; the medial part of costa with 
slight white points with black between them ; postmedial line 
fuscous bi'own defined on outer side by whitish, very slightly 
cm'ved and slightly incurved at submedian fold ; cilia with some 
fuscous mixed. Hind wing fiery red ; an oblique dark antemedial 
hne defined on inner side by whitish, met above inner margin by a 
curved dark postmedial line defined on outer side by whitish ; cilia 
with some fuscous mixed. Underside paler red irrorated with 
fuscous brown ; fore wing ^ith the inner area whitish, the costal 
edge dark bi-own with white points to the indistinct dark post- 
medial line, a slight dark discoidal spot ; hind wing with faint 
curved dark po.stmedial line. 

Hub. Cevlon {MacJcwood), 1 J type. Exj^. 32 mm. 

(5) Zitha fulviceps, sp. n. 

Head fulvous yellow, the antennae dark brown ringed with 
whitish, the palpi suffused with brown except above ; thorax dark 
brown ; abdomen, pectus, and legs j^ellowish suffused with brown. 
Fore wing glossy fuscous brown ; an indistinct blackish discoidal 
spot ; postmedial line indistinct, blackish, excurved beloAv costa 
and slightly incurved below vein 4. Hind wing glossy fuscous 
brown. Underside fuscous brown ; both wings with indistinct 
cui-ved dark postmedial line. 

Hih. Br. C. Africa, Mt. Mlanje {Neave), 2 c? , 1 $ type; 
Portuguese E. Africa, Mt. Chiperone (Neave), 1 d . Exp. 
Itj mm. 

Genus Phrtoaxomima, nov. 

Type, Phn/ganodes nortifer, Dogn. 
Proboscis fully developed ; palj)i upturned, the 2nd joint reaching: 



96 Sir G. F. ITainpson on riew 

to middlo of frons. moiloratoly sc;\lfil, the 8rd moderate ; maxillary 
]»alpi triangularly dilated with scales ; antenn:e of male laminate. 
Fore wintj with the median nervure strongly downcurved towards 
end of eell, the discoeel hilars strongly excurved ; vein 3 from 
before angle of cell ; •') from above angle ; 6 from upper angle ; 
7, 8, 9 stalked from before angle ; 10, 11 from cell. Hind wing 
with the cell short ; veins 3 and 5 from near angle ; 6, 7 from 
up])er angle, 7 not anastomosing with 8. 

Genus LoRTMODES, nov. 

Type, Pyralis diagonaJi^, Hmpsn. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, the 2nd joint tufted 
with scales produced to a point in front at extremity, the 3rd long 
and acuminate; maxillary palpi slightly dilated with scales, antennae 
of male with fasciculate cilia, the basal joint long. Fore wing 
with vein 3 from close to angle of cell ; 4, 5 stalked ; 6 from upper 
angle ; 7, 8, 9 stalked ; 10, 11 from cell. Hind wing with vein 3 
from close to angle of cell ; 4, 5 stalked ; G, 7 from upper angle, 
7 not anastomosing with 8. 

(2) Lorymodes stenopteralis, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white tinged with red-brown ; 
antennje fuscous except towards base. Fore wing very narrow ; 
whitish suffused with red-brown ; a slight brown antemedial mark 
in submedian fold ; the medial part of costa with slight brown 
points ; antemedial line slight, black defined on inner side by 
whitish, very oblique from costa to the postmedial line at vein 2, 
then inwardly oblique to inner margin, defining on inner side the 
postmedial line, which is rather dilfused black-brown defined on 
outer side by whitish, very oblique and slightly curved from costa 
near apex to submedian fold, tlien still more oblique to middle of 
inner margin ; a fine brown terminal line ; cilia whitish. Hind 
wing .silvery white. Underside of fore wdng white, tinged with 
brown on costal lialf. 

H(th. Gambia, 1 c? ; N. Nigeria, Zungeru {Macfie), 1 $ type. 
Exp. 16 mm. 

Genus Dattinia. „ 

Type. 

Dattinia, "Rug. Biill. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1887, p. cxxxvii syrtalie. 

Constantia. Kag. BulL Soc. Ent. Fr. 1887, p. cxxxvii (nee Adams, 

Moll. 1860) leonalis. 

Buliana, Navas, Bol. Soc. Aragon, x. p. 64 (1913) leonalis, 

(4: e) DaHinia eumictalis, sp. n. 

5 . Head and thorax yellowish white mixed with rufous, red- 
brown, and dark brown ; abdomen white suffused with red-brown ; 
antennie white ringed with dark brown ; legs white irrorated with 
brown. Fore wing yellowish wliite very thickly irrorated witli 
rufous and red-brown and with a few dark brown scales ; a whitish 



PyraliJie of the Subfamily Pyraliiise. 97 

subbasal spot below tl\o cell ; antemedial line strong, white, rather 
oblique to submedian fold and incurved at vein 1 ; a white spot in 
end of cell before the bkckish-brown discoidal bar ; postmedial 
line black-brown defined on outer side bv whitish, incui-ved below 
costa, angled outwards at veins 6, 5, 4, then retracted and almost 
obsolete to below end of cell, then erect, sinuous and more dis- 
tinctly defined on outer side by white ; a terminal series of faint 
brown spots ; cilia chequered red-brown and white. Hind wing 
white tinged and irrorated with red-brown ; a terminal series of 
slight brown striae ; cilia whiter. Underside silvery white, the 
fore wing except on inner area and the costal area of hind wing 
irrorated with red-brown. 

Hab. ScDAX, Port Sufkn (JVater^eld). 1 $ type. Ex^j. 
32 mm. 

Genus AxoBOSTEA, nov. 
Type, A. discimacula. 

Proboscis present ; palpi vrith the 2nd joint porrect, typically 
projecting about the length of head, the scaling at extremity below 
produced to a point, the 3rd obUquely uptm*ned, moderate ; 
maxillary palpi dilated with scales ; antennae of male thickened 
and with long fasciculate cilia, the basal joint with tuft of scales. 
Fore wing with vein 3 from angle of cell ; 4, 5 typically stalked ; 
6 from upper angle ; 7, 8, 9 stalked ; 10, 11 fi'om cell. Hind wing 
with vein 3 from angle of cell ; 4, 5 typically stalked ; 0, 7 frona 
upper angle, 7 not anastomosing with S. 

(1) Anobostra discimacula, sp. n. 

Palpi with the 2nd joint projecting about the lengtli of head ; 
both wings with veins 4, 5 stalked. 

Head and thorax pm-plish red ; abdomen grey suffused with 
brown ; antennae dark brown ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of 
abdomen pale red irrorated ^vith brown. Fore wing purplish red, 
irroi-ated with blackish, the medial area slightly uTorated ; ante- 
medial line blackish defined on inner side by pale red, oblique to 
submedian fold, where it is angled outwai-ds ; a series of small 
blackish spots on medial part of costa ; a large black discoidal spot ; 
postmedial line rather diffused, black defined on outer side by pale 
red, excm-ved below vein 7 and at middle and incurved at discal 
fold and below vein 3, a series of slight blackish streaks beyond it 
on the veins ; a terminal series of minute black spots. Hind wing 
grev suffused with brown ; a whitish line at middle of cilia, 
Undei-side grey suffused with brown ; fore -sving with the costa 
pale reddish with numerous brown striae. 

Hah. Br. C. Africa, Mt. Mlanje {Neave), 2 S type; Portu- 
GUESE E. Africa, Mt. Chiperone {Neave), 1 $ ; Mashoxalaxu, 
Umtali {Marshall), 1 2 . Exp., 6 18-20, $ 22-26 mm. 



Amu (JD Mag. S. Ilisf. Ser. 8. Vvl. .\ix. 



98 Sir G. F. Hainpson on n^w 

(8) Auohostra aJhiUncalis, sj». ii. 

Palpi with the 2nd joint projecting about twice the length of 
head ; both wings with veins 4, 5 from the cell. 

$ . Head, thomx, and abdomen pale red-brown. Fore wing 
chocolate red-brown with the basal area pale red-brown exeejjt 
towards costa ; anteniedial line white, rather oblique to median 
nervure ; a series of minute white spots on medial part of costa ; 
postmedial line white, excurved to vein 3, then incurved ; cilia 
greyish brown with a fine whitish line at base. Hind wing pale 
red-brown mixed with some whitish, the base whiter ; a curved 
whitish postmedial line ; cilia gre^'er brown with a fine pale line at 
base. Underside i-ed-brown mixed with whitish ; fore wing with 
series of small white spots on costa to the postmedial line, the 
postmedial line of both wings slightl}' waved. 

Hah. AiiYSSixiA, Dirre Dawa (Drake-Brockinan), 1 $ type. 
£.rp. 80 mm. 

(4-) Anohoai rn jji/ncfiliuealis, sp. n. 

2 . Head and thorax deep purple-red mixed with black ; 
abdomen greyish tinged with piu'ple-red and thickly irrorated with 
black ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen purplish red 
mixed with black, the fore tibise and the tarsi brownish white. 
Fore wing deep purple-red irrorated with black ; antemedial line 
indistinct, blackish, oblique to just below the cell, where it is 
angled outwards, then inwardl}- oblique and defined on inner side 
by white ; the medial part of costa with series of white points ; 
postmedial line indistinct, blackish defined on outer side by white 
scales and by small spots at discal and submedian folds, minutely 
dentate, incurved below vein 4 ; cilia with a fine whitish line at 
base. Hind wing grey tinged with purplish red and suffused and 
irrorated with brown, the termen and cilia redder ; a faint curved 
dark postmedial line. Underside dull purplish red iiTorated with 
fuscous brown ; fore wing suffused with fuscous brown to the post- 
medial line except on costal area, a series of white points on basal 
half of costa ; the postmedial line blackish with a slight white mark 
at costa ; hind wing with rather diffused minutely dentate blackish 
postmedial line. 

Sab. Bii. C. Africa, Mt. Mlanje {Neave), 8 $ tj-pe. Exp. 
28 mm. 

(5) Anohostrn radiaUs, sp. n. 

5 . Head and thorax red-brown mixed with ochreous. Fore 
wing greyish suffused with red-ln-own, especially on basal half and 
beyond lower angle of cell ; antemedial line whitish defined by dark 
brown on outer side, angled outwards below costa, then obliquely 
curved and with some black scales before and beyond it at inner 
margin ; some dark rufous suffusion in and below middle of cell ; 
veins 2 to (5 sti'eaked witli whitish and defined on each side bv 



Pjralidae of the Sahfamihj Pyraliiice. 99 

slight dark brown streaks to the postmedial line which is very near 
teriiien, white defined bj dark brown on inner side, excurved between 
veins 6 and 8, then obHque and slightly sinuous ; a fine brown 
terminal line ; cilia whitish with grey medial band and line near 
tips. Hind wing yellowish white slightly tinged with rufous 
especially towards termen ; an indistinct curved whitish sub- 
terminal line incurved at vein 2 ; cilia whitish with a slight brown 
line near base ; the undei-side wdth the subterminal line more 
distinct and defined by brown on inner side. 

Hah. Bh. E. Africa, Taveta {K. St. A. Rogers), 2 2 type ; 
U&AXDA, Grondokoro (Rei/nes-CoIes), 1 2 . Uxp. 30-34 mm. 

(lb) Tyndis mecUo-pallens, sp. n. 

Head and tegulai pale reddish, the thomx pale reddish mixed 
with dark brown ; abdomen grey suffused with black-brown, the 
base whitish, the anal tuft rufous ; antennae and palpi irrorated 
with dark brown ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen 
whitish tinged with red-brown and irrorated with dark brown. Fore 
wing whitish tinged with red-brown and irrorated with dark brown, 
the medial area much paler except at costa, the basal costal area 
and a broad shade beyond the postmedial line darker ; antemedial 
line rather diffused dark brown, slightly curved ; the medial pai*t 
of costa with minute greyish spots ; a black striga on upper disco- 
cellular ; postmedial line dark brown slightly defined on outer side 
by whitish towards costa, very oblique and straight ; a terminal 
series of blackish points except towards costa and fine whitish line 
at base of cilia. Hind wing creamy white slightl}- Lrrorated with 
brown, the terminal area more thickly irrorated ; traces of a brown 
antemedial line from cell to inner margin ; a cmwed brown j)ost- 
medial line ; a brown terminal line and white line at base of cilia. 
Underside whitish tinged with red-brown and thickly iiTorated 
with dark brown ; both wings with small dark discoidal spot and 
oblique postmedial line. 

Hah. Be. E. Africa, Nau-obi (Betton), 1 c? , Kikayu, Fort 
Smith {Grawshay), 1 6 type, Eb Uitu {Beftoii), 1 6, Nakuru 
{Bodeker), 1 c? , 1 $ ; GtERM. E. Africa, Kilimandjaro (SJosfedt), 
1 d . i:.rp. 26 mm. 

(1 c) Tyndis jyallidi/'ufa, sp. n. 

Head and thorax whitish suffused with rufous ; abdomen 
whitish tinged with rufous and ii-rorated with black, a blackish 
band on third segment ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of 
abdomen rufous iiTorated with brown. Fore wing whitish suffused 
with rufous and irrorated with, dark brown except on medial area ; 
a rather diffused erect black almost medial line fi'om subcostal 
nervure to inner margin and a similar oblique postmedial line fi'om 
below costa to inner margin ; a terminal series of minute black 
spots ; cilia with blackish lines near base and tips. Hind wing 

7* 



100 Ml-. W. L. Distant o>i th' 

whitish suffuse.l with ivdilish bivjwii ; aii ohliiiu ■ dark ])().stiuedial 
shade; a dark terminal line; cilia whitish with dark lines near 
base and tips. Underside creamy white tinged with rufous and 
irrorated with brown ; fore wing with dark discoidal point and 
suffused oblique postmedial line from below costa to inner margin ; 
hind wing with diffused oblique black i)0stmedial line ; both wings 
Avith terminal .series of minute black .spots. 

Hub. SiKURA Leon-e {Clements), I d, 1 $ type. E.vp., 6 20, 
$ 22 mm. 

(6) Tijiiilia pjirrhuxitiifhd, sp. n. 

$ . Head and thorax yellow suffused with brilliant lierV red ; 
abdomen yellowish tinged with tiery red and ii'i-orated with fuscous; 
p>3ctus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen yellow tinged with 
red. Fore wing orange-j'^ellow suffused Avith fiery red and irro- 
rated with black ; ti*aces of a yellow antemedial line, oblique to 
submedian fold and incurved at vein 1 ; postmedial line i-ather 
diffused yellow, excurved at middle and incurved at submedian 
f()ld. Hind wing yellow, the inner and terminal areas faintly 
tinged with red and the latter irrorated with l^lackish. Underside 
orange-yellow ; fore wing with minute dark discoidal point, the 
terminal area tinged with red and irrorated with black ; hind wing 
with the apex tinged with red and irrorated with l)lack. 

H(tb. Goi.u C\»AST, Bibianaha {Spiirrell), I $ type. Exp. 
22 mm. 



V. — The Homojdera of Tndo-Cliiiia. 
By W. L. Distant. 

Fani. Cicadidae. 

For some time Mon. R. Vitalis de Salvaza has sent me 
colleetions of Homoptera from tliis very interesting region, 
and I l)e]ieve lie intends at some future date to publish an 
illustrated work on the insect fauna of Indo-Ciiina. The 
Homoptera already received are from the fronti'-r of Laos, 
East Annam, and from Lao Kay and Chapa in Tonkin. In 
this contribution I give a rough list of the species already 
received, wliich uuml)er fifty-five, belonging to the family 
Cicadid'cC alone. Examples of all these, including types and 
uniques, are placed in the cf)llcctioii of the Britisli Museum, 
which, as regard-s this family, is now by far tiie largest and 
most complete in the world, 

I also add the descriptions of six new species. 



Homoptera of IiiJo-China. 



101 



List of Species 

Plati/pletira badia, Dist. 

7U(/ro!tif/nata, JJi.st. j 

Tonena melanoptera, White. 
Kihann Irimacidutn , Oliv. ! 

Ciyiitotj/mpana mandarina, Dist. I 

holsti, Dist. 

Inthaxara rex, Dist. 
Salvazana mirabilis, Dist. 
Leptiipiiftltria phra, Dist. 
Uundufiid mannifera, Linn., 

var. tcrpsichore. Walk. 
Cosiiiopsdlfria frateroda, Dist. 

. of>p(i(/a, Dist. ' 

aiidersoni, Dist. 

tonkiriiaiia, Jac. j 

Hnphsn nana, Dist. ' 

PUdylomia yuii/arasimpia, Dist. j 

oppreidaia, Dist. 

radha, Dist. | 

Jleiniit/ta ■niicrodon, ^N'alk. | 

fidniridissima, Dist. ' 

ra.ia, Dist. i 

Pomponia intermedia^ Dist. j 
fifscd, Oliv. i 

lactea, Dist. I 

.,4o/rt scitida, Dist. 

bindic'cira, Dist. 

Ternnoaia crinvfooti, Dist. i 



already received. 

Terpnosia punidonia, Jac. 

uiadhciva, Dist. 

chapanit, Dist. 

runaoniieti. Dist. 

rusticii, Dist. 

mex()n<d(dis, Dist. 

c//o, Walk. 

iiiau'i, Dist. 

Qdcai/ninus silcazanus, Dist. 
Geeana vitalisi, Dist. 

maculat.d, Dru. 

nniKiiueyhsis, Dist. 

sultano, Dist. 

pavici, Xoualb. 

Bidinta pitlcliella, Dist. 

delinenda, Dist. 

Talitinga biiiyhami, Dist. 

distantly .Tac. 

Moyannia cyauea, Walk. 

hebes, Walk. 

c(esar, .lac. 

conic a, (jierm. 

indiffotea, Dist. 

Huechi/s siinyuinea, De Geer. 

^ tonkinensis, Dist. 

tScieroptera splendidula, Fabr. 
Lemitrictna ajiicalis, Germ. 



Terj}nosia rust lea, sp. n. 

IleaVl, pro- and mesonotum pale olivaceous green ; head 
wiih two spots at apex o£ front and a lateral spot near 
base ot* antennse, two curved central lines on vertex, and a 
si)ot above margins of eyes and two small spots between 
central fascite and eyes black ; proiiOtum with two central 
longitudinal fasciae which are angulated anteriorly and 
posteriorly, the furrow behind eyes, and the lateral margins 
black ; mesonotum with central obconical lines which are 
centrally, posteriorly prolonged, a sublateral line on each 
side, and a spot near each anterior angle of the basal 
cruciform elevation black ; abdomen above and bencjith 
ochraceous, with the basal margin and apical area black, 
the basal segments above are also centrally spotted with 
black ; legs and opercula pale olivaceous-green, the latter 
with black lateral margins, the tarsi ochraceous and apically 
black ; tegmiua and Mings subhyaline, the Hrst with the 
veins blacki.sh, the transverse veins at the bases of first, 
second, and third apical areas with pale brown suffusions 
and some obscure spots of the same colour on the lougi- 



102 Mr. W. L. Distant on the 

tudiual veius to apical areas, costal and post-costal mem- 
branes ochraceous ; wiug-veuation blackish ; opercula in 
female short and transverse, subconicalh' oblique, not 
extending beyond base of abdomen ; face conically i)roduced 
and somewliat stronjdy laterally striate ; base of head at 
region of ocelli sulcate ; pronotum centrally longitudinally 
silicate ; tympanal coverings both narrower and shorter than 
tympanal cavities. 

Long., excl. tegm., J", 15 mm. ; exp. tegm. 49 mm. 

Hab. Tonkin; Chapa (/?. Vitalis de Salvaza). 

This species may be placed near T. ransunneti, Dist. 

Terpnosia chapava, sp. n. 

(^ . Head, pronotum, mesonotum, face, sternum, legs, 
and opercula olivaceous green ; abdomen above and beneatii 
pale testaceous, the abdominal margins a little darker, and 
the ajjical abdominal area black ; lineate markings to 
anterior margin of front, a transverse spot near insertion 
of antennse, and a sufl'usion at the region of the ocelli black ; 
pronotum with two central longitudinal linear fasciae, nar- 
rowed and united at base, the furrows, two spots on each 
lateral area, and the extreme basal margin black ; meso- 
notum with the margins of two anterior obconical spots, 
followed on each side of anterior margin by a small angulate 
spot and again by a submarginal longitudinal fascia, a 
central longitudinal spot reaching middle of cruciform 
elevation and a spot before each anterior angle of same, 
black; tegraina and wings subhyaline, the venation black 
or blackish, tegmina with the costal membrane and post- 
costal area ochraceous, the transverse veins at the bases of 
the second, third, and fifth apical areas, and the apices of the 
longitudinal veins to the apical areas spotted with fuscous ; 
tympanal coverings well developed, but shorter and narrower 
than tympanal cavities ; face centrally sulcate and strongly 
transversely striate, vertex between the ocelli sulcate ; 
opercula subtruncately oblique, scarcely passing the base of 
abdomen ; greatest width of tegmina about one-third 
of length. 

Long., excl. tegm.j (^ , 18 mm. ; exp. tegm. 55 mm. 

Hab. Tonkin, Chapa {R. Vitalis de Salvaza). 

The nearest allied species is T. jiosidonia, Jac. 

Terpnosia mesonotalis, sp. n. 

(J . Head, pronotum, abdomen above and beneath, 
sternum and legs ochraceous, the upper surface of the 



ffomoptera of Indo- China. 103 

abdomen moderately rufescent ; mesonotum uniformly pale 
ocliraceous; pronotum with the sublateral furrow marked 
with black ; the mesonotal cruciform elevation dark tes- 
taceous ; opercula pale ochraceous ; tegmina and wings 
subhyaline, the veins fuscous ; tegmina with the costal 
membrane and post-costal area dull ochraceous with dark 
linear markings^ extreme basal angle of upper ulnar area 
dark fuscous ; vertex of head sulcate between the ocelli ; 
sublateral furrows to pronotum very profound ; face with 
very strong transverse ridges; tympanal coverings small, 
very much shorter and a little narrower than tympanal 
cavities ; opercula short and broad, not quite reaching base 
of aljdomen. 

Long., excl. tegm., c? , 17 mm. ; exp. tegm. 45 mm. 

Hab. Tonkin ; Cha|)a {H. Vitulis de Salvaza). 

To be placed near T. mudhuva^ Dist. 

Calcagninus salvazanus, sp. n. 

(^ . Body and legs ochraceous, mesonotum a little paler, 
sometimes blackish markings at base of abdomen beneath ; 
tegmina and wdngs subhyaline, the venation fuscous brown, 
tegmina with the whole of the costal and subcostal areas 
ochraceous; tympanal coverings imperfect; abdomen tuber- 
culate beneath on second and third abdominal segments ; 
head about as long as half the width between eyes ; Avings 
with six apical areas ; mesonotum sometimes with indi- 
cations of two dark lateral longitudinal fasciae ; opercula 
wide apart, transverse, not passing basal abdominal segment, 
apical margins roundly truncate; face with the lateral 
striations distinct, but not profound ; vertex of head 
narrowly longitudinally sulcate between the ocelli. 

Long., excl. tegm., J", 15 mm. ; exp. tegm. 45 mm. 

Hab. Tonkin; Cliapa {K. Vitaiis de Salvaza). 

Mogannia iadigotea, sp. n. 

Body and legs very dark indigo-blue ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, the venation dark ochraceous; tegmina with about 
basal half flavescent, outwardly margined with a transverse 
fuscous fascia and an oblique macular fascia directed 
inwardly and the basal cell of the same colour, costal 
membrane dark ochraceous; base of wings narrowly dark 
ochraceous. Front of head longly hirsute and longly 
depressed, between the ocelli longitudinally sulcate ; pro- 
notvim with the furrows profound ; rostrum reaching the 
intermediate coxse. 



104 ^Ir, K. E. Tiinicr on Fossoju'al IJx/mey^optera. 

Long., excl. tegni., 11-17 mm. ; exp. tegm. 31-40 mm. 

Hab. Tonkin ; Cliapa [R. Vitalis de Salcaza). N. China 
(Brit. Mus.). Philippine Is.; Malinao, Tavabas {C. T. 
Baker). 

A somcwliat variable s[)pcies, allied to M. ejf'ecio, Dist. 
In some specimens the basal cell of tcgmina is ochraceous, 
in others the inner and outer dark faseiai of the basal area 
are fused. 

Haechys tonkinensis, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotnm black ; vertex of head 
with almost anterior half^ the ocelli and an angulatcd spot 
behind them, pronotum with a central, l)road, longitudinal 
fascia which is strongly, medially, angularly compressed, 
mesouotum with the lateral margins and a medial, longi- 
tudinal, anteriorly strongly attenuated fascia sanguineous; 
iace black, apically sanguineous ; sternum, opercnla in 
male, body beneath and above sanguineous; legs black; 
tcgmina dark brownish, the venation darker ; wings sub- 
liyaline, the venation dark brownish ; head with the face 
strongly, centrally, longitudinally sulcate for about two-thirds 
its length, the transverse lateral striations very coarse ; 
liead (including eyes) about as wide as base of mesonotnm; 
bead about as long as pronotum ; mesonotnm (including 
cruciform elevation) longer than pronotum ; tegmina with 
eigiit apical areas ; opercula in male not passing base of 
abdomen, well separated, but inwardly obliquely directed ; 
their apices roundly truncate. 

liong.. excl. tegm., (^ , 18 mm. ; ex[). tegm. 40 ram. 

Hab. Tonkin; Ciiapa [R. Vitalis de Salvazd). 

Allied to H. c/iri/selectra, Dist., from Borneo. 



^ I. — Incites on Fossori'd Hyme.noptera. — XXV. ()n new 
kSphecoidea in the British Mut,euin. By KOWLAND E. 
TuKNEH, F.Z.S., F.E.8. 

Subfamily PHiLA^'THiyjE. 

Cerceris arrnic/eraj sp. n. 

$. Xigra ; clypeo, mandibulis ba.si, scapo, i'roiite sub antennis, 
segmeiito dorsali seciuido macula baj^ali utrinque, segmentisque 
quarto qiinitoque fascia apicali einarginata flavis ; vertice macula 
utrinque pone oculos, pronoto macula utrinque, tegulis, fcmoribus 



Llr. E. E. Tiiniev on Fussorial Ilymenoptera. 105 

anticis, femoribus intevmediis apice, tibiis tarsisque anticis iuter- 
iiicdiigque brunneo-ferrugineis ; segmentis dorsalibua .secundo, 
(luarto, quintoque omnino, tertioqiie apice ferrugineis ; alis 
hyalinis, veuis iiigris ; clypeo brevissimo, subporrecto, apice 
latissime emargiiiato, angulia a])icalibus dente valido armato ; 
raesopleuris hand dentatis ; segmento mediano area basali sub- 
opaca, delicatissime punctata, segmento ventrali secundo area 
basali elevata nulla. 
Long. 8 mm. 

? . Coarsely and closely punctured ; head very broad, tlie 
eyes distinctly divergent towards the clypens ; cheeks nearly 
as broad as the eyes. Antennse inserted rather low down, 
neaily three times as far from tiie anterioi- ocellus as from 
the base of tlie clypeus, second joint of the flagellum a little 
longer than tlie third. First abdominal segment distinctly 
brtinder than long; pygidial area coarsely but rather sparsely 
piiiii-tured, elongate-ovate, rather broadly truncate at the apex. 
Al)doniinal segments very strongly constricted, the ventral 
siirt'ace almost smooth. First recurrent nervure received a 
little before the middle of the tiecond cubital cell, second 
close to the base of the third cubital cell. 

Hah. S. Queensland, Darra near Brisbane (^Hacker) ; De- 
cember. 

Tlie shape of the clypeus is reniarkable and quite different 
from any other Australian species. 

Cerceris nnispinosa, sp. n. 

5 . j^igra ; mandibulis basi, clypeo, fronte usque ad antennarum 
basin, scapo, genis late, vertice macula obliqua utrinque, pronoto 
fascia utrinque, tegulis, scutello macula transversa utrinque, 
pohtscutello, segmento dorsali secundo macula transversa basali, 
tertio fascia apicali antice late emarginata, quarto fascia an- 
gusta apicali, quinto fere omnino, segmentis ventralibus tertio 
quintoque lateribus, femoribus anticis iuterraediisque subtus, 
tibiis tarsisque anticis interniodiisque flavis ; segmento dorsali 
secundo dimidio basali, segmentis ventralibus secundo fere toto, 
tertio in medio, femoribus anticis intermediisque suj^ra, pedibus- 
(pie posticis ferrugineis; alis hyalinis, apice et cellula radiali 
infumatis, venis nigris ; clypeo piano, apice subemarginato, mar- 
gine apicali in medio dente nigro parvo armato ; mesopleuris 
baud tuberculatis ; segmento mediano area basali subopaea, im- 
punctata ; segmento ventrali secundo area basali elevata nulla. 

Long. 9 mm. 

? . Strongly and closely punctured ; liead very broad, 
eyes distinctly divergent towards the clypeus, antennfe 
inserted about twice as far from the anterior ocellus as from 



106 Mr. R. E. Tuinor on Fossoriul Ifi/menoptera, 

tlie base of the clypeus ; cheeks very broad, much broader 
than the eyes ; first abdominal segment a little lotiger than 
the greatest breadth ; pygidial area rufinK)se, elonoate-ovate, 
r;«ther narrowly truncate at the apex ; second ventral segment 
aluK^st sniootli, the other ventral segments sparsely and 
shalloMly punctured. 

Ilab. S. Queensland, Darra near Brisbane {Hacker) ; De- 
cember. 

Not very near to any other Australian species. 

Subfamily Ntssoninm. 
Nysaon (^Acanthostethus) hrisbanensis, Turn. 

Ni/sson (Acatitfiostetkus) brisbanensis,Tuin. Aun. & Mag, Nat. Hist. (8) 
"xv. p. 81 (1915). 2 • 

J . The male has the ventral segments bare, without a 
fringe of hairs ; ventral segments 3-6 with a suiall but 
distinct spine on each side at the apical angles; seventh 
dorsal segment widely and rather shallowly emarginate at 
the apex, the angles produced into short blunt spines. 

JJ<ib. Bri.sbane (^Hacker) ; February. 

Differs from nudiventrisy Turn., to which species the female 
is most nearly allied, in the shape of the seventh dorsal seg- 
ment, which only has two spines (one at each apical angle), 
also in the presence of a short spine at the apical angles of 
the sixth ventral segment. Tlie only specimen sent is very 
small, measuring only 4 mm. in length. 

S u b fa m i ly Crabronin^. 
Kiicopognathus broivnei, sp. n. 

9 . Nigra, ubiquc dense rugose punctata ; scapo, callis humerali- 
bus, postscuteJlo, femoribus apice extremo, tibiis tarsisque pallida 
flavis ; tibiis intermediis posticisque infra fuscis ; alis hyalinis, 
iridescentibus, venis fuscis, stigmata testacao. 

Long. 5 mm. 

? . Mandibles excised on the outer margin, acute at the 
apex. Clypeus subcarinate longitudinally, produced into 
two porrect teeth at the apex, with a smaller tooth on each 
side near the apical angles. Eyes not hairy, the facets in 
front larger than elsewhere, sejjarated from each other at the 
base of the clypeus by a distance equal to about half the 
length of the scape ; frontal groove smooth and shining. 
Posterior ocelli a littlo nearer to the eyes than to each other, 
the ocellar region and the vertex coarsely punctured-rugose, 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Tlymenoptera. 107 

{in oblique groove from tiie eyes to tlie posterior ocelli ; the 
liiiid margin of the head slightly raised, snbcarinate. Pro- 
notnm transverse, the anterior margin raised and shar))ly 
pointed at the angles ; thorax very coarsely punctured, tlie 
niesopleurse coarsely rugose. Median segment short ; with a 
distinct enclosed basal area, which is very finely rugulose, 
with five strong longitudinal carinas ; the posterior slope 
rather indistinctly transversely striated; the sides of the 
segment very finely and closely punctured. Abdomen 
.■smooth and shining beneath, the three basal dorsal segments 
coaisely punctured, the three apical segments closely and 
finely punctured. Recurrent nervure received before the 
middle of the cubital cell; transverse cubital nervure received 
just beyond the middle of the radial cell. 

Hah. British East Africa, T-.wm River, 3000 ft., near 
]\It. Kenia [G. Orde Broioiu) ; November. 

This is distinct both in colouring and in structural details 
from E. braueri, Kohl., also in the sculpture of the abdomen. 

Rhopalum tuherculicorne , sp. n. 

<S . Niger ; scapo, tuberculis humeralibus, pedibus anticis, pedibus 
intermediis tarsis infuscatis, coxisque posticis apice fiavis ; fia- 
gello fusco subtus ferrugineo ; segmeutis dorsalibus 5-7, ventrali- 
bus 2-7, tibiis posticis tegulisque pallide ferrugineis ; alis 
hyalinis, iridescentibus, veuis nigris, cellula radiali infuscata. 

Long. 4 mm. 

(^ . Clypeus uithout a carina, clothed with silver pubes- 
cence, the apical margin almost transverse. Mandibles 
blunt at the apex, not bidentate. Second joint of the fla- 
gellum longer than the third, emarginate at the base beneath 
and produced into a stout tubercle at the apex beneath. 
Head smooth and shining ; the eyes separated at the base 
of the clypeus by a distance slightly exceeding the length of 
the scape, strongly divergent towards the veitex ; posterior 
ocelli as far from the eyes as from each other, and also as far 
from the hind margin of the head as from each other, a short 
longitudinal sulcus between them. Pronotum short, a minute 
spine at the anterior angles. Thorax shining, microscopically 
punctured ; median segment smooth and shining. First 
abdominal segment scarcely longer than the second, mode- 
rately swollen at the apex, second segment broadened from 
the base, third segment broader than long. Hind tibiae 
broad, with a few small spines on the outer margin. Re- 
current nervure received just before two-thirds from the base 
of the cubital cell ; radial cell broadly truncate at the apex. 



108 Mr. R. E. Turner on FoftsoriaJ Ilymenoptera. 

the costal rDartiin shorter than the stigma, tlie transverse 
cubital nervurt^ received a little heyond one-quarter from the 
base of the cell. 

Hal). iS. Queensland, Caloinidra {^I locker) ; January. 

Nearly related to li. tenuiventris, Turn., but the abdomen 
is more t^lender in tliat species, the third segnient being mucii 
longer than broad ; in tenuivenln's ^ the scape has a small 
spine at the apex, the second joint of the flaiiellum is rather 
more stronj:lv emarginate beneath, and (he third joint is al.-o 
strongly emarginate beneath and sidjluberculate at the apex. 
'JMie epicnemial area is detined in both species. In most 
Australian species of Rhopidnm the male antennse are not 
.strongly differentiated, but in 1{. alicia\ I'urn., and R. lejyto- 
spf^rmiy 'j'nrn., the third joint of the flagellum is strongly 
emarginate beneath and subtuberculate at the apex. 

Rhopulum testaceum, sp. n. 

$. Testacea ; capita mesonotoque nigris ; maiulibulis, apice ex- 
cej)to, clypeoque flavis ; antennis tcstaceis ; alis hyalinis, irides- 
centibns, venis fuscis. 

Long. 4 mm, 

$ . ^landibles acute at the apex, not bidentate ; clypeus 
brt adiy rounded at the a))ex, with four minute teeth on the 
apical margin, without a carina. Head smootli and shining ; 
the eyes se[)arated at the base of the cly|)eus by a distance 
equal to rather more than two-thirds of the length of the 
scape ; ])Osterior ocelli as far from the eyes as from each 
other and about the same distance from the hind margin of 
the head ; a curved groove from the inner margin of the 
eye, extending towards, but not reacliing, the posterior ocelli. 
Pronotum dejuessed below the mesonotum, almoht vertical. 
Thorax closely and minutely ))nnctured, a tiansverse groove 
at the base of the scutellum. Median segment smooth and 
shining, with a distinct median sulcus. First abdonunal 
segment a little shorter than the second, moderately swollen 
at the apex, not very slender ; second segment longer than 
the ajiical breadth ; tliiid segment much broader than h.ng. 
Hind tibiae very feebly serrate near the apex. Recurrent 
nervure received a little before two-thirds from the base of 
the cubital cell ; radial cell oblique at the apex, the costal 
marorin as long as the stigma, the transverse cubital nervure 
received jnst beyond one-quarter fiom the base of the cell. 

IJah. X. Queefislanrl, kuranda {F. P. JJodd). 

Easily distiiiiiuished by the icniaikable colouring. The 
first abdominal segment is shorter than in other Australian 



Mr. R. E. TLiruei' on Fossurial lljinenoptera. 109 

species except //-enc/ii and macrocephalus^ and the hind tibiae 
are much less swollen than is usual in the genus. 

Subfamily Trypoxtloxin^. 
Pison deperdituin, sp. n. 

2 . Xigra ; mandibulis, palpis, antonnis, abdoniine pedibusque 
nifo-ferrugiiiois ; tegulis testaceis ; alis hj'alinis, venis fuscis ; 
beguieiito mediauo crasse rugoso, sulco mediali lato, transverse 
striate. 

Long. 7 mm. 

$ . (Jlypeus broadly rounded at the apex, clotbed with 
wbitish pubescence, whicb extends on to the front. Second 
joint of the flagellum about equal to the third, nearly twice 
as long as the first. Eyes separated at the base of the cly|)eus 
by a distance equal to nearly twice tiie length of the scnpe, 
and by about the same distance on the vertex ; posterior 
ocelli a little further from each other than from the eyes, 
separated from t^acb other by a distance equal to the diameter 
ot one of them, with a shallowly impressed transverse line 
behind them. Front with a low carina from tlie base of the 
antennae reaching halfway to the anterior ocellus. Pronotum 
transverse, with a narrow depression along the hind margin ; 
thorax smooth, opaque. Median segment very coarsely 
rugose-reticulate, with short oblique stria3 at the base, and a 
very wide transversely striated longitudinal sulcus, the poste- 
rior slope irreguiaily transversely striated. Abdomen micro- 
scopically punctured, the segments broadly but very shallowly 
depressed on the apical margin. First recurrent nervure 
received just before the apex of the first cubital cell, second 
received close to the middle of the second cubital cell ; third 
cubital cell on the radius very short, shorter than the petiole 
of the second cubital cell. 

Hab. Port Darwin, Northern Territory [G. F. Hill). 

This is very closely allied to P. riijicornis, Sm., from 
which, however, it is easily distinguished by the very ditferent 
and much coarser sculpture of the median segment. The 
neuratiou in both species is that of the section PtsoidluSj 
Shuck. 

Pison multistrigatum, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; palpis testaceis ; calcaribus unguiculisque ferrugineis ; 

alls hyalinis, apioe leviter infumatis, venis fuscis ; segmeuto 

mediano fortiter longitudinaliter striate. 
LonK. nim. 



Ill) Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 

9 . Clypoiis broadly truncate at the apex, clothed with 
silver pubescence. Head opaque, finely punctured ; eyes 
separated at the base of the clypeus by a distance about equal 
to three times the length of the scape, but by only about half 
that distance on the vertex ; second joint of the flagellutn 
distinctly lono;er than the third and about twice as long as 
the first ; posterior ocelli about twice as far from each other 
as from the eyes. Tiiorax subopaque, finely and closely 
])unctured ; the pronotum transverse, a little depressed on 
the posterior margin. Median segment very coarsely longi- 
tudinally striated ; the sides of the segment finely hori- 
zontally striated, with fine punctures between the stria? ; 
posterior slope transversely striated, with a deep median 
sulcus. Abdomen shining, very finely punctured, the seg- 
ments rather feebly depressed at the apex ; second ventral 
segment more sparsely punctured in the middle than on the 
sides; the apical angles of the dorsal segments with a little 
white pubescence. First recurrent nervure received close to 
the apex of the first cubital cell, second at the apex of the 
secoTid cubital cell, almost interstitial with the second trans- 
verse cubital nervure. Third cubital cell shorter on the 
radius thati the petiole of the second cubital cell. 

Huh. Nvasaland, Mlanje {S. A. Neave) ; February. 

Differs from all other species known to me by the very 
strong longitudinal striation of the median segment. 

Pison stn'gulosum, sp. n. 

o. Nigra; fronte argenteo-pubescente ; raandibulis, femori))iis 
apice, tibiis tarsisque ferrugineis ; tegulis testaceis ; alis hyaliiiis, 
iridesceutibu3, venis nigris, segmento mediano basi obliqire, apice 
transverse striate. 
Long. 8 mm. 

? . Clypeus without a carina, broad, the apical margin 
slightly obliqiu; on the sides and forming a distinct angle in 
the middle. Head opaque, a distinct frontal sulcus reaching 
the anterior ocellus. Front broad, the eyes at the base of 
the clypeus more than half as far again from each other as 
on the vertex. Posterior ocelli nearer to the eyes than to each 
other ; second joint of the flagellum distinctly longer than 
the third. Tliorax minutely and closely punctured, tiie 
pronotum and mesopleura? clothed with short silver pubes- 
cence. Median segment obliquely striated at the base, the 
strise becoming rather finer and more transverse towards the 
apex, the apical slope coarsely transversely striated ; at the 
base of the segment is a very small triangular space enclosed 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. Ill 

by sulci; from the apex of the triano-le a longitudinal trans- 
versely striated groove runs to the apex of the segment, and 
is continued after a narrow interruption on the apical slope. 
Abdomen finely punctured, somewhat pubescent, the three 
basal segments shallowly depressed on the apical margin ; 
second ventral segment microscopically punctured, more 
finely than the third ; second to fourth ventral and third to 
fifth dorsal segments very narrowly pale testaceous at the 
{ij)ex. Third cubital cell as long on the radius as the petiole 
of the second cubital cell ; recurrent nervures received just 
befoi'e the first and second transverse cubital nervures. 

Hub. Gold Coast, Tamule {Dr. C. E. S. Watson). 

This belongs to tiie group of P. xanthopus^ Brull^, l)ut 
may be distinguished by the less oblique striation of the 
median segment, the colour of the pubescence on the front, 
and the shape of the clypeus. 

Pison carinatum, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra ; mandibulis in medio fusco-ferrugineis ; calcaribus 

pallide testaceis ; alls hyaliiiis, margiue apicali leviter iufuscatis ; 

froute argenteo-sericeo, abdomine segmentis dorsalibus 1-3 

margiue apicali albido pubesceutibus. 
(S . Femiuge similis ;'tarsis rufescentibus ; segmentis abdominalibus 

4-7 rufis ; segmento dorsali septimo lato, detlexo, apice sub- 

truucato. 
Long., $ 7, c? 6 mm. 

$ . Clypeus with a low longitudinal carina on the basal 
half, broadly subtruncate at the apex. Head opaque, with a 
delicate longituditial sulcus on the front reaching to the 
anterior ocellus. Eyes more than half as far again from each 
other at the base of the clypeus" as on tiie vertex ; postiM-ior 
ocelli a little nearer to each other than to the anterior ocellus, 
further from each other than from the eyes ; second joint of 
the flagellum a little shoiter than the third. Thorax closely 
and minutely punctured, more strongly on the mesophurai 
than on the mesonotum ; jnedian segment finely obliquely 
striated, depressed longitudinally in the middle, with a 
distinct longitudinal carina, the apical slope transversely 
stiiated, tlie sides of the segment finely and closely punctured. 
Abdomen on both surfaces closely and microscopieally punc- 
tured ; sixth dorsal segment broadly triangular, convex, 
subcarinate longiiudinally in the middle. The position of the 
recurrent nervures and also the length of the third cubital 
cell on the radius show much variation in this species. 

The male has the clypeus more ))redueed in the middle 



112 ^Ir. U. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 

tliaii in the female, Init lias the carina at the base ; the eyes 
are a little further apart on the vertex, the second joint o£ 
the ria<^elluni is fully as loiig as the third. Tlie broad forni 
of the seventh dorsal sejiiiient is remarkable. 

JIab. Ashanti, Obuasi (IF. M. Graham), April, Feb- 
ruary ; Uganda, Entebbe {C. G. Gowdejj) (type), September 
and jMarcb ; Egypt, Meadi (Egyptian Department of Agri- 
culture), July; Sierra Leone {Murgan). 

I had idontitied this species as xantJiopns, BruUe, in my 
recent paper on Pison (Froc. Zool. Soc. 191()), but since 
then have found otiier specimens answering much better to 
Brulle's description. The present species may possibly be 
obscuruSf Siiuck., but the t} pe of that species is lost and 
the description gives the pubescence of the front as golden, as 
in xanthopus. 

Pison xanthopuy, Brulle. 
Kephridia xanthopm, BrulltS, Auu. Soc. Ent. France, ii. p. 408 (1833). 

Four females in the National Collection answer well to the 
description. They differ from carinatuin and strigulosum in 
the bright golden pul)escence of the front and in the red 
colour of the two or three apical abdominal segments. There 
is no basal carina on the cly{)eus as in cariiiatus, which it 
resembles in the sculpture of the median segment, and differs 
in the latter point trom strigulosum. The cly|)eus is more 
distinctly truncate at the apex than in either of the other 
species. P. c/gpealus, Cam., seems to belong to the same 
group. I do not think that Shuckard's description of 
obscurus can be meant for the present species. 

IJab. N. Nigerici, Kateri (J. /. 6Vm;:)5o«), December ; Oold 
Coast, Aburi {L. Armstrong), April. 

Pison flavolimhatum, sp. n. 

2. }sigra; segmentis dorsalibus tribus basalibus fascia apicali 
riavidula ; scapo tegulisque brunneo-testaceis ; froute, prunoto 
8egmeiito(jue mediauo lateribus pallide aureo-pubesceutibus ; 
alls subhyaliuis, costa late int'uscata, venis nigris. 

Long. lU mm. 

? • Clypeus convex, broadly truncate at the aj)ex, without 
a carina ; head opaque, a distinct frontal sulcus reaching to 
the anterior ocellus; eyes a little furtlier apart at the base 
of the clypeus than on the vertex, posterior ocelli xis near to 
each other as to the eyes ; an undulating, low, transverse 
rido-e separating the anterior from the posterior ocellar 



On the External Characters of the Felidse. 113 

region. Second joint of the flagellum slightly longer than 
the third. Thorax opaque, minutely and very closely punc- 
tured ; median segment similarly punctured, with a median 
longitudinal sulcus, shallow and narrow on the dorsal surface, 
deep and broader on the posterior slope, the extreme apex 
with a few transver&e strise. Abdomen closely and minutely 
punctured, rather more strongly on the ventral than on the 
dorsal segments ; sixth dorsal segment triangular, convex. 
Both recurrent nervures received by the second cubital cell, 
the first near one-quarter from the base, the second very near 
the apex ; radial margin of the third cubital cell variable in 
length, but longer than the petiole of the second cubital cell. 

Hah, British Guiana, Issororo (C B. Williams) ; July. 
Three females. 

The development of the yellow abdominal fasciee, which 
are chitinous, varies considerably, being rather obscured in 
one specimen. This is quite distinct from F. paraeuse, Spin., 
which also has yello\vi.sh abdominal fasciie, but is much 
smaller and is without the broad fuscous costal margin of the 
fore wing, and differs in other details of colour, also in the 
position of the first recurrent nervuie. 



VII. — On the External Characters of the Felidse. By 
R, I. PococK, F.K.S., Superintendent of the Zoological 
Society's Gardens. 

The facts recorded in this paper are based upon an exami- 
nation, extending over many years, of specimens that have 
died in the Zoological Society^s Gardens. Although un- 
avoidabl}' incomplete, the observations probably, 1 think, 
cover the range of variation in the characters discussed 
within the limits of the family. 

The Ears. 

The ears of the Felidse are very constant in their general 
features, so far as my observations have carried me, and do 
not differ essentially from those of the typical Viverridae. 
The bursa is always present and large. Its posterior flap 
rises behind the rim of the pinna above, and the anterior 
flap is always deeply notched. These features are observable 
even in newly-born kittens. The main cartilages also differ 
but little from species to species ; but neither in the structure 
of the bursa nor of the cartilages have I been able to establish 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hint. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 8 



114 



Mr. R. I. Pocock on the 



any features of systematic value. A more detailed comparison 
thau 1 have made may, however, show that such diflfereuces 




A. Left ear of Felis ruffus esquinapcB, nat. size. 

B. „ „ ja(juarondi, „ ,, 

C. „ „ salinartwi, ,, i „ 

exist. For izistance^ in F. eyra the excrescence on the antero- 
internal ridge overlapping the anterior end of the supratragus 
{plica principalis) is rather unusually well developed. 



External Characters of the Felidae. 115 

Usually the ears are rounded at the summit, but in 
the species of the genus Felis (s. s.), e. g. F. sylvestris, 
ocreata, chaus, and their allies, and also in the lynxes, 
F. lynx, ruff as, caracal, they are more angular and 
pointed. In all the lynxes, moreover, the tip is provided 
with a pencil of hairs, which are especially well developed in 
F. caracal and smallest in F. ruffas. In the latter they are 
sometimes temporarily absent during the moult ; but they 
are never absent in F. caracal. That these ear-tufts cannot 
be regarded as a generic feature is shown by the frequent 
presence of similar but smaller tufts in F. ocreata, F. chaus, 
and F. ornata. 

Of all the species known to me, F. jaguarondi"^ and 
F. manul have relatively the smallest and least conspicuous 
ears. In the former their smallness, coupled with the general 
shape of the narrow head, imparts a decidedly musteline phy- 
siognomy to the species. In F. manul the width of the head 
and the height of the forehead make the ears appear to be set 
very low behind the cheek, and they certainly are never raised 
above the summit of the head when pricked f- P. serval 
presents the greatest possible contrast to F. manul in this 
particular, the ears being large and capable of being closely 
juxtaposed on the top of the head when pricked. In no 
other species is this power developed to the same extent. 

The ear of Acinonyx conforms in shape and structure to 
that of other round-eared members of the family Felidae 
{Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xviii. pp. 422-423, fig. i.\, 1916j. 

The Rhinarium, 

The muzzle of the Felidae differs from that of the Viverridse, 
Cryptoproctidee, Mungotid», and their allies in being bluntly 
truncated, the nose, that is to say, projects to a comparatively 
slight extent beyond the lower jaw. This feature, coupled 
"with the shortness of the jaws, gives a very characteristic 
appearance to the face of the Felidse as compared with that 
of other ^luroids in Avhich the muzzle noticeably recedes 
from the anterior edge of the prominent rhiiiarium to the 
slojjing chin. There is, however, a certain amount of variation 
in the Felidte with respect to this character. In all species, 
it may be added, the upper lip is cleft by a laterally distensible 
and mesial ly grooved strip of naked skin, confluent above with 

* If F. braccatd, Cope, as stated, has pointed ears, it is piobably not 
related to F. jayuarondi as claimed by its describer. 

t So far as my memory serves, the ears in F. manul are rounded and 
not angular, as one would expect from the affinity of this species to 
typical Felts and to the Ivnxes. • 



116 



Mr. R. I. Pocock on the 



the rliiuarium and exteudiug inferiorly to the edge of the lip ; 
and the median groove impressing this strip passes up the 
anterior surface of the rhinarium approximately or actually 
as high as the upper rim of the uostrils. The iufranarial 






C 

A. Rhinarium of Felia sylvestris, from the front. 

B. ,, „ ocre.ata, „ ,, 

C. ,, „ ,, from the side. 

D. ,, „ Berval, from the front. 

E. „ „ „ from above. 

F. „ „ „ from the side. 

G. „ „ salinanun, from the front. 
H. „ ,, „ from above. 

!• „ ,, „ from the side. 

portion of the rliiuarium, so pronounced in Mungotidce and 
most of the " lower " ^luroidea, is either suppressed or 
developed to ouly a small extent. 



External Characters of the Felidge. 



117 



In the genus Felis (s. s.), as exemplified by F. sylvestris and 
F. ocreata^ the rliinarium is comparatively small, exhibiting 
from the dorsal view a very narrow naked area beyond the 
hair of the summit o£ the muzzle. Viewed from the front, 



Fio:. 3. 








A. 
B. 
C. 
D. 
E. 
F. 



Ehinarium of Felis pardalis, from the front. 
,, from above. 
„ from the side. 
jaguarondi, from the front. 
„ from above. 

,, from the side. 



its upper edge is horizontal with a slight median depression 
and rounded angles. The median portion below the level of 
the nostrils, which are moderately far apart^ is acutely angled 
inferiorly, and there is no definite strip extending laterally 
beneath the nostrils. The rhinarium of an example of 



118 Mr. R. I. Pocoek on the 

F. ocreata from Somaliland differs from that of an example 
of F. sylvcstris from Scotland in liavine; the area between 
the nostrils and the angular jiortion innncdiatcly below it 
rather narrower (fig. 2, A, B, C). 

The lynxes {F. caracal, F. ri<ffus e^qiiinapa, and F. lynx 
isabelinius) have the rhinarinm rcdativcly larger and more 
prominent than F. sylvcstris and F. ocreata, the naked portion 
seen from above being less overgrown by the hair of the 
muzzle. Otherwise there is no great difference between 
them. In an example of F. lynx isaheltinus the npper margin 
seen from the front is more convex than in F. caracal and in 
F. rxiffus esyjiinapa, and the nostrils are somewhat larger, 
possibly in adaptation to a life at liigli altitudes, Avhere the 
atmosphere is more rarified (fig. 4, C). 

In the smaller tropical and subtropical Felidse of America 
the rhinarinm is large as comparcd with that of F. ocreata 
and sylvcstris, as may be seen by comparing the drawings of 
this organ in a specimen of F. ocreata from Somaliland and 
of F. satinarum from Cordova in the Argentine, the cats 
tliemselves beiug approximately equal in size. In the case 
of F. salinarum^ the rhinarinm exhibits a naked area of 
consideralile size when seen from above, the nostrils are 
wider apart than in F. ocreata, and the infranarial portion 
is wider transversely and much less aeutelv angled inferiorly 
(fig. 2, B, C, &G, H, I). 

In F. li'iedii the rhinarinm is very similar to that of 
F. salinai'um. 

In an example of F. pardalis (fig. 3, A, B, C) from INIaiiaos 
the rhinarinm is rather more prominent than in examples of 
F. wiedii examined, and has the internarial septum wider, the 
edge more convex in profile view, and the upper edge also 
more convex when viewed from the front. Nevertheless, the 
general similarity between them is unmistakable. 

In an adult F. jaguaroncli (fig. 3, D, E, F) from Cordova, 
in tiie Argentine, the muzzle projects, and the hairs on its 
stmimit form, a liigh crest, which anteriorly encroaches in 
tlie middle line on the rhinarium, forming an angular pro- 
jection over the middle of its upper side. In prohle view 
the margin is convex. From the front view the npper edge 
is mfsially notched by the haiiy crest, the internarial septum 
is broad, "and the jjortion below the nostrils deep. But in a 
young specimen of the typically-coloured form of this species 

* This form, described by Mr. Thomas (Ann. k Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 
xii. p. 239, 1£03;, is clceeJy related to the better-known F. geojf'royi. 
Pcssibly it should be regarded merely a3 a subspecies. 



External Characters of the Felldse. 119 

these cliaraeteristics of the rliinariura observed in the adult 
eyra-co\o\\xe(\. specimen from Cordova arc less marked *. 

I have only examined the rhinarium in two of the tropical 
Asiatic species, namely F. viverrina and F. nebulosa. In the 
former the rhinarium is tolerably similar to that of F.pardalis, 
but is relatively smaller and less prominent. In F. nebulosa, 
on the other hand, it differs but little from the rhinarium of 
Panther a t described below. 

In the matter of prominence and the great size of the 
the naked area, when viewed from above, the rhinarium of 
F. serial (fig. 2, D, E, F) sui'passes that of all other species 
of Felidse. From the dorsal aspect it is broadly cordate. In 
profile view its margin is rather strongly convex and projects 
•well beyond the lips. From the front its superior edge is 
transverse, with rounded angles ; the portion above the 
nostrils is high, and the area below them wide, comparatively 
deep, and not acutely angled inferiorly. The rhinarium, 
indeed, is an exaggeration of the type seen in F. pardalis. 
The differences between it and the rhinarium of F. ocreata 
and sylvestris are particularly worthy of note. 

In an example of F. concolor, three months old, the 
rhinarium seen from above exhibits a tolerably extensive 
naked tract, although not so large as that of F. pardalis. 
Kor is the rhinarium so convex and prominent in profile 
view as in that species. Moreover, from the front aspect 
the area above the nostrils is deeper, that below them is 
narrower, and the nostrils themselves are closer together. 

The rhinarium, it may be noted, is not like that of Panthera, 
but in its general features approaches the rhinarium of the 
smaller members of the Felidpe. 

In Panthera leo (fig. 4, A, B) the short hair of the muzzle 
spreads over the summit of the rhinarium practically to its 
anterior margin, so that there is no naked area, or at most 
a very narrow naked area, visible in front of the hair from 
the dorsal view. The rhinarium itself is tolerably flat, the 
median area below the level of the nostrils is narrow and. 
acutely angled inferiorly, and there is no definite lateral 
infranarial extension, the naked skin forming the lower 
margin of the nostril being quite smooth and moist like the 
inside of that orifice, which is large and expanded. 

So far as my observations go, the rhinarium of P. ti^ris, 

• In the description of F. braccata, Cope records the angulation of the 
muzzle-hairs in F. jaguarondi (Amer. Nat. xxiii. p. 144, 1889). 

t For the recognition and definition of this g:enus, see Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (8; xviii. pp. 221-229 & 306-316 (1916). 



120 



:S\r. H. 1. Fooock on (he 



Fitr. 4. 










A. Eh'marium of Panthr-ra leo, fram the front. 

B. „ „ V from the side. 

C. ,, Felis lynx, from the front. 
J). „ „ „ • from the side. 



External Characters of the Felidge. 121 

onca, and pardus agrees with that of P. leo. The rhiuariura 
of Uncia uncia I do not know. 

The forejroing account of the range of variation in the 
structure of the rhinarium in tlie Felidne, and a comparison 
between that organ in tlie Felidre and in genera referred 
to tlie Viverridse, show that there is practically a complete 
gradation between the two. 

In Civettictis civetta"^, for example, the rliinarium, which 
is of the same type as the rhinarium of Poradoxvnis and of 
MuPffos, is very large and prominent, with tlie infranarial 
portions deep and extending laterally beyond the nostrils. 
But in Genetta the infranarial portions are reduced in size ; 
and in Linsang] they are so much reduced as to be only a 
little larger than in some of the Felidse — e. g., F. pardalis, 
F. eyra, and F. serval, which also have the rhinarium 
tolerably prominent and naked above. The difference, 
indeed, between the rhinaria of Linsang and of Civettictis 
is greater than between the rhinaria of Linsmig and F. par- 
dalis ; and from the prominent rhinarium, with its naked, 
upper side, of F. pardalis, gradations may be traced within 
the Felidse to the wide, comparatively flat rhinarium, Avith 
hairy upper side and suppressed infranarial areas, of Panthera 
leo, the species which, with its allies, has the highest type of 
rhinarium met with in the ^Fluroidea. 

The Facial Vibrissas. 

Amongst the ^luroid Carnivores, as I have already shown,, 
the Felidae are exceptional for the complete absence of the 
interramal tuft of tactile vibrissae. At all events, I have 
never foimd a trace of this tuft in any specimen of the 
many species that have passed through my hands. For the 
rest, there is nothing particularly noteworthy about the facial 
vibrissse. The mystacial and superciliary tufts are always 
well developed. The two genal tufts occupy the normal 
position on each cheek, the lower being placed in a line 
with the corner of the mouth, and the upper a little higher 
up and a little farther hack than the lower. In species 
with short hair on the cheeks each tuft consists usually of 
two or three long vibrissa and is very conspicuous, e. g. 
Panthera pardus and F. cnracal. But sometimes there is 
a reduction in the number. Of two specimens of F. wiedity 

* P. Z. .S. IQlo. p. 396. 

t Ann. & Map. Xat. Hist. (8) xvi. p. .34], pi. xii. fig. o (1915). 



122 Mr. R. I. Pocock on the 

for instance, one had three bristles to each tuft, the other 
only one — a difference I susjiect to be due to moulting. 
On the other hand, in species Avith loufj hair or copious 
■whiskers on the cheek, like Paiithej-a tiyris and Felis lynx, 
these vibrissa? are not ahvays easy to find. In an exanii)le 
of the Tibetan lynx, F. lynx isnbeUina, for instance, each of 
the gcnal tufts was represented by a single bristle mixed up 
vith the fringe on the cheek. Similarly, in examples of 
F. sylvestris and of F. ocreata, recently examined, each 
the genal tufts was represented by a single bristle. 

The Feet. 

In the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History ' (8) 
xviii. pp. 419-429 (1916), in a paper dealing with the 
external characters of the hunting leopard or cheetah 
{Acinonyx jubafiis), I described the feet of that Feline, and 
compared them with those of the common leopard (Panihera 
pardus) to show the differences between them and to illus- 
trate the range of structural variation in the feet within 
the limits of the family Felidse. I stated that the feet 
of Acinonyx are distinguished from those of all the other 
members of that family by the complete absence of cuta- 
neous sheaths for guarding the claws; but added that the 
feet of the typical Felidpe by no means ahvays conform to 
the Pantherine type in the degree of development of these 
sheaths. In the following pages I have described and 
figured the feet * of several species from the Old World 
and the New to show how they differ from each other. 
Since the selection is tolerably wide, it does not appear to 
me probable that any species of cat exists with feet differing 
in any important respect from all of those here discussed ; 
but a few interesting species, like F. mamd, pajeros, and 
planiceps, still remain to be done. 

Since in their main characters the feet here described 
agree with those of Fonthera pardus^ it is needless to repeat 
what was said on that head in the paper above quoted f. 

* The drawings have heen taken from measured feet with the hairs 
surrounding the pads cut short, and the feet are represented as naked 
■witli the digits spread, the axes of digits 2 and 5 being approximately at 
right angles. 

t Apart from the forms assigned to Panthera, a genus which I have 
elsewhere dehued, all the species are provisionally referred to the genus 
Felii. 



External Characters of the Felidae. 123 

Genus Felis, Linn. 
Feet of some Evrojjean, African, and Asiatic Species. 
Felis sylvestris*. — The feet are comparatively narrow for 

Fiff. 5. 




A. Left fore foot of Felis sylcestris. X 5. 

B. ., bind foot of „ „ „ 

C. Eigbt fore foot of Felis serval. „ 

D. „ hind foot of „ „ „ 

their kngth^ with smallish pads. In the fore foot the 

* It is appropriate to begin with tbis species, because it is closely- 
related to, and probably one of the afaiotypes of, the domestic cat, Felis 
catux, the tyje of the genus Je/?>. The feet of the two are similar. The 
examples of F. sylve?fris examined came from Scotland. 



1*24 Mr. R. 1, Pocock on the 

second and third digits are provided with inner lobes to 
the claw-sheaths, that of the third being larger than that 
of the second. There is, however, no distinct inner lobe to 
the claw-sheaths of the fourth and fifth digits. The webs 
are moderately well developed. In the hind foot the digits 
are witliont inner lobes to the claw-sheaths, or, at all events, 
these lobes are so small as to be Jiegligible (fig. 5, A, B). 

F. ocreata has feet almost precisely like those of 
F. sylvestris. 

Felis serval. — The feet in a general way resemble tolerably 
closely those of F. sylvestris, except that the sheaths of the 
claws are relatively a little larger, the inner lobe of the third 
digit in the specimen examined being exceptionally well 
developed and larger than the outer lobe. The carpal pad 
also is relatively larger (fig. 5, C, D). 

Felis caracal. — The fore foot is tolerably similar to that 
of F. sylvestris, but the digits are more separable, the claw- 
sheaths somewhat larger, and the webs, particularly those 
joining the second and third and the fourth and fifth digits, 
shallower and more emarginate. In the hind foot the third 
digit carries a well-developed inner lobe to the claw-sheath, 
the plantar pad is longer as compared with its width than in 
F. sylvestris, and the webs are much shallower, especially 
that connecting the third and fourth digits. The digital 
pads, also both of the fore and hind foot, are more pointed 
distally than in F. sylvestris and F. serval (fig. 6, A, B). 

As I have already remarked (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 
xviii. p. 429, 1916), the hind feet of F. caracal recall those 
of Acinonyx jubatus in the emargination of the webs. 

Felis lynx isabellinus (fig. 7, C, D). — The feet differ in 
some interesting particulars from those of F. caracal. In 
the fore foot the plantar pad, owing to the encroachment 
of the surrounding hair, is shorter as compared with its 
width ; the webs are deeper and hardly difi'er in develop- 
ment from those of F. sylvestris and F. serval ; the claw- 
sheaths are exceedingly well developed on the second and 
third digits, the inner lobe of the third being approximately 
as large, relatively, as in F. serval, and there is a distinct 
inner lobe on the fourth and fifth digits, that of the fourth 
being large, that of the fifth smaller but distinct. In the 
hind foot the plantar pad is longer for its width than in 
the fore foot, but not so long as in F. caracal. The webs 
are rather more emarginate than in F. sylvestris and 
F. serval, but not nearly so shallow as in F. caracal. As in 
the fore foot the claw-sheaths are complete on all the digits, 



J 



£,ternal Characters of the Felid-.^. 



125 



inner lobe as well 
Fig. 6. 




A Right fore foot of F.fec-«mc«Kyoung). X^ 
b! ,, hind foot of „ 

rru. fppt are shorter and broader than in 
Fdis viverrina.—Theieei are ^^^" ..^ example examined 
the previously-described species, and m the P 



126 



Mr. R. I. Pocock on the 



the carpal pad was exceedingly small. The claw-sheaths are 
moderately well developed, but the iauer lobe of the second 




A. Left fore foot of Felis ruffus esquinapcs. X g. 

B. „ hind foot of „ „ „ 

C. Plantar pad of right fore foot of Felis lynx isabelUnus. x k- 

D. „ » hind foot of „ „ „ 

of the fore foot is comparatively large, and there is a small 
inner lobe on the fourth aud fifth. Similarly^ iq the hind 



External Characters of the Felidaa. 



127 



foot there is an inner lobe, but a very small one on the 
second, third, and fourtli digits. The wcIds are developed 
to approximately the same extent as in F. sylvestris and 
F. serval. They do not conceal the tips of the claws, which 




O ^j 



dp 



k;, 






<;^ 



project to a certain extent, even beyond the hairs of the 
toes, especially on the hind feet, as shown by the sketches 
of the undipped feet (fig. 8, A, B, C, D). 



r 



128 Mr. R. 1. Pocock on the 

Felis nebulosa.— The feet are very short and broad with 
large pads. In the fore foot the carpal pad is very large 

Fio-. 9. 




A. Right fore foot of Felis nebulosa. x i- 

B. „ hiud foot of „ ,} )) 

and rounded at the apex, the webs are deep and extend 
approximately up to the distal ends of the digital pads, and 



External Characters of the Felidse. l29 

on all the digits the clavr-slieaths are perfected by the 
develo|)meut of inner lobes. la the hind foot the plantar 
pad is very In'oad, the wehs are very nera-ly as deep as in the 
fore foot, and all the digits, as in the fore foot, have well- 
developed inner lobes (fig. 9, A, B). 

Tlie feet of this species differ from those of F. viverrina 
in the larger size of the pads, the much deeper webs, and the 
much better developed claw-sheaths. In all these respects 
they more resemble the feet of Paathera described below. 

The Feet of some American Species. 

The feet of an American lynx, probably F. ruffus 
esquinapcB (fig. 7, A, B), from Tampico, resemble those of 
F. lynx isabelUmis in web-development, but the inner lobes 
of the sheaths of the claws are relatively smaller, both on 
the fore and hind feet, and the plantar pads are differently 
shaped, being markedly longer as compared Avith their 
width. Thus the median length of these plantar pads is 
about three-quarters their total width. They are less over- 
grown by hair than in F. lynx isabellinus, and I'ccall in 
their shape and proportions the posterior plantar pad of 
F. caracal. 

It may be recalled that Bangs has already pointed out 
(Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. xi. pp. 48, 49, 1897) that the 
plantar pads of the lynxes {F. ruffus fasciaius, etc.) of 
the more southern portions of North America are larger 
than those of the Canadian species {F. canadensis). Hence 
it may be inferred, I think, that the pads of F. canadensis 
probably resemble those of F. lynx isabellinus. The point, 
however, to be noticed here is that the three species of 
lynxes, namely, F. caracal, F. lynx isabelli?ius, and F. ruffus 
esquinapcB have feet of the same general form, and that those 
of the Mexican animal are approximately intermediate in 
character between the feet of F. caracal and of F. lynx 
isabellinus *. 

F. geoffroyi. — The feet are more robust than those of 
F. sylvestris, but are otherwise tolerably similar to them 
in the size of the pads and the development of the webs and 
of the claw-sheaths. The claw-sheaths are small. In the 
fore foot the inner lobe is negligible on the fourth and fifth 
digits, small upon the second and larger, but still small, 

* The Tibetan lynx has been referred to the subgenus which at 
present carries the inadmissible name Eucervaria. That is a mistake, 
the skull characters being' those of the typical forms, F. lynx and 
J^. canadensis, 

Ann. cfc Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xIa. 9 



130 



^Ir. R.I. Pocock on the 



upon tlie tliird; and in tlie hind foot the inner lobes are 
negligible npon all the digits*. 

F. jaqiiarondi. — In an adidt example of the F. eyra- 
luututiou from Cordova, in the Argentine, the fore foot is 

rig. 10. 





A. Right fore foot n^ Fclis iciedii. x ^. 
r». „ hind foot of „ „ „ 

C „ {ore foot of Felt's sali7iariim. „ 
D. ,, hind foot of „ „ „ 

shorter than in the example of F. geoffroyi examined, lias 
the pads relatively larger, and the claw- sheaths better 

* In all cats the ed?e of the skin upon the admedian or inner side of 
the claw is detached from the claw to a greater or less extent. Hence 
the rudiment of the inner portion of the sheath is alwavs present, even 
in cases where it is stated to be negligible or absent in this paper. 



E.rtenicd Chai'acters of th,s Fclidfx?. 



131 



df^velopcfl, the inner lobes of tlie second and third digits 
being larger and h small one is present on the fourth. Tlie 
webs, however, are developed to approximately the same 
extent. The hind feet of the two species are also approxi- 
mately alike, except that in F. jaqnarondi the claw-sheaths 
are a little larger and the third digit shows a small inner 
lobe. These diifei'encesj however, are less marked in a 




<J 2 



c - 

J--? 



I ^ o 



kitten of the same type from Cordova and in one of the 
dark-coloured forms of which the locality is unknown. 

In F. sfilinarum (fig. 10, C, D) the feet closely resemble 
those of F. yeojfroyi and F.jarpiarondi. 

F. iviedii (jmacroura) (fig. 10, A, B). — The feet are broad 

and short, with moderately M-ell-developed pads. In the 

fore foot the webs are very deep and extend a])proxiuiatclv 

(J* 




'.if<^ 



U2 Mr. R. T. Pocock on the 

up to the distal ends of the digital pads^ as iu F. nebiilosa. 
Tiie claw-sheaths also are well developed, with distinct inner 
lobe upon the second, third, and fourth digits; bnt this lobe 
is sufheiently small to be negligible npon the fifth digit. 
In the hind foot the webs are also well developed, although 
shallcnver than on the fore foot. The inner lobe of the elaw- 
slieath is negligible npon the second and fifth, bnt ■well 
developed on the third and distinct though small upon the 
fourth digit. 

F. pard/ilia has feet similar to those of F. loiedii (Ann. & 
Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xviii. p. 4^8, fig. 5, A, 1916). 

It is interesting to notice that the feet of F. wiedii and 
F. pardalis differ I'ather markedly from those of F. genjfroyi, 
F. sali/iannn, and F. Jaguarondi, and also from those of 
F. concolo}\ though to a slightly less extent, iu the develop- 
ment of the webs and of the claw-sheaths. 

F. conculor (fig. 11, A, B, C). — In an example three 
months old the feet are shorter and broader than in 
F. yeojfroyi, and provided with larger pads and better 
developed claw-sheaths. Nevertheless, the webs are de- 
veloped to approximately the same extent, and the inner 
lobe of tJie claw-sheaths is small upon the second and 
third digits and negligible upon the fourth and fifth of the 
fore foot, and also negligible npon the second, fourth, and 
fifth of the hind foot. In neither foot do the sheaths encase 
the claws almost to the tip, and, in the extent to which the 
claws when retracted are exposed, the feet approximately 
resemble those of F. fjeoffroyi, jaguarondi, viverrina, and 
sylvestris, and do not conform to the type of foot of 
Panther a ffig. 12). 

Genus Panthera, Okcn, 

In the species of the genus Panthera (fig. 12) examined, 
TidLxaoXy, P. pardus, onca, iigris, and leo, the feet are very 
much alike. They are short, broad, compact, and difficult 
to spread. The plantar and digital pads are large and the 
sheaths are well developed, both npon the outer and 
the inner side of the claw, and almost conceal the tips 
of tlie claws when retracted. In the fore foot the carpal pad 
usually has a widely rounded apex, and the webs extend almost 
up to the tips of the digital pads, at least on the admedian 
side, and show only a shallow emargination when the digits 
are stretched. In the hind foot the webs are less extensive 
and more emar-inate. 




External Characters of the Felidse. 



133 



Fij?. 12 depicts the feet of a specimen of P. ti(/ris, three 
months old. The feet of P. purdus I have already figured 
(Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xviii. p. 424, 1916). 

Similar, however, as are the feet of this uenus, they do 
not differ in important points from those of F. nebulusa, a 




species -which lias a more Pantherine skull than any species 
of Felis in the sense in which the latter term is used in this 
paper. 

The facts above described show an interestinoc series of 



n 



n4 



'Mv. R. T. Pocock on the 



grarlations in the specialization of the feet of FvVis in the 
folU)\ving particulars : — 

Cldic-shcaths. — In their simplest form, as exemplified 
in Felh sijlreslris or F. f/cojjioi/i, thcst' stnictnres (litter in 
no essential respects from those of some genera of Viverriuiej 
like Vh'errn and Geticfta. 

In their most elaborate form, as exeni])lificd in Fe/is lynx, 
Punthera tif/ris, and others, the inner lobes on all the digits 
are well developed and form chiw-sheatlis. complete extern- 
ally and internally, but the extent to Avhich they protect 
the tips of the retracted claws depends npon the dej,ree of 
retraction of the claw- bearing plialanx by the elastic liga- 
ments and upon the length of the sheaths tliemselves. 

Between these two extremes every gradation in the 
develo[)ment of the sheaths may be traced. 

llehs. — The webs may, exce[)tionally, be very sliallow, as 
in the hind feet of F. caracal, but in almost all cases they 
reach up to the proximal cud of the digital pads, at least on 
their admedian side; i)ut in other cases they extend beyond 
that point, and may, in the case of the front foot, reach 
practically to the distal end of those pads on the admedian 
side and exhibit only a slight emargination of the edge, as 
in F. t'lyriiiu, for example. In the hind feet the webs aie 
always shorter than in the fore feet, but they exhibit a 
similar progressive series in development from species to 
species. In almost all cases well-developed webs are asso- 
ciated with well-developed claw-sheaths. A striking excep- 
tion to this, however, is shown by the hind feet of F. lynx, 
where short and deeply emarginate webs accompany claw- 
sheatlis, which are complete both externally and internally. 

It is needless to comj^are the feet of the Felidie with those 
of llytona, Muvfjos, Galit/ia, Euplcres, Cryptojirocta, Nan- 
dhiia, FaradujLUrus, ami their allies. But a few genera of 
^luroids, forn.erly included in the lieterogeneons family 
Viverridffi, approach the Fclidas tolerably closely in the 
structure of tlie I'eet, and, at ail events, in the develop- 
ment of claw-sheaths, have more "feline" feet than has 
Acinonyx. 'lliere is scarcely any dilference, for example, 
ljetw(!en (jcnettu^ i\\\({ many species ot T'l/Zs in the extent 
to which the claws are retracted and guarded by cutaneous 
sheaths. The same may be said of the feet of Linsany ami 
Poiana f. But in the structure of the plantar and carpal 
l)ads, the low-set pollex, and the presence of the hallux, 

• I'roc. Zool. Soe. I'Jlo, p. IW, ti-r. 3. 

t Anil. &. IMa-. iNiii. llitl. ^^j x\i. pp. Sli' & 34'), pi. xii. (19Jo). 



F,rlernal Characfers of the Fi'litla?. I.'^o 

Cftieffa, I'oiana, and Liiinang liavc much more primitive 
feet. On the other liaiul, Virerricula has a single cordate 
cai'pal ])a(l, a simple trilohed phintar pad, and a small pollex 
set ahijost as liigli as in many Felidie. The iiind foot, how- 
ever, retains a small iiallux ; and it seems tliat the invariable 
presence of tliis digit is the only character that can be 
definitely affirmed as distinctive of the feet of the N'iverrime 
( Vivtrru, Viven-ien/a, Civetlictis, and Genetta) \\ hen com- 
pared with those of the Felidas *. 

The Anus and External Genita/la, 

The anus and the external genitalia, both in tlie male and 
the female, of the Felidte present very little variation in 
structure. The anus it>elf opens in the centre of a circular 
area of naked skin, and in the feuiale the skin immediately 
surrounding tlie vulva is naked or sparsely hairy ; the 
) erineal region between the two is short, hairy, and un- 
modified, and the clitoris is minute. In the male the 
perineal region is also hairy and unmodified, and tlie pre- 
p4ice is situated close to the sci'otum. The glans penis is 
short, subconical, usually armed M'ith backwardly directed 
spiny papillae, is boneless, or, at most, fortified with a small 
bone, and the urethra opens close to the tip. 

In its short unmodified perineum, the shortness of the 
glans penis, and the closeness of the prepuce to the scrotum 
tiie ano-genital area of Felidie resembles that oi Xandiuia 
and the Mnngotidse, and, so far as I am aware, of Eupleres and 
Linsan(/. My acquaintance with the area in Eopleres 
and Linsany is, however, restricted to the female, and I 
do not know wliether the pre[)uce is close to the scrotum or 
not. Fossa is another genus about which very little seems 
to be actually known with respect to this region, except that 
the peiineum is unmodified and that the prepuce, judging 
from dried skins, is situated far in front of the scrotum, 
a character «hich must be regarded as primitive in the 
Carnivora. 

80 far as this area is concerned, the Felidas may be dis- 
til guished from Nund'mia by the ab-ence of the lai'ge scent- 
gland situated in front of the prepuce and vulva in tluit 
genus, from the Mungotidse by the absence of the circum- 
anal glaiuiular sac and the situation of the small urethral 
orifice at the tip of the glans penis instead of beneath it. 

Of the remaining genera of ^luroids, the A iverridne 

• Ven- exceptionally the Lulkix is preseut in the IVlidfe, I have ?etii 
it in a lionuti. 



13G ^h\ S. Tlirsf on some 

( Vivernu Paradu.iurus, Cynogale, tiiid their allies) have the 
perineal area provided with seeut-^lands, situated in the 
male between the scrotum aiul the j)rc|)U('e, which are 
widely separated. In GaUdictis and Galidia a similar 
gland is jjrescnt at least in the female, the position of the 
prepuce beinj^ unknown. In the Hyicnas there is a large 
sac, receiving the secretion of the anal glands, above the 
anus, the i)rcpuce is far in advance of the scrotum, and 
tlie glans penis is long. 

Finally, Cnjptoproda, which has even been referred to the 
same family as the Feiidse on account of the misleading 
character of its dentition, has widely different external 
genitalia and the anus opening into a hirge sac. 

Thus, if we set aside Linsung. Evpleres, and Fossa, about 
which our knowledge is defective, it may be seen that the 
genito-anal area of the Felidse possesses a combination of 
characters distinctive of this family of /liluroidea. 



VIII. — On some 7iew Mites of the Suborder Prostic/mata 
Ihiny on Lizards. By Stanley Hirst. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Tni; Acari described below are forms living on lizards, and> 
v,\\.\i the probable exception of Pimeliaphilus tenuipes, they 
are all true blood-sucking parasites. The species dealt Avith 
in tliis preliminary note will be figured and described in 
detail in a later paper on parasitic mites. 

Genus Pterygosoma, Peters. 

Pterygosoma persicus, sp. n. 

$ . — Body much vider than long. On each side of the 
anterior end of the dorsum there are two patches of very 
short plumose hairs ; these patches being almost continuous 
with one another, the inner one consists of about 5-8 hairs, 
the outer of 8-16 hairs. Hairs on rest oi dorsum very few 
in number ; some distance behind the anterior patches of 
hairs there is a transverse row of four plain hairs, which are 
short and widely separated from one another ; there are also 
two or three rather long fine hairs on each side near the 
margin ; posteriorly there are two more pairs of short plain 



7iew Mites living on Lizards. 137 

hairs (one pair placed behind the other) ; finally, two pairs 
of short plumose hairs situated near the posterior margin, 
those of the inner pair being placed on either side of the 
tieiiital aperture. On each side of the posterior margin 
there is a fringe of about nineteen or twenty very long 
liairs, which are quite fine, not being feathered or modified 
in any way. Venter with only fonr pairs of fine plain hairs, 
which are of moderate length. There is also a tuft of 
eleven very long fine hairs on each side of the genital 
aperture. Le(/s slender and of moderate length ; coxae 
unarmed, being furnished with long fine hairs. 

Length of body 'Q mm. ; its width 1*15 mm. 

Hah. Sixty miles north-west of Kermaushaw, Persia ; 
a few specimens found under the scales of the tail of 
Agamu nvpta. 

Pterygosoma melanus, sp. n. 

$ . — This s])ecies is not so wide as compared with its length 
as is usually the case in the genus. On each side of the* 
anterior end of the dorsum there is a band of short slender 
plumose hairs. Hairs on the rest of the dorsum very few 
in number and Avidely separated from one another ; some 
distance beiiind the anterior margin there are two pairs of 
racket-shaped hairs arranged so as to practically form a 
transverse row, and a little further back there is another 
pair of similar hairs. Posterior margin furnished with a 
iriuge of about 18-22 hairs, which are rather short and 
paddle-shaped, the basal portion being short and cylindrical, 
but the rest of the hair flattened so as to form a rather wide 
blade-like expansion, which is striated. Hairs on venter 
very few in number, a pair of short plain hairs being 
situated inmcdiately behind the mouth-parts, and another 
])air of similar hairs in the middle of the body ; posteriorly 
there are two move ])airs of hairs, which have the distal end 
plumose. Legs slender and rather short; coxae unarmed, 
being furnished with quite fine plain hairs. 

Culour (^pilit-specimcns) usually black, but sometimes 
paler. 

Ltvgth of body "72 mm.; its width 1*1 mm. 

Hcib. Deelfontein, Ca} e Colony ; several specimens found 
under axillae aiid vential folds of neck of Agama atra. 
Klipfontein, Damaraland ; two sptcin.ens found on the 
same host. 



i;^S 'Mv. ?. Hirsf on some 

Plerygosoma neuwnntii, Bci'l. 

Huh. Specimens from A i/urtui colonortn/i, CiooVi ^Fountains, 
Somalilaiul. 

It is [)rol)aole that this mite is only a vaiiety of P. afjuma, 
Peters. 

Geck()iui:lla, gen. )iov. 

Bohj long-oval, being much longer than wide, instead of 
vider than long as is the case in the genus Pterijgosoma. 
Scutum absent. Numerous short plumose liairs are present 
on the dorsum and sides. Venter only furnished M'ith yery 
few hairs. Free portion of per'itrenie ratiier long and 
directed forwards. Coxje not nearly so much fused to- 
gether as is the rase of Geckubia and PteryyosouiUj and only 
iurnished with fine liairs. 

This new genus is founded for Geclahia texana. Banks ; 
as will be seen from the details given above, it is more 
closely allied to Pterygosonia than to Gickofna, hut differs 
from the former in the slia| e of the body, which is longer 
than wide, instead of the reverse, and in the structure of the 
coxie, which arc only slightly fused with one another. 

Geckobiella tea-ana. Banks. 

Hub. Duval County, Texas ; two adult specimens and 
rumerons larvaj found on Sceloporus sjjhtosus, var. clarkii 
( = S.JIorida/iui). 

Genus Geckobia, Megnin. 
Geckohia latasti, Megn. 

Hab. We have specimens of tliis mite from Castdfusano, 
Ostia, and also from Lisbon and Seville. 'I'he^e examjjhs 
Mere taken Irum between the toes of Tarentula maurilunica. 

Geckvbia cletandi, sp. n. 

?. — Body about as wide as long. Dorsal scutum well 
developed and much wider than long ; it reaches its greatest 
•\\ idth just before the posterior mai'gin, being angular and 
salient at this point. The scutum is furnislud with ten 
liairs, arranged in two transverse rows, an anterior row 
composed of four hairs (two being placed close together 
on each side) and a posterior row of six (three on each 
side of the scutum) ; these hairs are similar in structure 
to those on the rest of the dorsal surface, and are fairly 



neiv yilies lich'r/ on Lizardfi. 139 

long'. A short distance in front of the outermost liair 
of the hinder row tliere is a minute rounded structure, 
wliich possibly is an obsolete eye. Hairs on rest of doisal 
surface fairly numerous^ but not phiced close tof>ether ; 
tliey are mostly of moderate Icngtli and are club-shaped, 
the distal end being enlarged and plumose. Hairs on 
venter numerous, but not placed close together ; most of 
them are much smaller than those on the dorsal surface, 
and have the distal end j)lumose but not distinctly en- 
larged; hairs at tlie sides and hinder end large and club- 
shaped, however. On each side of the vulva the integument 
forms a large conical process. Plumose hair on second 
segment of pa^p, slender, curved, and not very long. 
Leos. Hinder legs not swollen, but they are longer tiian 
the front ones. First coxa furnished with two long fine 
luiirs, which are not plumose. Coxpe 2-4 each with two 
short hairs, which are plumose distally (sometimes tliere 
are three on the last coxa). There is a conspicuous club- 
shaped hair on the dorsal surface of the femora of the legs, 
and a similar but much smaller hair is present on the 
anterior surface of the first femur. 

Length of body "64 mm,; its width '61 mm. 

Colovr red when alive (in spirit yellowish). 

Hub. Sydney (ii. 10) and Narabeen, New South Wales 
(14. xi. 15) ; specimens from Gymnoductyhis pluturus forming 
])art of Dr. J. Burton Cleland's collection. 

Geckobia indica, sp. n. 

? . — Body much wider than long. Sci'tum transversely 
elongated, being very much wider than long; its posterior 
margin is divided into two ronnded lobes by a distinct 
indentation rn the middle. A minute eye is present on 
each side near the anterior margin. There are about 
34-46 jdumose hairs on the scutun», all of them being 
quite short, especially the posterior ones. Similar hairs 
are present in the middle of the dorsum. Hairs at sides 
and posterior end of moderate length, slender and blunt ; 
apparently they are not plumose. Hairs of posterior tufts 
of moderate length. Anterior hairs on venter very short 
and indistinctly plumose. Hairs on rest of lower surface 
long, slender and pointed. Hairs on second segment of the 
pulp quite slender and plumose. Legs. Posterior legs 
longer than the anterior ones, but not much stouter. 
Spurs on coxaj well developed, being large and stout ; 
there is also a plumose seta on the trochanter and femur 



140 Mr. S. Hirst on some 

of the fourtli le^:, but these setse are much more slender 
than the coxal spurs. 

Length of body '^i rara. ; its width '^7o mm. 

l]ab. Several specimens found under ventral scales of a 
gecko [Hemidactylus gleadoici) from Upper Siud. 

Geckobia papuana, sp. n. 

? . — Bodi/ much wider than long. Dorsum furnished with 
numerous hairs. At the anterior end there are two groups, 
each consisting of six stout plumose hairs, which are not very 
long. Behind them there are numerous very short, pointed, 
plumose hairs. Hairs at sides and hinder end of body of 
moderate length, slender, and not distinctly plumose. Hairs 
of posterior tuft long. Eyes present, but very minute and 
inconspicuous. Hairs on venter numerous. Anteriorly 
there is a number of very short plumose hairs or spinules. 
The rest of the lower surface is densely furnished with 
hairs, which are shaped rather like long narrow spear-heads, 
being flattened dorso-ventrally and having the point long 
and narrow. Last pair of legs greatly swollen, the anterior 
pairs comparatively slender. Coxie armed with stout spurs, 
which are curved and plumose ; two spurs are present on 
the second coxa, two on the third, and three on the fourth. 
There is also a spur on the trochanter and femur of the 
fourth leg, that on the femur being placed on. a large 
protuberance. 

Lenr/th of body "34 mm. ; its width '5 mm. 

Hub. Specimens found under ventral scales of a gecko 
{Gymnodactylus loiiisiadensis) from German New Guinea. 

Geclobia malayana, sp. n. 

? . — Closely allied to G. papuana, sp. n. Body much 
wider than long. Dorsum furnished with numerous hairs. 
Two groups, each consisting of five rather stout plumose 
hairs, which are not long, are situated at the anterior end of 
thebodvj and they are followed posteriorly at a short interval 
by a pair of similar hairs. Numerous very short plumose 
hairs, which are pointed, are present in the middle area 
of the dorsal surface. Hairs at sides and posterior end 
long, slender, and apparently not plumose. There is a 
minute but distinct eye on the outer side of the group 
of stout plumose hairs. Hairs of the posterior tuft very 
long and slender. Venter with numerous hairs. Imme- 
diately behind the coxae there is a band of very short 



new Miles living on Lizards, 141 

pointed hairs or spinules ; hairs on the remainder of the 
ventral surface long and very slender. Legs of fourth pair 
much larger and stouter than the others. There is the 
■usual number of spurs on the legs ; the one on the femur of 
the last leg is not situated on a protuberance. 

Length of body '28 mm. : its width •-1-9 mm. 

Hab. Several specimens found on geckoes (Gymnodactylus 
pulchellus) from the Jalor Caves, Malay Peninsula. 

Geckobia boulengeri, sp. n. 

? . — Body longer than wide and attaining its greatest 
width some distance behind the middle. Scutum distinct 
and almost triangular (wedge-shaped) ; the anterior margin 
is slightly concave and strongly salient laterally. ^i'en 
plumose hairs are present on the scutum^ all of them being 
very short and stout ; six of these hairs are situated close 
behind the anterior margin (almost forming a transverse 
line), three being placed on each side. Posteriorly there 
are two lateral hairs on each side, one being situated imme- 
diately behind the other on the margin of the scutum. A 
minute eye is present on each side on the salient portion of 
the anterior margin. ISIumerous short plumose hairs are 
present on the rest of the dorscd surface, the anterior ones 
being usually rather stout, blunt, and very short ; the others 
are more elongated, however. Hairs at the sides and hinder 
end of the body slender, fairly long, and blunt; apparently 
most of them are not feathered. Hairs of the posterior 
tuft long. Venter with very numerous contiguous hairs, 
the anterior ones being short and plumose, the others of 
moderate length, fine, and not feathered. Legs. Anterior 
legs slender, those of the third pair considerably longer 
and stouter ; whilst the fourth pair are also long and are 
greatly swollen. Short stout spurs similar to those present 
in G. papuana etc. are present on the proximal segments of 
the legs. 

Ijcngth of body '47 mm. ; its width '43 mm. 

Hab. A number of examples found on a gecko [Gehyra 
yunnanensis) from Yunnan Fu^ China. 

Geckobia socotrensis, sp. n. 

? . — Body wider than long. Scutum absent. Anteriorly 
the dorsum is furnished with numerous very short plumose 
hairs, which are slender, pointed, and subequal in length, 
none of the anterior ones being enlarged. Hairs at sides 
and posterior end of body only of moderate length and 



142 ]\Ir. S. Hirst oji some 

oftoii sinuous ; ai)])arently tliey are not ijliimose, TTairs on 
venter flattened and scale-like as in G. /oricata, Berl., but 
niueli narrower and more elongated (spindle-sliaped), and 
sharply pointetl jiosteriorly. Distal liair on seeond segment 
of falp short, fairly stout, and plumose. Legs. Coxkj 
furni-hed with the usual spurs, but they arc blunt and 
not nearly so strong as in G. loricata ; trochanters also 
with a short but rather stout seta. All the legs are of 
approximately the same thickness, the posterior ones being 
the longest. 

Length of body '3 mm. ; its width "ST mm. 

Hal). A few specimens found under axillae of a gecko 
{Pristurus rnpcstris) from Jena-Agahan, Socuotra, 

Geckobia loricata, Berl. 

Hub. I have examined specimens of this species found 
under the ventral scales of specimens of Tarentola maiire- 
tunica from Lisbon and also from the Riviera. 

Geckobia australis, sp. n. 

? . — Body wider than long. Scntvm absent. Hairs on 
the anterior two-thirds of the dorsum much more uniform 
both in size and distribution than in G. loricata, Jierl., 
none of the front ones being enlarged^ all being very short. 
Posterior liairs on dorsum of moderate length and sometimes 
plumose, but the feathering is rather difficult to see. Ventral 
hairs flattened and scale-like, most of them being spindle- 
shajjcd and pointed posteriorly ; the posterior ones are more 
elongated, however. The hair on the dorsal surface of the 
palp is stout and plumose. Posterior /e^s longer and stouter 
than the anterior pairs, those of the fourth pair being con- 
siderably swollen. Coxal spurs large and curved ; there is 
also a plumose seta on the posterior trochanters and on the 
femur of the fourth leg. 

Length of body '36 mm. ; its width •425 mm. 

Hub. Several sjiecimens found under ventral scales of a 
geelio {Lygodaciylus capensis), from Beira, Portuguese East 
Africa. 

Genus Pimeliaphilus, Tragardh. 

Pimeliaphilus tenuipes, sp. n. 

$ . — Body oval, being much longer than wide. Scutum 
triangular, the anterior margin almost straight, being very 
slightly concave in the middle , the posterior end bluntly 



new Mitef living on LUarch, 143 

pointed ; tlie scutum is funiislied with six plumose hairs, a 
trausverse row of four hairs being situated ou the anterior 
maririn ; the other two a little l)ehind the middle of its 
length ; tliese hairs are quite long, being slightly longer than 
the scutnm. Arrangement of hairs on dorsum the same 
as in P, podapuUj'opkiiyus, Tnigardh, and P. insignls, 13erl. 
First of all, there is an outer hair on each side situated 
on the same platelet as the eye, the latter being placed 
in front of the hair. There are also four longitndinal rows 
of slender [)lumose hairs, the outer rows each consisting of 
two long hairs and a shorter posterior hair, the inner rows 
each of three long hairs. On each side of the genital 
opening there are two hairs of moderate length and also an 
inner bolder of three short hairs. All these hairs on the 
dorsal surface are slender and plumose, and their sockets 
are not enlarged. Hairs on venter few in number; there is 
a pair of short fine hairs between the last coxfp, followed 
posteriorly by three pairs of plumose hairs. Integument 
marked with a sculpturing of very fine wavy lines as in 
J\ ])0:lapoUpophagus. Projecting portion of peritreme short. 
Chelicera shaped very like that of the species of Geckohhi, 
the basal part being short, compact, well defined, and 
strongly convex dorsally; the re>t of the chelicera forming 
a long slender style, which, apparently, is not bifid at the 
end as in the two known species of Pimeliap/dlus, but ends 
in a single minuLC tooth or claw, which is slightly curved. 
Palp short : the basal segment is salient laterally and has 
a sharp prominent transverse ridge on its dorsal surface; 
second segment dorsally with a long slender [)lumose hair; 
the next two segmeuts each with a shorter hair, which is 
very fine and apparently not [)lumose. Legs long and 
slender, and furnished with numerous fine plumose hairs. 
With the exception of the last, each of the coxse has a pair 
of short hairs, the inner hair being fine and not plumose, 
the outer stouter and apparently plumose. There is also a 
forwardly directed plumose hair on the anterior surface of 
the third coxa. 

LengtJi of tjody "274 mm. ; its width "22 mm. 

Cu/our (in spirit). Body red, but whitish anterioily and 
marked with a pale central line both above and below, 
appendages pale. 

Hub. A single example fonnd on a gecko [Gonatodes 
albogularis) , from Honda, Magdalene River, Colombia. 



1-4-i Mr. S. Maulik oti CassIJiiiaj and BiiicliiJte//*t)m 



IX. — Cassiclinse and Brucliidae [Colcoptera'\ from the Sey- 
chelles Islands and AUlabra. By S. Maulik, 13. A. 
(Cantab.). 

This paper deals «'ith the material o£ these jxroups obtained 
by the Percy Sla.leu Trust Evpe.litioii, in li)i)8-9, in the 
Seychelles Islands and Aldabra. Many of the results of 
this expedition have be^n published in special vohiines 
of the Linnean Society's 'Transactions' (ser. 2, Zool. 
vols, xii.-xvii.), in which series the writer of the i)resent 
paper has alreadv reported on the Hispinaj of the Seychelles 
(vol. xvi. pp. 23r-21.->, 191 -i). 

dirysomelidoe. 
Cassidinje. 

This subfamily is represented by two species — Tloplionota 
Vila, sp. n., and Aspidomorpha apicalis, Klu;^. The former 
is allied to certain Madagascar species, the latter is known 
from Madaj^ascar and Africa. The only member of the 
group previously recorded from tlie Seychelles was Copto- 
cycla leopardina, Boheman, known also from Madajjascar 
and the Comoro Islands ; but this was not obtained by the 
Percy Sladcu Trust Expedition. 

HoPLioxoT-i, Hope. 
1. Hoplionota Ilia*, sp. n. 

Quadrate, slightly narrowed behind ; as seen in profile 
very convex behind the middle, from the highest point 
of the convexity a gentle slope towards the head and a 
sudden decline towards the posterior extremity; subnitid. 
Head, anteniiEe, prothorax with its lateral expansions, scu- 
tellum, the elytral expansions, and the underside orange-red. 
Eyes black. Basal half of elytra green, without costae, 
apical half dark red. Elytra without spines or tubercles, 
Lena;th 5 mm. ; greatest breadth 4 5 mm. 

Head not completely concealed under the pronotum, 
dorsal surface slightly depressed between the eyes ; viewed 
dorsally the vertex is bilobed and slightly projecting; the 
antennse are situated under the lobes. Eyes oblong-ovate. 
Antennae : joint 1 elongate and distally thickened, joint 2 

* A Sanskrit word, used with reference to the green colour cf the 
elytra. 



iTie Seychelles Islands and AlJahra. 



W: 



small and roundei^, joints 3-6 elongate and more slender, 
joii;ts 7-11 form a dilated club wliich is covered with 
brownish pubescence. Pronoium twice as broad as Ion?, 
front marfiin more or less serratefl, lateral margins rounded ; 
surface of disc uneven, im punctate ; tlie lateral expansions 
with lHr<;re and deep punctures, the centres of which are 
more or less hyaline. Sculel/um triangular ; apex rounded. 
El'/tra : basal portion green, deeply and closely punctate, 
centres of punctures red ; the green portion of each elytron 
is separated from the apical red portion by an oblique costa, 
one end of which terminates iu a swelling at the middle 
of the lateral expansion, the other end joiuing with au 
irregularly-branched costa on the apical rod portion of the 
elytrou ; cost?c shining ; the apical red portion of the elytra 



v.. 


y \ 




-. ,i ;- 






1 


'"v^./ 


-V- 







Hoplionota hla, sp. n. 



has the suture raised and is deeply and closely punctate ; 
elvtral expansions sparsely and deeply punctate, centres of 
the punctures more or less hyaline. 

Loc. Seychelles : Mahe; Cascade Estate, ca. 800 ft., 1909 
(//. P. Thomasset). 

Type in the British Museum : described from one example. 

H. Ilia is related to H. thiemi, Weise, H. guerini, AVeise, 
and H. maryinata, Boh., from Madagascar. All of these 
are without elvtral spines or tubercles, and also have the 
basal portion of the elytra without any pronounced costa. 
H. Ula differs from all the others by (I) the orange-red 
colour of the prothorax, scutellum, &c., (2) its larger size, 
(3) the proportionately greater length of the antennie, (4) the 



Ann. 6c Mag. 2\ . Hist. hJer. §. VoL xix. 



10 



146 Mr. S. Mfiullk on Cassldiiia; and Brucliltlse. 

greater slopinj>" of the elytra from the highest convex point, 
(5) the more pronounced character of tlie costae on the apical 
portion of the elytra. 

AspiDOMOKPHA, Hope. 

2. Aspidomorpha apicalis (King). 

Camda apicalis, Klup:, lus. Madag. 1833, p. 1:22; Boheiuan, Mon. 

Caasid. ii. 1854, p. 2.j7. 
Cassida deco/orata, Bolienian, Cat. Brit. Mus. ix. 1856, p. 144; id. 

Mon. Cat»9id. iv. 1502, p. 347. 
Cassida snheuropc^a, Thou)sou ; Weise, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1896, 

p. 19; Kolb-, Abh. Seuckenb. Naturf. Ges. xxvi. 1902, p. 584. 
Var. lutea, Fairni., Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1890, p. 223 ; Wei.se, in 

Voeltzkow, Reise in Oat- Afrika, ii. 1910, p. 504. 

Loc. Seychelles : Mahe ; Cascade Estate, ca. 1000 ft., 
i.-ii. 190J. Aldabra [teste Fairmaire and Kolbe). Known 
also from Madagascar and widely spread in Africa. 

The specimens from Mahe are all from cultivated land. 
Several were found, together with a larva and a pupa, on 
the leaves of sweet potatoes {Ipomoea batatas) in Jan. 1909. 
After death most dried examples fade from green to a 
uniform light yellow. 

CoPTocYCLA, Chevrolat. 

3. Coptocycla leopardina, Boheraan. 

Coptucycla leopardina, Boheman, Mon. Cas.sid. iii. 1855, p. 255 ; id. 
Cat. Brit. Mu3. 1856, p. 175; Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Eut. Belg. xxxvii. 
1893, p. 525 ; Alluand, Cat. Col. Pti^gion Malgache, 1900, p. 333. 

Not obtained by the Pei'cy Sladen Trust Expedition, 
Loc. Seychelles (teste Fairmaire, /. c). Madagascar, 
Comoros. 

BrucMdae. 

Apparently no member of this family has been recorded 
hitherto from any of the islands under review. Two species 
Avere collected by the Exj)edition — one in Seychelles, the 
other in Aldabra. According to Pic's ^Catalogue of Bru- 
chidffi' (1913), both are Oriental. 

Pachymerus, Thunberg. 

Caryoborus, Scbcinherr. 

4. Pachymerus gonager (Fabr.). 

Loc. Seychelles : Mahe, two specimens from Port Vic- 
toria, xii. 1908. East Indies (Pic^ Catalogue^ p. 7). The 



Mr. R. E. Tui-ner on Fossortal Hymenoptera. 147 

Britisli Museum contains specimens from Bombay, South 
India, Ceylon, and Java. Lefroy ('Indian Insect-Life/ 
p. 351) states that this insect is common in India, the larva 
living in the seeds, and the adult eating the leaves, of the 
tamarind : he refers also to the description o£ the life- 
history by Elditt (1860), who reared the beetle from pods 
of Cassia. 

Spermophagus, Schonherr. 

5. Spermophagus convolvuli (Thunberg). 

Loc. Aldabra, xi. 1908 (Fryer), sixteen specimens, seven of 
which are stated to have been bred from fruits of Evolvuhis 
alsinoides, Linn. Pic's Catalogue (p. 59) records the species 
from Ceylon, South Russia (introduced), and doubtfully 
from South Africa. 



X. — Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera. — XXYI. On the 
Genus Homonotus, DaJilh. By ROWLAND E. Turner, 
F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

Family Psammocliaridae. 
Genus Homonotus, Dahlb. 

Homonotus, Dalilb. Hymen. Europ. i. p. 35 (1843) (nee p. 441, 1845). 

Wesmaelhiius, Costa, Prosp. Imen, Ital. ii. p. 46 (1887). 

Hemisalius, Saussure, Graudidier, Hist. Madagascar, xx. p. 313 (1892). 

This genus is poor in species, but has a wide range in the 
Old World, though apparently absent from Americ i. It 
may be distinguished by the convex head, strongly hollowed 
behind ; the clypeus prolonged and covering the mandibles; 
the long and somewhat flattened median segment, emarginatc 
at the apex and with the apical angles produced into stout 
spine-like processes ; by the bifid tarsal ungues ; and by the 
cubitus of the hind wing originating beyond the transverse 
median nervure. Second and third joints of the flagellum 
subequnl, short. The neuration of the fore wing in the 
genus is variable, both in the proportion of the second and 
third cubital cells and in the length of the submedian cell, 
but the first recurrent nervure is received before the middle 
of tlie second cubital cell. As in many genera of the family 
there is a group of identical stlucture with only twocuuital 
cells, tlie second transverse cubital nervure being absent. 
The species I have not seen are marked *. 

10* 



148 ^Ir. R. E. Tuinei- on Fossoruil Il^menoptera. 

Homonottis sa7iguinoleti'ht.f, Fabr. 

Sphe.r savgninolenta, Fabr. Entom. Syst. ii. p. 211 (1793). 

Saliua dorsalis, Siu. Ann. & IMag. Nat. Hist. (4) xii. p. 255 (1873). $ . 

Tliis is tlie tyi e of the genus and occurs lliiouixliout 
Europe, iilso langiufi; as far as Eastern Siberia. Tlmugli 
the thorax and median segment are usually red in the female, 
much variation exi.sts in this respect, the fenuile sometiines 
liaving the thorax and median segment wholly black. 

1/omonotus ari'adne. Cam. 

Pompilus (Ferreola) ariadne, Cam. Mem. Manchester Lit. & Phil. Soc. 
(4) iv. p. 4C2 (1891). 

Hub. N.E.India; S. India j Ceylon; Tenasserim. 

* IJotnonotus aJhisiylu.«, Sauss. 

HcmitfiHns alhisUjIus, Saussure, Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar, xx. 
p. 6\o (1892). 2- 

Ifnh. Madagascar. 

Evidently very closely allied to ariadne, having the same 
nei vure at the base of tiie (ir.-it cubital cell. 

Ilomonotiis e.vtdans, Turn. 
Tedi7iaspis erulans, Turn. Proc. Zool, Soc. London, p. 338 (1910). 2 • 

I doubt if this is more than a geographical race of the 
Indian /Jonwnotus ariadne, Cam., but the spines at tlie apical 
angles of the median segment are distinctly longer and more 
acute in Australum specimens. 

Ilah. Mackay and Kuranda, Queensland ; February to 
June. 

Homonotus nudiventris, Turn. 
Pedinaspis nudiventris, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 339 (1910). $ . 

This differs from exulo.ns in the c dour of the wings and 
nei vure.«, and in the niucli shorter and blunter spines at the 
apical angles of the median segment. 

Both 8|)ecies aiid also //. ariadne, C^im., have the submedian 
cell of the fore wing as long as the median, not a little 
shorter as in the European H. sanguinolentus, Fabr. The 
first cubital cell is also pointed at ihe lase, projecting towards 
the base of the wing a little beyond the ba.sal nervure, in this 
also differing from sanguinolentus. 

Ilab. Mackay, Queensland ; (!)ctober. 

This may prove to be a seasonal funn of cjculans. 



Mv. R. E. Turner on Fo':soriiiI [lymp.nop'evn. 14-9 

1 1> moiiotna a't^/'pfidC'is, Had. 

WesmaeUnius <ryyptiacus, I\ad. J3iil]. Snc. Xatunil. Moscou, p. 473 
(1868). 6- 

A male in the Britisli ]\Iust'Uin from Uganda answers uhII 
to the descri{)tioti, but has tlie oreatcr part o£ tlie leniora. as 
well as the tibife and tarsi, ferruginous; the apex of the 
alidonien is red from themiddleof the third segment. With 
tliis I associate a female fiom North lUiodesia in uhicli the 
legs are black, the cakaria whitish, and the abdomen rrd 
from the base ot the third segment. The submedian cell in 
tiiis species is slightly longer ihan the median, 

Bab. Mt. Kokai.j.'ro, S.W. of Elgon, 6U00 ft., Uganda 
{S. A. Neave)^ August ; 70 miles west of Kariba Gorge, 
N. Rhode.sia (Silverlock), June. 

I assume that this is the species described by Eadosz- 
kow.ski, being the only species of the genus with similar 
colouring known to me. 1 have, however^ seen a specie.s 
more nearly allied to Plnniceps in which the three apical 
segments of the abdomen are red in the female ; but this has 
a tihort clypeus and the tarsal ungues are bidentate near the 
base, and I do not think it can iiave been mistaken for a 
Hoinoiiotus. It was taken at Harar. 

Ilomonotiis nurset\ sp. n. 

$. Nigra; mandibulis fusco-ferrugineis ; antennis fuscis, subtua 
fusco-testaceis ; clypeo apice, tegulisque testaceis ; pedibus fuscis ; 
tar.sis pullide ferrugineis, articulo basali basi, calcaribusque 
albidis ; alis hyalinis, venis basi testaceis, apice fuscis. 

Long. 4-6 mm. 

? . Clypeus produced over the mandil)les, very broadly 
ronmied at the apex ; second and third joints of the tlagellum 
subequal. Front strongly convex, temples y^^ry narrow, the 
eyes nearly reaching the bind margiii of the head. Posterior 
ocelli very far apart, about four times as far from each other 
as from tlie eyes. Pronotum scarcely longer than the meso- 
notum, mucii broader than long, narrowed anteriorly. Median 
segment emarginate posterioily, the apical angles produced 
into stout and rather blunt spines. First and second ab io- 
minal segments about equal in length, the bas.il iialf of the 
second dorsal segment lather thinly covered witii very short 
grey pubescence. Tlie longest calcar of the hmd and inter- 
nediute tibiae a little longer than the basal joint of the tar.**!. 
First cubital cell narrowly rounded at the base; submedian 
cell a little shorter than the median; ihini abscissa of the 
radius longer than the secjiid ; first recu.ient nervure 



loO ^li. H. E. Turner on Fossoj'ial Ilymenoptei'a. 

received jit about oiie-tliird from tlie base of the second 
cubital cell, second just before llie uiiddJe of the third cubil:tl 
cell. Cubitus of the hind wing originating beyond the trans- 
verse median nervure. 

Jhih. Deesn, W. India {Nurse) ; April. 

This is a smaller species than alhocalcarafun, Rad., and has 
the third cubital cell longer than the second, not shorter as 
in that species ; the colour of the antennse and tarsi is als) 
diftcrent. 

Ilomonotus albocalcaratus, Rad. 

WesmacUnius albocalcaratus, Ead. Bull. Soc. Natural. Moscou, p. 472 
(1888). $d. 

A single male in the British Museum from Karachi 
(Comber) corresponds fairly well with the description, but 
the wings are. hyaline, not infuscate, an<l the clyjicus is 
broadly rounded at the apex, not sul)emnrginafe ; but 1 am 
inclined to look on the latter as a sexual dilierence. 

Hub. Orenburg; Caucasus; yiberin. 

^IJoihonotus caucaniciiSj Rad. 
IVeamuelinius ci(ucusia(s,]X&\]i. Bull. Soc. Natural. Moscou, p. 472 (1888). 

Hab. Caucasus. 

* Ilomonotus transcaspicus, Rad. 

l]'esmaelmius transcaspicus, Bad. Ilorte Soc. Eut. Hess, xxvii. p. CO 
(1893J. $. 

IJab. Merv. 

* Ho7)wnotus steini, Schulz. 

IIo7nonotus affnis, Stein, Berlin, ent. Zeit. iii. p. G3 (1869) (nee Poin~ 

2)jlus affinis, Ev. = ^. sariyinuokntus, Fab.). 
Fompilus steini, Scbulz, Spolia Hymen, p. 168 (1900). 

liab. S.E. Hungary. 

Doubtfully distinct trom sanguinolentus. 



Wesinaelinus costa, Tourn. Entom. Genev. i. p. 156 (1889). $ cT. 
Fompilus zceitsteini, 1). T., Cat. Iljm. viii. p. 336 (1897). 



'^Honionotus costce, Tourn. 

St. 

•in 

Hab. Sicily. 

Subgenus Gilbektella, nov. 

Differs from Jlomovotus in having only two cubital cell."?, 
the second transverse cubital nervure being absent. 
"Jype of the subgenus, rianiceps umhraticns, Turn. 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial ITi/menoptera, 151 

Homonotus {Gilbertella) umhraticus. Turn. 
Planiceps ttmbraticus, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 337 (1910). 2 • 

Tiie second cubital cell is very long, receiving the re- 
current nervures near the base and near the apex. As in 
other Australian species of IJomonotuSj the base of the tirst 
cubital cell emits the stump ot" a nervure into the median cell. 
The submedian cell is a little shorter than the median. 
Calcaria of the intermediate and hind tibiae very long, slightly 
exceeding in length the basal joint of the tarsi. 

Hah. Mackay, Queensland; January and February. 

Homonotus [Gilhertella) disparilisy sp. n. 

(S . Niger; antennis subtus, tibiis anticis iutermediisque subtus, 
tarsisque fusco-ferrugineis ; calcaribus albidis ; alls fusco- 
hyalinis, venis nigris. 
Long. 5 mm. 

(J . Glypeus very broadly rounded at the apex, covering 
the mandibles ; second and third joints of the flagellum sub- 
equal ; front shining, moderately convex. Posterior ocelli 
about twice as far fiom each other as from the eyes ; temples 
very narrow. Pronotum narrowed anteriorly, scarcely as 
long as the mesonotum ; median segment a little longer than 
broad, emarginate at the apex, the apical angles produced 
into long stout spines. Second abdominal segment a little 
longer than the first ; the two apical ventral segments 
strongly compressed laterally. The longest calcar of the hind 
and intermediate tibiae not quite as long as the basal joint of 
the tarsus ; hind tibiae moderately spinose ; tarsal ungues 
rather feebly bifid near the apex. Two cubital cells ; the 
second abscissa of the radius twice as long as the first; 
the recurrent nervures received at one-quarter from the base 
and at one-quarter from the apex of the second cubital cell; 
second transverse cubital nervure received just before the 
middle of the radius. Submedian cell distinctly longer than 
the median; cubitus of the hind wing originaiing far beyond 
the transverse cubital nervure. 

Hub. Mlanje, Nyasaland (6'. A. Neave) ; May. 

The second cubital cell is much shurter than in lunbraticus 
and the recurrent nervures are received much nearer together. 
In uittbruticus the second transverse cubital nervure is 
received just before two-thirds from the base of the radius. 
The spines at the apical angles of tlie median segment are 
longer in this species than iu any other known to me. 



152 Mr. O. Thomas on 



XI. — Notes on the Species of the Genus Cavia, 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The genus Cavia ranges from Venezuela aiul Guiana in fix? 
north of South America to tlie j)am|)as of Buenos Ayres 
in the south, and extends across tlie whole breadth of the 
continent, from Peru to Pernambuco. 

Any examination of the species that exist in this area, and 
tlieir correct names, lias been rendered very difficult by the 
occurrence of such widely different specimens in tlie same 
areas, on which account 1 have long hesitated to attempt to 
work out this puzzling group. Definite cranial characters 
seemed almost non-existent, and one appeared to be reduced 
to distinguishing the local forms purely by average differ- 
ences of size and shades of colour in a group where there is 
not a great range in eitlier. 

On taking up the subject afresh, however, I find that one 
character, observed by Lund in 1838, but overlooked ever 
since, delinitely and sharply separates the smaller Brazilian 
species from the larger ; and then, these smaller forms being 
laid on one side, the whole problem immediately becomes 
simplified. 

This character is the pos.session by Cavia fulgida, the 
smaller Brazilian cavy, of a deep outer re-entrant angle or 
notch at the front end of the posterior lobe of ufi *, this angle 
being quite shallow in the larger forms. This notch is so 
deep and well defined that there is practically never any case 
where one is doubtful as to the allocation of an individual 
skull. 

When writing about the group in 1901 f, I recognized 
Cavia fulgida (under the name of riifescens) by its smaller 
size, but, not knowing of the tooth-character, I erroneously 
made the small Argentine " quiso'^ a subspecies of it. Now, 
however, it is evident that there is no special relationship 
between the two. 

Taking first the ordinary species without the extra molar 
notch, and going from north to south on the Eastern non- 
Andean part of the continent, we have in Guiana 

• Figured by Lund, K. Dansli. Vid. Selsk. viii. pi. xxv. fig. 16. 
t Ann. & Mag. ]Nat. Hist. (7) viii. pp. o32-534 (1901). 



\ 



tlie Species of ihe Genus Cavia. 153 

Cava guianc'^ Tlios. 

C. porceUus yuiance, Thos. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) viii. p. 152 
(1901); 

and in Venezuela 

" Cavia por cell KS venezueicB," All. Bull. Am. Mus. xxx. p. 250 (1911), 

\vlin.se distinction from guiance appeav.s most douhtfnl. 

As regards guioue, the original statements about it^ 
characters were largely influenced by the fact that at that 
date the few available Brazilian specimens included both 
aperea and what we now know to be the quite distinct 
species /w/^iV/a. As a matter of fact, f^'a'ar/ce. has practically 
the same colour as the real aperea, but is distinguished by 
its smaller size, the largest of three full-grown shells only 
measuring 63 mm. in length*, with length of buliaf 
]1"8 mm. and upper tooth-iow 14. The skull is pro- 
portionately rather broadly built, with unusually develo[;ei 
])ostorbital projecting ledges. 

Specimens are in the British Museum from tlie Kanuku 
Mountains, Berbice, and the Moon Mountains, all in Bi'iiisii 
Guiana. 

Putting aside the Cavia porceUus of Linnteus, based on 
the Cavia cobnya of Marcgrave, the domesticated <iuinea- 
})ig, to which the name should be restricted, we next have 

Cavia aperea, Erxl. 

Cavia aperea, Erxl. Mamin. p. 348 (1777) (based on the ^^ Aperea*' of 

Marcgravej Bras. p. 223, 1048). 
Ana-ma hilaria, Geoif. N. il. Mamm. (fol.) ii. text to pi. 282 (1820). 
Cavia leucopyya, Brandt, Mem. Ac. Petersb. 183o, p. 436, pi. xvi. 

Size largest of the geiuis. General colour grizzled 
brownish grey, not the clearer or more olivaceous grey of 
the Ai'gentine forms. Below dull whitish or drabby whitish, 
a clear white spot generally present on the middle line of the 
chest just behiiul the brown collar. 

Tiie largest of the available skulls measures no less than 
73 mm. in total length, while the average of half a dozen 
from Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo is 68*7 mm. in total length, 
bulla 11'9, tooth-row 15'5. The hind foot in adults varies 
from 45 to 50 mm. 

* The skull-length is here always taken from the tip of the nasals, and 
may sometimes be slightly exceeded by a slanting length from occipital 
to gnathion. 

f Measured from the notch in front of the paroccipital process directly 
forwards, parallel with the axis of the skull, not to the antero-internal 
angle, ■which end(3 in an irregular point. 



154 Mr. 0. Tliomas on 

Range from Pernambuco fo SsTo Paulo ; inland to Minas 
Geracs. Specimens in Museum tVom Baliia [Zoological 
Soci'eti/) ; Rio Jordan, Miiias Geraes (Robert) ; Alamhary 
and Ypanema, Sao Paulo {Robert) ; and Victoria, Sao Paulo 
{Hempel). Recorded by Lund from Lagoa Santa. 

The Paraguayan cavy is so similar to C. aperea tliat I 
should probably not have distinguished it, but, as it has a 
name, it may provisionally stand as 

Cavia aperea azara. 
Cavia azara, AVagn., Scbr. Saug., Supp. iv. p. 63, footnote (1843). 

Colour, as represented b}' fresh skins, very much as in 
true aperea or rather more olivaceous ; size averaging 
slightly less, though individual specimens overlap. Aveiages 
of four skulls in greatest length 65"8 nun.; bulla 12*-i; 
tooth-row 14:"9. The bulla? would, therefore, appear to be 
rather larger, but the imraber of specimens is not enough to 
indicate this with certainty. 

Hub. Paraguay. Several specimens from Sapucay ( IF. 
Foster'). 

Next southwards from C. aperea, in the province of 
Parana, a special form was discovered by M. Robert, which 
may be described as follows : — 

Cavia rosida, sp. n. 

Size less than in C. aperea, greatest length of skull about 
62 mm. General colour saturate, comparatively dark, nearly 
as much so as in C. fuhida. Up[)er surface grizzled 
"mummy-brown"; median area of back lieavily blackened 
with long blackish ])iles, especially posteriorly, the middle of 
the lumbar region being nearly black. Tlie blackening is, 
however, variable and occasionally almost absent. Under 
surface dull cinnamon-buff, the hairs pale grey basally ; 
usual throat-markings scarcely distinguishable, the inter- 
ramia buffy, the usual dark collar overlaid with dull buffy, 
and the white chest-patch either absent or reduced to a small 
spot. Inner side of limbs like belly. 

Skull, as compared with that of C. aperea, smaller and 
with conspicuously shorter and slenderer muzzle — in fact, the 
skull, apart from the muzzle, is scarcely or not smaller than 
that of aperea, the difference in the whole length being 
almost entirely due to the reduction of the rostrum. Po.sfr- 
orbital projections not heavily developed. Bulhe fairly large. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and bodv 395 mm. ; hind foot 46 ; ear 20. 



I 



the Species of the Genus Ciivia. 155 

Skull: greatest upper length 62; condylo-incisive length 
58; zygoniutic breadth 35; nasals .19*7 X 8*5; interorbital 
breadth 12"6; breadth of parietals across brain-case 24*5 ; 
diastema 17'4; bulla; 12-2 X 9*3; upper tooth-series 14'6. 

Hub. Serra do Mar, Eastern Parana. Type from Roga 
Kovn. Alt. 1000 m. 

7)/pe. Adult female. B.M. no. 3. 7. 1. 96. Original 
number 831. Collected 6th September, 1901, by Alphonse 
Robert. Six specimens. 

Tliis cavy of the Serra do Mar is readily distin.cuishable 
from C. aperea by its dark colour, blackish back, butfy belly, 
reciuced chest-markings, and by the short and slender 
muzzle of its skull. In the lowlands of the same region, at 
Morretes (10 m.), M. Robert found a representative of the 
C. fu'gida group. 

Next comes the "well-known quiso of the Argentine and 
Uruguay :— 

Cavia pamparum, Thos. 

Cavia rufescens iiamiiarujn, Thos. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7j viii. 
p. 538 (1901j. 

Allied to C. aperfa, but smaller j the skull usually about 
62-63 mm. in length when adult. Colour as in aperea, but 
distinctly more greyish or olivaceous, less brown. Under 
surface whitish or slightly drabby, the chest-pattern well 
marked. 

Skull shaped as in aperea, but smaller ; the muzzle of the 
same general proportion, not reduced as in C. rosida. 

Range from Corrientes and Uruguay southwards to 
Soiithtrn Buenos Ayres. Specimens in Museum from "20 
miles north of Corrientes^' {2'urner Hendtrson) ; Goya, 
Corrientes {li. Perrens) ; Miildonado {Darivin) ; La Plata 
[Thomas); Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Ayres {E. Gibson)-, 
and Bonifacio, S.W. Buenos Ayres (ii. Keiup). 

All the specimens from the above considerable range agree 
very closely with each other in size and colour, no geogra- 
]ihic!il variation being observable. Two of Mr. Gibson^s Aj6 
specimens, however, out of seven are abnormally larger than 
tlie otlicrs, with decidedly larger skulls; but these appear 
more or less diseased, and it is possible that tiiey represent au 
infusion of domestic guinea-pig blood, although there is no 
colour indication of this. The other specimens of the same 
lot are quite like the ordinary quiso. The size of the bulla 
is a little variable, two of the Bonifacio series having this 
12-1 and 11 mm. in length, that of the type being 11-7. 



15() Mr. O. Ti:oinas on 

Pnssinpr Tiow to tlie cavies of the Andean conntrit'S, Peru 
and B •livia, we have Hr.st to identify Cavia cutleri, Bennett, 
tlie earliest name connected with tiiat reoion. 

I he type-specimen, with imperfect skull, is in the British 
Museum — no. 53. 8. 29. 2, — and I have carefully examined 
it and compared it with the other material in the collection. 
It is a melano, and on this account its colour has never been 
able to be used for purposes of identitieation, while, although 
called a " Peruvian cavy," its original locality has always 
been doubtful. 

The conclusion I come to is that it is a domesticated guinea- 
p;g — Cavia porcclhis, L., — it^ skull being too large for any 
Peruvian wilil species, while it is closely matched by example3 
ot C. porce'lus, among which, of course, black specimens are 
by no means infrequent. 

With this troublesome name removed, the ordinary 
Peruvian cavy should bear the name of 

Cavia tacliuduy Fitz. 

Oivin cidleri, Tschudi, Fauna Peruana, p. 195 (1845"). 
Cavia Uchiidii, Fitzinger, SB. Ak. Wieii, Ivi. pt. i. p. 154 (98 in sppa- 
rates) (1867). 

with type-locality Tga, on the coast, where T^^chudi saw tho 
specimens he described. 

'I'he species is comparatively small, the skull about .58 to 
62 mm. in length, and with small bullae. In colour it is 
coarsely giizzled cinnamon, bnffy or greyish, and the under- 
side varies from strongly buffy to nearly white. 

These variations appear to indicate four subspecies, as 
folluws : — 

Cavia tschudii attihualpre, Osgood. 
Cavia atahualpce, Osgood, Field 3Jus. Publ. x. p. 98 (191-3). 

Size fairly large, the bulla? larger than in the more southern 
forms. Cohur dark, " evenly grizzled cinnamon and 
blackish, the bases of the hairs dark drab tbllowed by two or 
more annulations of cinnanion and blackish " ; back, and 
especially rump, with numerous longer black hairs ; under 
surface more or less cinnamon or buffy. Length of type- 
tknll GO mm. 

ILih. N. Peru : Cajam irca. 

Ko Peruvian cavies that I have seen have more than otio 
light annulalion on the hairs ; but, even if there is no mistake 
in the observation, 1 should not consider ii sufficient reason 



the Spccios of tlie Gtuus Cavia. 157 

to (li.HtinoKisU the Noith-Peruvian cavy specifically from 
C. t.'^ckudii, in view of its general agreement in size and otlier 
characters. 

Cavia tschudii icmhrata, subsp. n. 

Size as in atahualpce. C-olour f^reyer throughout, the light 
rings on the hairs whitish instead of cinnamon or buffv. 

Median area ot back blackish, the darkening being effected 
not by overlaying with long black hairs, as in atahualpce and 
rosida, but by the reduction of the light rin«s on the iiairs, 
these being often barely 1 mm, in length, while those in tlie 
other subspecies are about 2-4 mm. as is usual. Bases of 
hairs pale slaty. Under surface soiled drabby, the belly and 
submaxillary lines of this colour ; collar and middle line of 
chin greyish brown. Hands and feet pale brown, ligliter 
on digits. 

Skull of average proportions, the bullae longer than in tlia 
two following subs[)ecies. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Hind foot 42 mm. ; ear 20. 

Skull: greatest length 60; condylo-incislve length 58 ; 
greatest breadth 57-7; nasals 20"5 x 8 ; diastema 18"2 ; 
bulla ll"8x 9 ; upper tooth-series 13. 

Nah. Junin, Central Peru. Type from Incapirca, Zezioro. 
*2>;ve. Adult female. B.M. no. 94. 8. 6. 23. Collected 
20ih June, 1890, by J. Kalinowski. 

This Junin subspecies agrees with atahnalpce by its 
darkened back, rather larger size, and larger bullae, as com- 
pared with the two more southern forms that follow. From 
atahualpce it differs in general colour very truch as pam- 
panim differs fronj aperta, and also in the details of the dorsal 
daikening. 

Cavia tschudii tschudii, Fitz. 

General colour fairly dark, strongly grizzled, the light 
rings on the hairs butf'y or cinnamon. Under surface moie or 
less strongly buffy. Median area of back not darkened. 

Skull-length about 59-61 mm. ; bullae rather smaller than 
in the previous subspecies, 10"1-10"9 mm. in length. 

Mange. Middle Peru, from 19a to Cuzco. 

The type-locality is Ija, and a specimen from Tambo, on 
the coast opposite Arequipa, agrees so precisely with the 
description as to be undoubtedly the sanie form. Four 
specimens from Urubamba, Cnzco^ collected by 0. Garlepp, 
agree absolutely with that from Tambo, while tliree from 
La liiiya Pass, collected recently by E. Heller, arc rather 



158 



Mr. O. Thomas on 



greyer and more or less intermediate between this subspecies 
and the next ; they are, however, all inmiature. 

Cuvia tschudi I pallid lor, siibsp. n. 

Similar in general characters to ttchudii, but colour much 
lighter, the pale rings on the hairs a paler buffy, and the 
under surface a pale creamy buff approaching whitish. 
Collar a paler grey. Hands and feet buffy whitish, a little 
browner proximally. 

Skull as in tschudi i. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 2'^2 mm. ; hind foot 24; ear 29. 

Skull : greatest length 59*5 ; condylo-incisive length 54 ; 
zygomatic breadth 33'5 ; nasals 20"3x8"7 ; diastema 16"6 ; 
bulla 10'2 x8 ; nppcr tooth-row 14. 

Hah. Areqiiipa. Type from 2500 in. 

'Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 0. 10. 1. 85. Original num- 
ber 1023. Collected 31st May, 1900, by P. O. Simons. 
Presented by Oldfield Thomas. Six specimens. 

Distinguished from tschiidii by its lighter coloration 
throuirhout. 



oilier 



Cavia nana, sp. n. 

A pigmy cuvy, conspicuously smaller than any 
species of the group. 

Size very small, skull-length onl}' about 52 mm. Colour 
about as in G. tschudii palUdior, the light rings on the hairs 
bufiEy or pale cinnamon ; no darkening along the median 
area of the back. Under surface creamy whitish, the grey 
collar well marked. Hands and feet pale brown. 

Skull about as in C. tschudii, but cons])icuously smaller. 
Bullpe especially small. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 215 mm.; hind foot 38 ; ear 23. 

Skull : greatest upper length 52 ; condylo-incisive length 
47 ; great(^st breadth 29*5 ; nasals 17'5 x 7'5 ; interorbital 
breadth 10"5 ; breadth of brain-case 22 ; diastema lo*? ; 
bulla 9*5 X 7'5 ; upper molar series, crowns 11*8, alveoli 12"5. 

H'ib. Hisjhlands of Bolivia. Type from Chuluniani, 
Yungas, 2000 m. Another specimen from the Desaguadero 
Eiver {J. B. Pentland). 

7^//)^. Adult female. B.IM. no. 1. 6. 7. 59. Original num- 
ber 1363. Collected 16th February, 190l, by Perry O. 
Simons. Presented by Oldfield Thomas. Four specimens 
in all. • 



the Species of tJie Genus Cavia. 159 

This remarkable little cavy furnishes a good example of 
the difficulty of distinguishing young specimens from old 
in this group ; for^ in spite of the fairly close survey of the 
collection always kept up, no one has previously noted that 
Mr. Pentland's specimen, received sixty-six years ago, is 
fully adult, and it is only on the general examination of the 
group now made that I have found this out, and am able to 
give Mr. Pentland the credit for a very interesting discovery. 
The first scientific exploier of the Titicaca plateau, he sent 
home quite a number of interesting specimens, but, of course, 
had not been instructed as to the proper preservation of data. 
On this account I have chosen one ol Mr. Simons's three 
specimens as the type. These were erroneously called 
C aperea in my account of the latter's Bolivian collection. 

In proof that the specimens are full grown, I may note 
that the type has its basilar suture closed, while Mr. Pent- 
land's specimen has already the tell-tale sagittal crest charac- 
teristic of old individuals. 

Lastly, we have the Brazilian species with the deep notch 
on the outer side of vi^ already referred to. Tiiere appears 
to be only one species of this group, whose name and 
characters are as follows : — 

Cavia fulyida, Wagler. 

Caviafulgida, Wagler, Isis, xxiv. p. 512 (1831) ; Wagn., Schr. Saug., 

Supp. iv. p. 59 (1643) (redesciiption of type). 
Cavia 7-iifescens, Lund, K. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. viii. p. 282 (1841). 
Cavia niyricans' aii(\. " Kerodo}i obscurus, Licht.," Wagu., Schr. Saug., 

Supp. iv. p. 64 (1843). 

Size comparatively small, greatest skull-length rarely 
attaining 60 mm. Colour rich dark grizzled brown ; under 
surface deep buffy or ochraceouf', dulled by the greyish 
bases of the hairs showing through to a variable extent. 

Last upper molar with a deep indentation on its outer side 
at the anterior end of the posterior lobe. 

Range from Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, to Santa Calhe- 
rina ; type said to have been obtained on the "Amazonian" 
journey of Spix *, but the species is not known to occur on 
the Amazon. 

* Spix's other explorations were mostly in the region inhabited by the 
species I now call C. fulgida, and some error probably crept in as to the 
particular trip on which it was collected. Or, with the loose geography 
of the time, all his Brazilian journeyings may have been spoken of as 
•' Amazonian." Wagner expressed certainty as to the identity oi fulgida 
and 7-ufescens, and there appeal's to me no doubt about it. 



\€0 



BihUographlcal y^otice. 



Specimens in Museum Crom Miiuis Geraes (Zonl. Soc . 
Museum); Eiifjeulieiio Reeve, Espiiitu Santo {A. Robert); 
Rio Janeiro [C'lpt. Milner and L. H trdi/ da Dreneuf) ; 
Cinzeiro and Piqne!^, Sao Paulo (^Robert) ; Moretes, Parana 
(Robert) ; Humboldt (Ehrhardt) and Joinville {Be/ir), Santa 
Catheriiia. 

A very distinct species, readily recognizable by its peculiar 
«<*. In colour it is not unlike Cuvia rosida, but has not tiie 
special darkening on the back. 



BIliLlOGRAPlIlCAL NOTICE. 



Afrlcin Freshwater Fishes. 

With the completion of vol. iv. of the ' Catalogue of Freshwater 
Fishes of Afriea ' (London, the Trustees of the British Museum, 
1916) Mr. G. A. lioidenger has earned the gratitude, not merely of 
students of African fishes or of ichthyologists in general, but of all 
who are concerned with tlie problems of geographical distribution, 

h\ these four volumes Mr. lioulenger has described the largest 
collection of freshwater tishcs ever brought together from one area 
in any part of the world, cj^mprising as it does over 15,000 specimens 
now in tlie liritish Museum and an almost equal number in the 
museums of the Nile Survey, the Congo (Tervueren), S. Africa, 
Paris, and Luxemburg. 

How immensely our knowledge of the freshwater fishes of Africa 
has grown during the last thirty years or so may be gathered from 
the fact that in 18S0 only 255 species were known. Ten years 
ago this number had increased to 974. In the present catalogue 
no le-is than 1425 species are described, and this increase is largely 
due to the zeal and enthusiasm of the author of this catalogue, of 
wiiieh he may well be proud. 

Though it would materially have increa«'ed the bulk of these 
volumes, we venture to think that their value would have been 
immensely increased by the addition of internal anatomical 
characters — or, at any rate, of skeletal characters — and field-notes 
contributed by the collectors. But there were probably good 
reasons for reducing the work to the smallest possible dimensions. 
Happily it is well illustrated and has a good index. 



1^' 



THE ANXALS 



A2rD 



MAGiZ[XE OF NAT[JRiL HISTORY. 

[EIGHTH SERIES.] 
No. 110. FEBRUARY 1917. 



Xir. — Coleoptera, Heteromera {excluding Tenebrionidse) 
from the Seychelles Islands and Aldabra *. By George 
Charles CnAMPiONf, F.Z.S. 

[Plate VI.] 

The material reported upon in the present paper forms part 
of the colleotions made by the Percy Sladen Trust Expedi- 
tions of 1905 aud 1908-9 in the Seychelles and other islands 
of the Western Indian Ocean *. The twenty-six species of 
Heteromerous Coleoptera enumerated belong to eight 
families, the Monommidae, Cistelidse ( = Alleculid8e), Melan- 
dryidae, ffidemeridae, Anthicidse, Pedilidse^ Xylophilidse, and 
Mordellidfe. The Tenebrionidse (at present in the hands 
of Herr Hans Gebien) are not included. The collections 
examined illustrate the abundance of certain (Edemerids, 
Xylopliilids, and Mordellids (Mo7'dellistena) in the islands 
and the preseuce of two peculiar Melandryid genera in 
the Seychelles. A first set of the material, including the 
types of all new forms, will be placed in the British 
Museum. 

* Many results of this Expedition have been published In a special 
series of volumes of the Linnean Society's * Transactions ' (ser. 2, Zool. 
vols, xii.-xvii.). 

Ann. ct Mag, X IHst. Ser. 8. VoL xix. 11 



11)2 Mr. C. C. Cluimition on Cvleoptera from 



List of Sj)ec}e.t. 



Fniu. Moncmmidae. 

1. Mv)iu7n})ici j)ruii)osu7i), pp. n. 

Fnm. CistelidsB ( = ALi.Kcr- 
Lii)3:). 

2. Cacoplesia vindiU'ncin, sp. n. 

3. „ (ixiiii/ijics, Sip. 11. 

Fam. Melandryidae. 

4. Stictodnja (j;eii. iiuv.) loiigi- 

pennis, sp. n. 

5. Mt/cferanihnu.s (gen. iiov.) /;/- 

tfuhiriS) sp. n. 

Fam. (Zdemeridae. 

»^ Oxacis grisescens, Fairm. 

7. ,, lineola, Fainii. 

8. Aiiiaicu uld(ibr(i)ici, sp. n. 
V>. „ scahripcniiis, sp. ii. 

10. „ siihaiaryinata, sp. u. 



Fam. Anthicidae. 

11. Anthicus occcnticu.i, Laf. 

Fam. Pedilidae. 

12. Euri/ffenhisfrof/iliconu's, sp. n. 

13. „ G07irc:vicollis,Bj>. n. 

Fam. Xylophilidae. 

14. Xi/IophUus iorticornis, sp. ii. 

15. ,, chivicornis, sp. ii. 
10. „ scijchellarum, sp. a. 

Fam. Mordellidae. 



17. 


*Morddla br 


mio'i, Kolbe. 


18. 
19. 




pt'ref/r/>/ato7-, sp. n. 
dispu)-ih'i^, sp. n. 


20. 


MordtlUsten 


rt 7)ui]iena, Kolbe 


21. 
22. 
23. 






(Icfp-essn, sp. n. 
juniilis, sp. n. 
co/^rt?, sp. n. 


24. 


>) 




scpfe7ncarinata, 


2o. 
26, 


>> 




sp. 11. 
di7-nitj7ta^, sp. n. 
(ir^utuila,, sp.. u. 



i 



Fam. Monomniidse. 

MONOMMA. 

MoitoiitHid, Casteluau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. p. 215 (1840). 

1. Monomma pruinosum, sp. n. 

Elliptic^ rather broad, feebly sLining, nigro-piceous or 
black, at most obsoletelj' rufo-vaiicgate, the reddish colora- 
tion sometimes becoming more distinct along the lateral 
and apical margins of the prothorax, towards the sides of 
the elytra before the apex, and on the humeri beneath, the 
antcniial clu!), the palpi, and the legs in part also rufescent ; 
somewhat thickly clothed above with minute, fulvous, 
adprcssed, sqiiamiform hairs, which are condensed into a 
small patch on each elytron at the base. Head densely 
punctate. Prothorax rounded at the sides anteriorly, closely, 
tinely punctate, the anterior an<iles arcuately produced, the 
hind angles subrectangular. Elytra transversely gibbous 



Not represented in the collections made by the Expedition, 



lite Seychelles Inlands and AlJahra. 1(13 

before the mkldle, with rows of somewhat closely placed, 
rather coarse, shallow punctures placed in flue shallow stri.'e, 
tlie punctures hecominj;^ coarser and less approximate and 
the strife ohsolete on the gibhous portion of the disc, the 
interstices minutely punctate tliroughout, moderately convex 
towards the sides and apex, and almost flat on the disc. 
Beneath closely, finely punctate, the punctures on the 
anterior and lateral portions of the metasternum coarse and 
scattered ; prosternal process moderately broad, the marginal 
cariufc parallel ; fifth ventral segment with a very deep, 
bisinuate, transverse sulcus extending across the middle 
from the outer margin, interrupted in the centre by a 
dentiform backward prolongation of the anterior portion of 
the segment. 

Length 51-61, breadth 31-34 mm. 

J.oc. Aldabra: Takamaka, x.-xi. 1908 {Fryer). 

Eleven sj)ecimens, almost certainly including the tv^'o 
sexes. Near M. irroratum. King, from Madagascar, but 
smaller ; the vestiture finer and more scattered, not con- 
densed into two well-defined densely punctate spots on the 
disc of the prothorax (well shown in Klug's figure) ; the 
prothorax more finely punctate ; the elytra less dilated at 
the sides below the humeri, the humeri more acute, the 
seriate punctures smaller and shallower, the dentiform back- 
ward prolongation of the basal portion of the fifth ventral 
segment narrower and extending to very near the apex, 

Fam. Cistelidae ( = AllecTilidae), 

Cacoplesia. 

Crtco^p/esirt, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xlii. p. 237 (1898). 

The two species provisionally referred to this genus have 
the penultimate joint of the tarsi lobed and the tibial spurs 
small, as defined by Fairmaire. 

2. Cacoplesia viriditincta, sp. n. (PL YI. fig. 1, c?.) 

Ol)long-oval, moderately elongate, subopaque, subglabrous, 
fusoo-testaceous, more or less suffused with green or golden- 
green, the head and prothorax being almost entirely of this 
colour, the elytra more dilute, the antennae and legs testa- 
ceous or obscure testaceous. Head closely, finely punctate, 
the epistoraa separated from the front by a shallow 
groove ; eyes large, prominent, slightly smaller in $ , 
separated bv less than the width of one of them as seen 

11* 



1G4 Mr. G. C. Champion on Coleoptera from 

from above ; last joint of maxillary palpi ratlicr narrow, 
elongate-triangular; antennae slender, long in (5*, shorter 
in ? , joints 3-11 snbequal in length, 3-10 feebly subserrate. 
Prothorax transverse, rather small, arcuately narrowing from 
a little behind the middle to the apex, the base broadly sub- 
truncate, the hind angles obtuse ; the punctuation fine and 
sparser thun on the head, the interspaces alutactous. Elytra 
much wider tlian the prothorax, nioderately elongate, sub- 
parallel in their basal half in ^J , a little -widened posteriorly 
in ? ; deeply crenato-striate. the punctures closely placed, 
the interstices convex throughout and very sparsely, finely, 
irregularly punctate, ^deagus of (^ long, tapering, abruptly 
bent at some distance before the slender tip. 
Length 7^-8^, breadth 3-3^ mm. ( c^ ? .) 
Loc. Aldabra : Esprit Island, xii. 1908 (Fi'yer). 
Five specimens, the two males having the tedeagus pro- 
truding. Allied forms occur in Madagascar, and it is just 
possible that the present species may be referable to one of 
them. It has the upper surface obviously less shining than 
in C. micaiis, Klug, coerulans and caeruleovirens^ Fairm., &c., 
to judge from the descriptions of those insects. 

3. Cacoplesia atinulipes, s-p. n. (PL VI. fig. 2, c? .) 

Oblong-ovate, convex, the head and prothorax opaque, 
the rest of the surface shining; head, prothorax, and coxie, 
and the basal joint of the antennae in immature examples, 
obscure ferruginous, the rest of the antennae black, the 
elytra brown, the legs testaceous, ■with the knees, and some- 
times the apices of the tibiae also, black ; very finely pubes- 
cent, the elytra almost glabrous. Head small, densely, 
rugosely punctate, the epistoma confused with the front ; 
eyes small, strongly transverse, rather prominent, somewhat 
distant from the base of the head; last joint of maxillary 
palpi small, subtriangular ; antennae extending to beyond 
the middle of the elytra, joint 2 small, 3 and 5 equal, 4 
slightly longer, 5-10 gradually becoming shorter and stouter, 
11 ovate, shorter than 10. Prothorax transversely convex, 
short, nearly twice as wide as the head, rounded at the sides, 
a little more narrowed in front than behind, subtruncate 
at the base, the hind angles obtuse ; densely, rugulosely 
punctate. Elytra convex, moderately long, about one-half 
wider than the prothorax, narrowing from the middle, the 
humeri rounded; crenato-striate, the punctures closely placed,! 
the interstices convex, faintly punctulate. Beneath closely,] 



II 



the Seychelles Islands and Aldalra. 1G5 

finely punctate. Fifth ventral segment with a shallow trans- 
verse depression before the a|)ex. 

Length 3^-4, breadth l^-i§ mm. (cj.) 

Loc. Seychelles : Mahe. 

Four s[)ecimens, apparently all males, from the damp 
endemic mountain-forests above Cascade Estate and in the 
Mare aux Cochons district (between 1000 and 2000 feet). 
This species has the legs coloured as in Plesia yeniGulata, 
Klug, from Madagascar. It will doubtless have to be 
removed from Cacoplesia, on account of the small head and 
eyes, the small apical joint of the antennae, the convex 
general shape, &c. It can hardly be referred to Allecula, 
a genus at present including many heterogeneous forujs. 
Allied insects inhabit Borneo. 



Fam. MelandryidsB. 

Stictodk YA^ gen. nov. 

Head short, small, obliquely narrowed immediately before 
the veiy large prominent eyes aud parallel-sided behind 
them, the epistoma not separated from the front ; labrum 
strongly tiansverse ; mandibles small; maxillary palpi 
rather stout, the apical joint triangular ; antennae very- 
short, slender, subserrate towards the tip ; prothorax trans- 
verse, without trace of marginal carina, the b;ise feebly 
bisinuate, with distinct fovese; scutellum small; elytra 
elongate, much wider than the prothorax, subparallel, 
without trace of striae, the punctuation uniform, the epi- 
pleura not reaching the apex ; anterior coxae contiguous, 
the cavities open behind; intermediate coxse well separated; 
intercoxal process of abdomen narrow, triangular; ventral 
segments rather long, the sutures almost straight ; tibial 
spurs minute; tarsi with penultimate joint and the one 
preceding it lobed beneath, the former broad, the claws 
feebly developed and appendiculate ; body elongate, de- 
pressed, the integument rather soft^ variegated with lighter 
and darker pubescence. 

Type, /S. longipennis. 

This genus seems to be best placed near Thisias and 
various other forms provisionally referred by me to Melan- 
dryidae. 

The structure of the mandibles cannot be seen in the 
unique example obtained. The narrow, immarginate, basally 
foveate prothorax^ elongate, subparallel, uniformly punctate, 



IGG I\Ir, G. C. Champion on CoIeojHera from 

fasciatc elytra, smaller eyes, 8zc., separate Stictodnja from 
Mijcter ami nuts. Fairmaire's Melaiulry id-genus Diegoa, from 
iMadagasear, is eompared ■with Maro/ia, and it cannot, there- 
fore, be verv nearly allied to the Sevehelles insect. 



4. Stictodnja longrpennis, sp. ii. (PI. VI. fig. 3, ^ .) 

J . Moderately shining, piceous, -nith a faint aeneous lustre, 
the aiftennje and legs testaceous ; variegated above uith 
very fine, adpressed brownisli and Havo-cinereous pubescence, 
the latter condensed, into dense patches on the prothorax 
and elytra, forming irregular interrupted fascice on the 
latter; the head, prothorax, and scuteUum densely, finely 
jmnetate, the puncturing of the elytra a little more diflfuse. 
Head convex, transversely depressed in front, the post- 
ocular portion about one-third the length of the eye ; 
antcinise reaching the base of the prothorax, very slender, 
joints 3-10 gradually decreasing in length, 2 short, stout, 
3 about twice as long as 2, 9 and 10 triangularj 11 short- 
ovate. Prothoi'ax transverse, a little wider than the head 
with the eyes, the sides rounded anteriorly and parallel 
behind, the disc obliquely depressed on each side, the small 
basal fovcic polished. Elytra about four times the length 
f)f the prothorax. the humeri somewhat oblique in front. 
Ventral segments 1—5 closely, finely punctate, >sim])le. 

Length 5|, breadth 2 mm. 

Loc. Seychelles : Mahe. 

One sprciraen, beaten from dense forest-vegetation of 
'■'Capucin "-trees {X'lrt/iea)^ Rosc//er/a-\rd]n]s, &c., on the 
summit of Morne Pilot, over 2000 feet, xi. 1908. 

jMyctekomimus, geii. nov. 

Head sliort, obliquely narrowed before the eyes, the 
epistoma not separated from the front ; eyes very large, 
reaching the anterior margin of the prothorax; labrum 
strongly transverse ; anteume short, slender, the outer 
joints subserrate, 11 short-ovate, simple ; mentum strongly 
transverse; apical joint of maxillary palpi stout, elongate- 
ti'iangular; mandibles acute at tij), toothed towards the apex 
beneath: prothorax short, closely applied to the elytra, bi- 
sinuate at the base, distinctly margined to near the apex 
at the sides beneath; scutelium small; elytra much wider 
than the prothorax, oblong, without trace of striae, the 
sculpture consisting of intermixed minute and larger punc- 
tures, the epiplcura not reaching the apex; anterior coxie. 



. the Sri/clielles Islands and jVdalra. 167 

small, contiguous, the cavities open behind and closed by 
the mcsosternuni ; intermediate coxae nairowly separated ; 
intercoxal pi'ocess of the abdomen rather narrow, triangular ; 
ventral segment 5 simple in both sexes, 2 with a pubescent 
tubercle in (^ ; tibial spurs minute; tarsi sparsely pubescent 
on tlunr lower surface, penultimate joint broad and lobed 
beneath, the claws appeudiculate ; body obiong-oval, densely 
pubescent. 

Type, M. insularis. 
■ The single species from which the above characters are 
taken is nearly related to the holarctic genus IMycterua, 
some'of the members of which have a non-rostrate head ; but 
it differs from these latter in the still shorter head, the greatly 
developed eyes, the elongate-triangular apical joint of the 
maxillary palpi, the small scutellum, &c. An unnamed 
insect from Madagascar (represented by two broken examples 
in the British Museum) is still more closely allied to tlie 
Seychelles insect. 

5. Mycteromimus insularis, sp. n^ (PI. YI. fig. 4,*$ .) 

Moderately convex, shining, seneo-piceous, the legs, mouth- 
parts, and antennae (except the intermediate joints in mature 
examples) testaceous ; densely clothed with pale brownish 
or brownish cinereous pubescence (which almost hides the 
sculpture), that on the prothorax transversely arranged; 
the entire surface densely, minutely punctate, with scattered, 
irregularly placed, slightly coarser punctures intermixed, 
these latter giving an asperate appearance to the elytra when 
the vestiture is removed. Antennae with joint 3 about 
twice as long as 2, 3-10 gradually becoming shorter and 
subserratc, 9 and 10 subtriangular, 11 short-ovate. Pro- 
thorax strongly transverse, the sides rounded anteriorly and 
parallel at the base. Elytra about four times the length of 
the prothorax, the humeri rounded. 

^. Ventral segment 2 somewhat gibbous in the middle 
anteriorly and at this place bearing a small, fulvo-pubescent 
tubercle. 

Length 4-6i, breadth 2-2^ mm. ( c? ? •) 

Loc. Seychelles : Silhouette, Mahe. 

Twelve specimens, only obtained by beating from the 
growing leaves of one species of endemic palm [Stevensonia 
sechellarum) in the mountain-forests : Silhouette, above 
Mare aux Cochons, over 1000 feet, ix. 1908 ; Mahe, near 
Morne Blanc, and above Cascade Estate, in both cases at 
about lOUO feet. The insect is probably pulverulent in life 



168 Mr. G. C. Cliampion on Coleoptera from 

like its Pakearctic allies. The European Mycterus curcu- 
lionoides ¥.. lias a similar tuft of hairs on the secoud veutial 
sejimeut in the male. 

Fam. (Edemeridffl, 

One species of this family is quoted by Kolbe as having 
been recorded from the Seychelles by Fairmaire in 1893, 
but no name was given ; the insect in question is doubtless 
one of those subsequently described by the Freuch author*. 

OXACIS. 

O.vaa's, Leconte, New Species Coleopt. p. 165 (1866) ; Leconte & 
Horn, Class. Coleopt. JN. Ain. p. 405 (1883); Champion, Biol. 
Centr.-Am., Coleopt. iv. 2, p. 149, and Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1896, 
p. 39. 

The insects placed under this genus have the mandibles 
uncleft at the apex, the right one, at most, with a short 
tooth before the tip. Amongst the ten species of Ananca 
recorded by Fairmaire from Madagascar or the Seychelles 
two, at least, A. grisescens and A. lineola^ belong to Oxacis 
as here understood, and Lagria livida, F. (selected by 
Semenow as the type of Sesshda, Pasc), from Tahiti, is 
congeneric with it. Fairmaire notes the extreme rarity of 
the males of some of these CEdemerids. 

6. Oxacis grisescens. (Text-fig. 1, J genital armature.) 
Aiianca grisescens, Faii'm. Ann. Soc. Eut. Belg. xli. p. 119 (1897). 

Elongate, robust, pale testaceous, the eyes and the tips of 
the mandibles black, subopaque, the anterior portion of the 
head shining, thickly clothed with very fine pallid pubes- 
cence. Head above and between the eyes densely, finely 
punctate, the punctuation becoming coarser and diffuse on 
the anterior half, the epistoma rather long; eyes very large; 
left mandible simple, right mandible toothed before the tip ; 
antennae nearly as long as the body in ^ , a. little shorter 
in ? , joint 3 distinctly longer than 4, 11 shorter than 10 
and feebly constricted at the middle. Prothorax oblong- 
subcordate, densely, finely punctate, obsoletely, interruptedly 
caualiculate down themiddle, the shallow groove terminating 
iu a deeper, transverse, foveiform depression before the base, 
the disc transversely flattened or depressed towards the apex, 

* Fairmaire also mentions (Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1893, p. xcix) a Can- 
tliarid and a lUiipiphorid from the Se^chelle.s, but uo n.imes are given. 



the Seychelles Islands and Aldalra. 169 

without definite fovefe. Elytra elongate, suhparallel in tlieir 
basal half, closely, extremely finely punctate, obsoletely 
bicostate on the disc from the base to beyond the middle. 

S . Sixth (hidden) ventral segment divided into two long, 
inwardly curved, sinuous, concave, forcipiform lobes, the 
small seventh segment very deeply emarginate, a long, slender, 
pilose rod extruding from the emargination ; sedeagus ex- 
tremely elongate, slender, thickened at the tip, lateral lobes 
long, ciliate, arising from a common stem, which is abruptly 
bifurcate from a little beyond the middle. (Text-fig. 1.^ 

Fig. 1. 




Oxacis {A nanca) (/risescefts, Fakmaiie, c?. Gen. armature. 

Length 10-12 mm. (69-) 

Loc. Seychelles : Mahe, Silhouette, Praslin, Felicite, 
Bird Island (1905 and 1908-9) ; Eouud Island CMus. Brit.). 
The specimens were all found at or near the coast, never in 
the endemic forests of the mountains. 

Fifteen examples seen, including a (^ from Round Island, 
received by the British Museum in 1870. The very fine 
close puncturing of the upper surface, the long third antennal 
joint, the form of the mandibles, and the generally robust 
body, distinguish 0. yrisescens from the allied insects occur- 
rinir in the Seychelles, whence Fairmaire's type was obtained. 
It is tho. only one to which his brief description applies. 

7. Oxacis lineola. 
Ananca lineola, Fairm. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. .vxxix. p. 453 (189.5). 
Elongate, shining, finely pubescent : pale testaceous, the 



170 Mr. G. C Champion on CoJeopt era from 

eyes and tlie tips of tlic nian(lil)lcs blade, the protliorax 
\\'n\\ a narrow nicdiau vitta and an oblong spot on each side 
(the vitta sometimes interrupted and the spot wanting), and 
the liead in some sjiccimens Mith a spot between the eyes, 
fnseons, tlie elytra fnscous, with the suture, three narrow 
lines on the dise (the outer one fainter and abbreviated 
anteriorly), and the lateral margin more broadly, pale testa- 
ceous, the ventral surface and metasternum in pait infuscate. 
liead moderately produced anteriorly, very finely punctate ; 
eyes large, separated by more than the width of one of tiieni 
as seen from above; mandibles unclcft at the tip ; antennae 
long, joint 3 longer than 4, 4-] decreasing in length, 11 
longer than 10 and feebly constricted at the middle. Pro- 
thorax longer than broad, moderately constricted behind the 
middle, transversely depressed anteriorly and also hollowed 
in the centre before the base ; the surface polished, very 
finely punctate, with an indication of a smooth median line. 
Kl}tra much wider than the prothorax, somewhat attenuate 
posteriorly, closely, very finely punctate, without definite 
costse. 

^ . Fifth ventral segment excavate down the middle before 
the apex. 

Length 7-lOi mm. ( c? ? .) 

Loc. Aldabra (1908, Fryer). Madagascar (Mus. Brit.). 

Four specimens, one only of which (a ? ) is from Aldabra, 
apparently referable to A. lineola, Fairm., the ty])e of which 
was from Madagascar. 

Ananca. 

Sesainia, Pascoe, Joum. Eut. ii. pp. 4o, 488 (1863) (nomen nudum). 
Aiuincii, laiiniaire et (jerniain, Aim. Soc. Ent. Fr. ]8G.3, p. 267. 
C'o/»/cZ(Vrt, Leconte, New Species Coleopt. p. 164 (18GG) ; Champion, 

liiul. Centr.-Am., Coleopt. iv. 2, p. 144, and Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. 

1896, p. 40. 

This genus differs from Oxacis in having both mandibles 
cleft at the tip. No type was given by Pascoe for Sessinia 
and his name cannot be accepted. The five species referred 
to Ananca hy Fairmaire and Germain were all from Chile ; 
the first of these, Nacerdes 23aliens, Sol., which must be taken 
as the type, proves to have bifid mandibles, and the name 
Ananca, therefore, must be adopted in place of Copidita, 
u.>ed by me elsewhere. 

8. Ananca aldabrana, sp. n. 
Elongate, luteo- or fulvo-testaceoiis. the eyes and the ti])s 



tJie Seychelles Islands and jildahra. 171 

of tlio mandibles black, subopaque, tlie bead sliininp^, tliickly 
clothed with ratlicr coart^e pallid pul)csceuce. Head mode- 
rately produced ill front, the epistoma rather long;, coarsely, 
closely ])unctate ; eyes large ; mandibles eacb bifid at the 
tip ; antennae not reaching the apex of the elytra, joints 3 
and 4 subequal in length, 11 feebly constricted at the middle. 
Prothorax considerably longer than broad, snbcordate, 
narrow, densely, coarsely, subconflnently punctate, broadly 
depressed and subfoveate on each side of the disc anteriorly. 
Elytra long, nearly twice as wide as the prothorax, somewhat 
convex, closeh'^, finely, scabroso-punctate, each with two 
distinct costse on the disc and another near the outer margin, 
all three extending from the base to near the apex. 

cJ . Sixth (hidden) ventral segment divided into two 
narrow, curved, concave, forcipiform lobes, the corresponding- 
dorsal segment similarly shaped ; sedeajius long, rather 
stout, gradually widened towards the tip, the latter rounded, 
lateral lobes very long, slender, and feel)ly carved. 

Leng h 8-12 mm. ((^ ? .) 

Loc. Aldabra (1908-9, Fryer). Sevchelles : Round 
I.vland (Mus. Brit.). 

Found in abundance at Aldabra, in several parts of the 
atoll. In the British Museum there are also two females 
and a male of the same species from Round Island. Very 
few males are contained in the long series before me; three, 
hoAvever (including the one from Round I.) have been 
identified, and their genital armature examined. The bifid 
mandibles, the densely, rather coarsely punctured, dull, sub- 
liifoveate, narrow prothorax, and the finely punctate, more 
distinctly costate elytra, readily separate A. aldabruna from 
Oxacis [Ananca) grisescens, Fairm. A. (Sessinia) andrewsi. 
Arrow, from Christmas Island, under which two sj)ecics 
were confused by the author, has the terminal joint of the 
antennae almost divided into two, the head much smoother, 
the prothorax non-foveate, and the elytra sharply bicostate 
on the disc, with the rest of their surface very finely, closely 
punctate. 

9. Atianca scabr//jennis,sii. n. 
(Text-fig. 2, cJ genital armature.) 

Sc'fsixia an'b-eusi, Arrow, Mouogr. CLristmas Isl. p. 107 (1900) 

Elongate, testaceous or obscure testaCeous, the eyes and 
the tips of the mandibles black, subopaque, the head and 

prolhorav shining, finely pubescent. Head moderatelv 



172 



Mr. G. C. Clanip'on on Cch o/ifera from 



produced in front, sparsely, rather coarsely punctate, the 
])nncturcs beeoiuiug more crowded towards the base ; eyes 
large, separated by about the width of one of them as seen 
from above ; mandibles each bifid at the tip ; antennae nearly 
as long as the body in ($ , shorter in ? , joints 3-10 decreasing 
very slightly in length, 11 slightly longer than 10 and feebly 
constricted at the middle. Prothorax longer than broad, 
narrow, sul)Cordate, rather sparsely, moderately coarsely 
pnuciate, the disc excavate on each side of tlie middle 
anteriorly and also in the centre before the base, appearing 
trifoveate. Elytra long, closely and rather coarsely scabroso- 
punctate, each with two faint costae on the disc and another 
near the outer margin. 

S. Sixth (hidden) ventral segment divided into two, 
curved, concave, comparatively short lobes ; sedengus mode- 
rately long, gradually narrowed at the apex, the long 
narrow tegmen divided into two slender, acuminate pro- 
cesses (lateral lubesj from about the middle. (Text-fig. 2.) 




Ananca fcabrlpeyinis, Champion, J. Gen. armature. 



Length 8-10 ram. ((?$.) 

Lac. Seychelles : Mahe, Silhouette, Praslin (190,'), 
1908-"J). Christmas Island (Mus. Brit.). The examples 
from the Seychelles were all taken near the coast, not ia 
the enflemic mountain-forests. 

Twelve specimens, apparently all females but one. Various 
female examples from Christmas Island placed by Arrow 
under his Sessinia andrewsi doubtless belong to this species. 
They diflfer from his type ( ? , not S 'is stated) in having the 



the Seychelles Inlands and AJdahra. 173 

elytra roughly sculptured and obsoletely costate, the pro- 
thorax subtrifoveate, the apical joint of the antennae feebly 
constricted, &c. 



10. Ananca suhmarginata, sp. n. 

^ . Moderately elongate, narrow, depressed, shining, 
finely pubescent ; pale testaceous, the tips of the mandibles, 
the eyes, an oblong spot on each side of the prothorax, and 
an evanescent submarginal stripe on each elytron (extending 
from the humeral callus to beyond the middle), black or 
piceous ; the entire upper surface closely, very finely punc- 
tate. Head slightly produced anteriorly ; mandibles each 
bifid at the tip ; eyes large, separated by considerably more 
than the width of one of them as seen from above ; antennse 
slender, extending to a little beyond the middle of the elytra, 
joints 3-5 subequal, 6-11 distinctly shorter, 11 feebly con- 
stricted. Prothorax longer than broad, subcordate, slightly 
hollowed on each side of the disc anteriorly and also in the 
middle towards the base. Elytra comparatively broad, 
moderately elongate, subparallel, faintly bicostate on the 
disc for about three-fourths of their length, the punctuation 
a little finer and more diffuse than that on the prothorax. 

j3Edeagus (as seen completel}' everted) long, bisagittate at 
the apex, the outer portion of the sheath also sagittate and 
divided at the tip into two slender acute processes ; lateral 
lobes widely separated from the base, extremely elongate, 
slender, and ciliate. 

Length 7 mm. 

Loc. Aldabra : Takamaka, xi. 1908 [Fryer). 

One male. A rather slender form, with a spot on each 
side of the prothorax and a submarginal streak on each 
elytron infuscate, the eyes widely separated, the upper 
surface shining and finely punctate, the mandibles bifid at 
the tip. 

Fam. Anthicidae. 

Anthicus, 

Anthicus, Paykull, Fauna Suecica, i. p. 253 (1708). 

A cosmopolitan genus represented in all parts of the 
world. 



174 Mr. G. C. Cli:imi)ion on Cohopleva from 

11. Authiciis oceanicus. 

AnthicHs oceanicus, Lafoito, Monogr. Antliio. p. 170; Fairm., Eev. et 
Mnjr. Z.M.l. ]84i>, p. JVJ; Pic, Ann. Soc. Kiit. Finnce, L-iU, p. CCS; 
AlliiniKl, Ilist. Madag., Coleopt. p. 4':^7 ; Kolbe, Mitltil. Zuol. Miis. 
IJerlin, v. p. 27. 

Luc. Scyclielles: Bird Island, vii. 1908 {Fryer). Mar- 
quesas : Tahiti ; Polynesia. 

Three specimens arc l)efore me from 13ird Island ; this is 
one of two small coral-islands sitnatcil on the north of the 
Seychelles Bank, but which have neither the peculiar floia 
jior any of tlie physical features characteristic of the other 
islands of the j^roup. Kecorded l)y Picas havinj? been found 
in numbers by M. Ch. Alluaud in the Seychelles in April, 
iS^.^i, beneath seaweed on the coast. 

Fam. Pedilidae. 
r.iiriigenius, Lafertt?, Monogr. Anthic. p. 1 (1846). 

The known species of this genus are mostly from North 
or Central America ; two from ]\Iadagasear, however, have 
been desci"il)ed by Fairmaire, one from Japan by Lewis, one 
from E. Africa and another from Bengal by Pic, one from 
the Nilgiri Hills by myself, aud one from E. Africa by 
Kolbe. 

1.2. Eunjgenius fragilicornis, sp. n. (PI. VI. fig. 5, ? .) 

Elongate, narrow, somewhat shining, reneo-piccous or 
piceous, the anterior portion of the head rufous, the basal 
joint of the antennae, the mouth-parts (the tips of the man- 
dibles excepted), the humeri, femora, and the tibite in part 
or entirely, testaceous ; somewhat thickly clothed, the legs 
and antennae included, with rather long, semierect, pallid 
pubescence. Head densely, rugulosely punctate, obliquely 
narrowed, behind the eyes, the lattcT extremely large, 
rounded, very feebly emargiuate in front, coarsely facetted ; 
mandibles entire; maxillary palpi with terminal joint stout, 
securiform, the two preceding joints angulate wiihin ; 
antennai about half the length of the body, a little shorter 
in ? , very slender, joints 3-10 elongate-obconic, subequal 
in length, 2 shorter than 3, 11 slightly longer than 10 and 
constricted beyond the middle. Prothorax narrower than 
the head (with the eyes), transversely orbicular, the narroAV 
neck-like anterior ])ortion rather long, the entire surface 
densely, rugulosely ])unctate. lilytra elongate, much wider 



the SeijcheUes Islands and Ahhihra. ]75 

llian tlie prothorax, parallel iu ? , broader at base and some- 
what attenuate in rT ; closely set with subseriately arranged^ 
coarse, oblong, foveiform punctures, tbe narrow interspaces 
minutely punctate and liere and there transversely confluent. 

(J, Femora stouter than in $, the hind'tibite more 
curved ; fifth ventral segment unimpressed, simply truncate 
at tip. 

Length 6, breadth H mm. ( cJ ? .) 

Loc. Seychelles : ]\Iahe. 

One pair, taken (4. ii. 1909) on the precipitous slopes of 
the ])eak of Morne Seychellois at an elevation of about 
2000 feet ; the specimens were obtained by sweeping a dense 
low growth of native feins and shrubs (Melastoma, RubuSy 
Senecio sechellensis, &c.), among Avhich were occasional 
Ruscheria-^pi\vix% and other small trees. The coarsely and 
closely foveato-punctate elytra separates the present species 
from the Madagascar forms. The single re[)resentative 
from the adjacent island of Silhouette cannot be treated as a 
variety of it. 

13. Eurygenius convexicollis, sp. n. 

(J . Elongate, rather narrow, opaque, the elytra and under 
surface somewhat shining ; nigro-pieeous, the epistoraa and 
scutellar region rufescent, the two basal joints of the antennae, 
the mouth-parts (the tips of the mandibles excepted), femora, 
and tarsi in part, testaceous ; somewhat thickly clothed, the 
antennse and legs included, with rather long, j)ailid, coarse„ 
semierect pubescence. Head, palpi, and eyes as in E. frayili- 
cornis, the anteniue a little shorter and stouter, about as 
long as in ? of that species. Prothorax distinctly broader 
than the head (with the eyes), much narrowed behind. 
Elytra broader than in E. fragilicornis, narrowing from the 
base, the narrow interspaces between the subseriately 
arranged foveiform punctures more rugose, giving a dull 
appearance to the surface. Legs stout, the posterior tibiae 
feebly curved. Fifth ventral segment broadly hollowed 
down the middle, truncate at the apex. 

Length 6, breadth 1? mm. 

Loc. Seychelles : Silhouette, viii. 1908. 

One male example.. 

Fam. Xylophilidae. 
Xylophilus. 
Xi/loj>hilns, Latreille, Fam. Nat. Repine Anim. p. 383 (1825). 
A genus almost cosmopolitan in its distribution. Three 



176 Mr. G. C Clianipioii on CoUoptera from 

species are represented in the Sej^clielles collection, all of 
tlieni apparently beinj; fairly common insects in the Islands. 
Mr. Scott notes that " many of them were swept from grass 
and other low-growing vegetation." So far as known, they 
are wood-feeders in their earlier stages. Owing to their 
extreme fragility, very few of the specimens obtained are 
in good condition. U|)wards of a dozen species have been 
described from ^ladaguscar, three from Mauritius, one from 
Bourbon, &c. 

14. Xylophilus tortico?-nis, sp. n. 
(PI. VI. figs. 6 (^ ,7 (^ antenna.) 

Rather short, moderately shining, very finely cinereo- 
pubescent, black, the tips of the tarsi, and sometimes that 
of the eleventh anteunal joint also, reddish. Head short, 
together with the eyes broader than the prothorax, finely 
punctate; eyes moderately large, occupying nearly the whole 
of the sides of the iiead, feebly emarginate, distant ; antennae 
(fig. 9) moderately long, closely setose, somewhat twisted, 
stout, joints 2 and 3 short, 4-10 broad, perfoliate, very 
strongly transverse, 6-8 wider than the rest, II stout, ovate, 
about as long as 9 and 10 united. Prothorax transverse, 
convex, rounded at the sides, closely, rather finely punctate, 
bi-impressed on the disc posteriorly. Elytra much wider 
than the prothorax, subparallcl in their basal half, closely, 
rather coarsely punctate, obliquely depressed on the disc 
below the base. Legs short ; posterior femora moderately 
thickened, obsoletely sulcate beneath ; basal joint of pos- 
terior tarsi slightly curved. 

Var. a. Duller, the punctuation denser and coarser. 

Var. yS. Shining, the punctuation more scattered than in 
the type. 

Length 1-U mm. (c? ? •) 

Loc. Seychelles : Silhouette [type] ; Mahe [var. a] ; 
Praslin [var. /8]. 

Eighteen specimens — twelve of the form from Silhouette 
selected as type, two of the var. a from Mahe, and four of 
the var. yS from Praslin, three of these much smaller than 
the rest. The examples from Silhouette were found in the 
forest near the Mare aux Cochons plateau, ix. 1908 ; the 
two from i\Iahe are from high elevations in the forests of 
Morne Blanc and the Mare aux Cochons district; those 
from Praslin were collected on Cotes d'Or Estate, xi. 1908. 
The females appear to have the antennse a little less widened 
and the eyes rather smaller than in the males. A species 



the Seychelles IslanJ.^ and Aldahra. 177 

recognizable by the saraewliat twisted antennoe, due to the 
joints 6-8 being more dilated than those preceding or 
follow ing. 

15. Xyhiphiliis c/avicornis, sp. n. 
(IM. VI. fig. 9, $.) 

Rather short, feebly sliuiin<^, pioeous ov nigro-piceons, the 
tarsi, the bases of the tibi;e, and the antennal joints 2-9 and 
the tip of 11 testaceous ; the prothorax and elytra in fresh 
specimens variegated with sharply defined, irregular patches 
of very fine grey pubescence (tending to form an interrupted 
median and subapical fascia on the elytra), the rest of the 
vestiture brown. Head short, together with the eyes broader 
than the prothorax, densely, finely punctate ; eyes large, 
occupying nearly the whole of the sides of the head, distant, 
almost entire ; antennae I'ather short, sparsely setose, joints 
2-8 each longer than broad, 2 nearly as stout as 1, 3 more 
slender, 4-8 scarcely stouter, 9-11 wider than those pre- 
ceding, 9 transversely subtriangular, 10 broader, strongly 
transverse, 11 stout, acuminnte-ovate, about as long as 9 
and 10 united. Prothorax transverse, convex, somewhat 
rounded at the sides, densely punctate, and with an inter- 
rupted arcuate depression on the disc before the base. 
Klytra much wider than the prothorax, slightly rounded at 
the sides, densely, rather coarsely punctate, feebly depressed 
on the disc below the base. Legs short ; posterior femora 
moderately thickened, obsoletely sulcate beneath ; basal 
joint of posterior tarsi feebly curved. 

Length 1-1 1 mm. (($ ?'.) 

Loc. Seychelles : Silhouette, Mahe, Praslin. 

Found in profusion in Silhouette and Mahe, sparingly on 
Praslin. !Most, if not all, of the specimens are from the 
mountain-forests, from a number of different places and 
elevations : one was taken from a rotten and fungus-grown 
fallen trunk of the endemic " Bois Rouge" [Wormia ferru- 
yinea). Many of these examples are now in bad condition, 
very few having the cinereous markings intact. Recogniz- 
al)le by the slender, nigro-clavate antennae, with stout second 
joint, the variegate legs, and the densely punctured, cinereo- 
maculate surface. The antennae seem to be a little shorter 
in the females. The variegate vestiture of the elyti-a is 
common to many species of the genus. The beautilul ex- 
ample iigured was accidentally injured by the artist after 
the drawing was completed and finally corrected. 

Ann. d) Mag. N. Hist, Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 12 



178 



Mr. G. C. Cli:uiij)ioii on CoIeojiUri from 



16. Xylophilus seydieUarum, sp. n. (IM. VI. lig. 8, (^ .) 

Rather short, moderately shiniii<i-, i)igro-piceous or piceous, 
the base and tip of the aiitemiBe, tlie palpi, the base of tlie 
prothorax in the mi(hlle in some examples, the humeri or 
base of the elytra, and the legs testaeeous, clothed with a 
fine sericeous pubescence. Head short, together with the 
eyes much wider than the protlioiax, iinely ])unctate ; eyes 
large, occupying almost the whoh; of the sides of the head, 
separated antrriorly i)y about half the width of one of them 
in J, more distant in ?, feebly emarginate ; antennae (c) 
finely pubescent, long, slender, joint 2 short, 3-10 moderately 
elongate, becoming gradually shorter and wide)', 9 and 10 
subtriangular, 11 stouter, obliquely acuminate, nearly as 
long as 9 and 10 united, ( $ ) similar, but much shorter. 
Prothorax convex, broader than long, parallel-sided at the 
base, closely, finely punctate, with an interrupted arcuate 
depression on the disc behind. Elytra convex, rather short, 
at the middle about twice as wide as the |)rotliorax, slightly 
rounded at the sides ; closely, moderately coarsely putictate, 
obliquely de[)n'ssed on the disc below the base. Legs rather 
long, slender ; posterior femora moderately incrassate, 
simple in both sexes ; basal jtnut of posterior tarsi feebly 
cui'ved. 

Length l^-li mm. (J ? .) 

Loc. Seychelles : Silhouette, Mahe. 

!Most of the examples were collected in the forests, but 
in Silhouette at least one was taken in the low country. 
Eighteen si)ecimens, varying a little in colour, immature 
examples having the elytra paler. In this species the 
antennae are moderately elongate in J', shorter in ? , slender 
and very gradually widened outwards to the stouter apical 
joint in both sexes. The type of coloration is common to 
many members of the genus, some of which have peculiarly 
formed posterior femora in J . 

Fam. Mordellidae. 

MORDELLA. 

Mordella, Linn?eus, Syst. Nat. lOtli ed. i. p. 420 (1758). 

17. Mordella braueri. 
Mordella irrmen, Kolbe, Mitteil. Zool. Mus. BerJiii, v. p. 27. 

Loc. Seychelles : Mahe {Brauer). 

This insect is described as deep black and albo-n)aculatc ; 



{| 



the Seychelles Inlands and AMahrn. 179 

the prothorax with six spots — two, semilunate^ on the ante- 
rior portion and four, confluent, near the base ; the elytra 
with four spots — one sub-basal, median, one submarginal, 
posthumeral, one subsutural, a little before the middle, and 
one anteapical. It is compared with the Asiatic M. com- 
posita, Walk., and the African M. elegans, Maki. 

The unique exami)Ie known measures 14 mm. in Icni^th. 

18. MordeUa peregrinator, sp. n. 

• (PI. VI. fi<r. 10, ? .) 

Robust, elongate, cuneiform, deep black, the anterior coxae, 
the anterior femora in part, and the palpi testaceous, the an- 
tennae often fuscous, with the base testaceous ; clothed with 
black and wdiitisli or cinereous pubescence, which is con- 
densed into the following sharply defined markings : — The 
head with a large [latch on the middle oi: the vertex, and the 
protlioi'ax with an interrupted median vitta and a large tri- 
angular mark on each side of it, infuscate or black, for the rest 
whitisii, cinereous, or flavo-cinereous ; the elytra with three 
strongly angulate n;irrrow fasciae — one sub-basal, irregularly 
brancliiug forwards (enclosing an oblique oval spot on the 
disc, an oblique humeral streak, a common postscutellar 
patch, and sometimes a small spot on each side of it), and 
one a little before and another just beyond the middle, these 
two connected along the suture — and a broader, simply 
arcuate, transverse fascia just before the apex, whitish or 
cinereous, for the rest black ; the ventral segments at the 
base or laterally, the side-pieces of the metasternutn, and 
the pygidiura in gieat part above, also Avhite. Antennae 
slender, moderately long in ^ , shorter in ? , joint 2 shorter 
and stouter than 3, 3-11 nearly equal in length, 5-10 
serrate ; last joint of maxillary palpi greatly develo[)ed, very 
broadly securiform, nearly as wide as the inter-antennal 
portion of the head in both sexes. Prothorax broader than 
the head and elytra, deeply bisinuate at the base, rounded 
at the sii;es. Elytra long, narrowing from the base. Py- 
gidium very long, compressed, acute at tip. Ventral segment 
5 holiowcd down the middle posteriorly in ^. Anterior 
femora and tibiae simply pubescent in both sexes. 

Length (excl. head) 6j-8|, to tip of pygidium S^-IH ; 
breadth (prothorax) 2i-3^ mm, ( (^ ? .) 

Loc. Seychelles: Silhouette; Round I. Java; Borneo; 
Singapore; Philippines; Malacca; Ceylon, &c. 

One ? specimen from Silhouette (Mare aux C<Jchons, 
ix. 1908). This is apparently a common species in Borneo, 

12* 



ISO Ml". G. (3. ("'liaiiniion en Cole^U era from 

Ceylon, ^:c., but it canuot bo idontificil from any of the 
piiblislie;! descriptions. Tlicre is a loni^ series of it in the 
British ^[aseum from niiny diffcre\it kx-alities ; and Mr. 
Bryant has recently captured numerous examples in Borneo. 
M. mixta, F., from New Guinea &c., is an allied form, and 
an unnamed insect from the Andaman Is, in the Museum 
oolleetion is, perhaps, a variety of the present species. 
M. compositd, Walk., has very dilfcreiit clytral niarkings. 

11). MorJc'lla dispiirilis. s[). \\. 

(^ . Moderately (4()ns:ate, rather narrow ; black, the head 
(except a lari^e transverse patch on the vertex, Avliich is 
sometimes wantinu), moutli-parts, joints 1—3 of the antennie, 
the sides of the prothorax. broadly, the elytra each with an 
oblique stripe extendinjj^ from the shoulder to near tlie 
suture and a curved or oblique fascia just beyond extendinj^ 
narrowly backwards along' the suture to iiear the ti[) (the 
latter sometimes nearly or quite obsolete, or represented by 
yellowish pubescence), the anterior coxie, femora, and til)iui, 
the intermediate til)ite, the extreme base of the [)()sterior 
tibiae, and the calcaria testaceous or rufo-testaceoiis ; varie- 
gated with cinereous, tlavo-cinereous, and fuscous pubescence, 
the flavo-cinereous hairs mostly jjlaced on the fasciate 
portions of the surface, the vestiture of the under surface 
almost wholly cinereous. Antennre moderately long", slender, 
joints 2 and 3 very short, equal in length, 4—11 much longer 
than broad, subserrate. Terminal joint of maxillary palpi 
rather stout, subtriangular. Prothorax transverse, a Mttlc 
broader than the elytra, rounded at the sides. Elytra nar- 
rowing from the base. Pygidium about as long as the 
posterior tarsi. Anterior femora beneath, and anterior tibiae 
at the base within, fusco-ciliate. 

2. Similar to <^ , but Mith the head, prothorax, and 
intermediate femora infuscate, the antennfe a little shorter, 
the anterior femora and tibiae without longer hairs. 

Vur. The oblique elytral fascite connected along the 
middle of the disc. 

Length (inch pygid.) 3^-41 mm. ((^ ? .j 

Loc. Seychelles: Silhouette, Mahe. 

Eleven examples ; the six from Silhouette were taken in 
the high forest above Mare aux Cochons and in the low 
coconut-planted country near the coast at Pointe Etienne, 
ix. 1908 ; the five from Mahe were collected in the forest at 
the summit of Morne Pilot, over 2000 'ieex. in the Mare aux 



the SeyrlieUes IshniJs (ind Aldahra. 181 

Coclious district at about 1500 feet, and in the forest above 
Cascade Estate. 

The eleven specimens var\' in the development of the 
oblique testaceous elytral fasciae, the posterior one being 
sometimes obsolete and in one example (?) united to the 
antejior one. The dissimilarly coloured sexes were obtained 
in each island. M. biformis, from Ceutral America, and the 
Euro])oan Morde/listena ahdonihialis are parallel cases of 
sexual dimor})hism. M. disparilis ( ?) seems to be related 
to M. ho'iHOchrou, Fairm., from Diego Snarcz, but without 
comparison of types it would be unsafe to identify it with 
tliat insect. The variety with confluent fascige Avas found in 
a burrow in a stick in the jungle at Silhouette. 

MoRDKLLlSTENA. 

MordeUistena, Costa, Faun. Regn. Napol., Mordellid. pp. 16, 31 (1854). 

A genus of world-wide distribution and abundantly repre- 
sented within the tropics. One species from the Seychelles 
has been described by" Kolbe and three from jNIadagascar by 
Fairmaire. Mordella castanea, Boh,, from Guam, and various 
others from the adjacent regions referred to Morddla by the 
older authors may belong here. j\Ir. Scott^s collections 
include about two hundred specimens, belonging to seven 
species. One of these insects was bred from larvae found 
in the wood of Colea peduncu/afa. The appended table will 
help in the identification of these closely allied forms. The 
sexes have been identified in nearly every case by an exami- 
nati(in of the genitalia of one or more examples of each 
species. The antennal structure is completely ignored by 
nearly all authors_, presumably owing to difficulties of 
manipulation : — 

TiLial ai)d tarsal formula— 4 or 5, 3 or 4, 2, 2 ; 
body uniformly coioiu-ed. 

Fourtii antennal joint as lorg as fifth niahena^ Kolbe. 

Fourth antennal joint nuieh shorter than tilth, deyressa, sp. n. 
Tibial and tarsal formula — 4, 3, 2, 1 ; head in 
J 2 , and prothorax also in (S , testaceous or 
rufo-testaceous ; elytra cinereo-bifasciate . . partilis, sp. n. 
Tibial and tarsal formuia— 3, 3, 2, : fuurth an- 
tennal joint short ; body uniformly coloured, 

fusco-castaneous, robust colea-, sp. n. 

Tibial and tarsal lormula— 3, 2, 2, ; iburtli an- 
tennal joint short. 
Body uniformly coloured, fusco-castaneous, 
feiTuginous, or testaceous above. 
Antennal joints o-ll elongate sejitemcarinaia, sp, n. 



1S2 



Mr. G. C. Champion on Coleoptera from 



Anteniinl joints 6-11 not much longer than 

broad direwpta, sp. n. 

Body black, griseo-pubescent ; bead partly 

testaceous iu c? aryutula, sp. n. 

20. Mordellistena mohena. 

(Text-fig. 3, posterior leg.) 

Mordellistena muhenu, Kolbe, Milteil. Zool. Miis. Berlin, v. p. 28 (1910). 

Moderately elongate, cuneiform, rather narrow ; casta- 
neous or fusco-castaneous, thickly clothed Mith greyish- 
broAvn puhescence. Antcnnre filiform, very long in ^, 
shorter in ? , joints 1 and 2 shorter than 3, 3 in cT about 
one-third, and in ? one-lialf, the length of 4, 4-11 equal iu 
length. Apical joint of maxillary palpi stout, securiform. 

Fig. 3. 




Mordellistena mahcna, Kolbe. Posterior leg. 

Pygidium long, acuminate, as long as hind tarsus. Poste- 
lior til)i0e with 4 or 5, first joint of posterior tarsi with 3 or 
4, and the second and third joints each with 2, oblique 
ridges. 

Length (incl. pygid.) 3^-4^ mm. ( c? ? .; 

Loc. Seychelles : Mahe, Long Island, Round Island 
relicite, ]\larie Anne. 

Tills species was originally taken in ^Nlahe by Braner ; 



the Seyclitllcs Inlands and Ahlihra. 183 

several examples were obtained by Mr. Scott in the same 
island in x. and xi. 1908 near Mornc Hlanc, not in the highest 
forcsrs, but between 5fX) and lOUO (cet. A few were collected 
at Long and Round l^,lands, small cultivated islets off Port 
Victoria, Malie, vii. 1908, Several were also found in 
Felicite and Marie Anne Islands, xii. 1908, in a rather dry 
type of forest near sea-level. 

Kolbe's description was made from a single example, and, 
as the antennal structnie is not mentioned by him, it is not 
quite certain whether the name should be applied to this or 
the loilowing species. The first ridge on the posterior tibise 
and first tarsal joint is at most feebly developed and often 
wanting. Amongst the series examined there are at least 
two of each sex with the genital organs extruded, so that 
theie can be no mistake as to their identification. 

21. Mordellistena degressa, sp. n. 

Exti-emely like M. jnahena, but differing from it in having 
the antennae le.-s elongate in both sexes (in ^ about as long 
as ill $ of M. mahe?ui), comparatively short and suhserrate 
in ?, joints 3 and 4 small and equal in length in the two 
sexes, 5 twice as long as 4, 5-11 moderately elongate iu (^ . 
Posterior tibiae and tarsi as in M. ma/tena. 

Length (incl. pygid.) 3j-4|^ mm. (c? ? .) 

Loc. Seychelles : Mahe, Silhouette. 

Nine specimens, eight of which are from Mahe. All are 
from the mountain-forests. These appear at first sight to 
be females of M. mahena ; but as there is no corres[)ouding 
variation in the develoj)ment of the antennte in the long 
series of the allied forms from the Seychelles, the examples 
■with a short fourth joint must be separated from the rest. 
M. deyressa, therefore, is based u[;on examples with seven, 
and M. mahena with eight, elongated antennal joints. 

22. Mordellistena parlilis, sp. n. 

^ . Rather short, narrow, convex ; black, the head, an- 
tenme, mouth-parts, prothorax, anterior and intermediate 
legs, and the posterior tibife and tarsi in part, testaceous ; 
the elytra variegated with cinereous and black pubescence, 
the latter condensed into a very large tiausverse patch at 
the base (not quite reaching the suture) and a common, 
broad, postmedian fascia (leaving a sharply defined sub- 
median and apical fascia cinereous), the vestiture of the 
pygidium and under surface cinereous, that of the head and 



184 Mr. G. C. Chaiiii)ion o« Coleoptera from 

protliorax flavo-cincrcoup. Antcniirc moderately long, slen- 
der, joints 1 and 2 rather stout, 2 shorter than 1, 3 and 4 
small, snboqtial in K'lifith, 5-10 longer than broad, suh- 
serrate. Apical joint of maxillary pali)i stout, securiform, 
Protliorax transverse, rounded at the sides anteriorly, not 
wider than the elytra. Elytra relatively short, subparallel 
in their basal lialf. Pygidium long, acute, as long as poste- 
rior tarsus. Posterior tibipe with 4*, first joint of posterior 
tnrsi with 3, and the second joint with 2, short oblique 
ridges, the third joint also with uri indication of a single 
ridge. 

$. Similar to ^, but with tlie ])rothorax infuscute or 
black, the basal margin at most testaceous, the antennae a 
little shorter. 

Length (incl. pygid.) 2^-3 mm. ((??.) 
]a)C. Seychelles : Mahe, Silhouette. 

One male and four females — both sexes from Mahe, a 
fenuile only from Silhouette. The Silhouette specimen is 
from near Mont Pot-k-eau, about 1500 feet ; those from 
Mahe were all found in t!ie forests above Cascade Estate 
at about 1000 feet. Easily distinguished from the other 
Seychelles forms by the sharply defined elytral markings, 
the single male with both the head and protliorax testaceous. 
I'he protliorax is more transverse than in M. argutula. The 
anterior femora are not ciliate in r^ . 

23. Mordellistena calea, sp. n. 
(Text-fig. 4, posterior leg.) 

^Moderately elongate, cuneiform, robust; fusco-casta- 
neous or castaneous, thickly clothed with greyish-brown 
imbescence. Antennae with joints 3 and 4 short, equal, 5 at 
l(ast twice as long as 4, 5-11 rather broad, comj)ressed, 
elongated, and 11 longer than 10, in ^, 5-11 shorter and 
subserrate in $ . Last joint of maxillary palpi rather nar- 
row, elongate-triangular. Pygidium elongate, about as long 
as liind tarsus. Anterior tibiae sleuder, sinuous within. 
Posterior tibiee with 3 ridges — two very long and oblique, 
and a shorter apical one — and with from 3-5 stiff erect 
sette along their lower edge in both sexes. First joint of 
posterior tarsi with 3, and the second joint with 2, oblique 
ridges, the third unarmed. 

Length (incl. pygid.) 3^-5^ mm, ((??•) 

Loc. Seychelles : Mahe, Silhouette. 

Numerous examples from each island. Extremely like 
J/, mahena and ]\I. clep-essa, but averaging larger in size, the 



the Seychelles Islands and Aldahra. 



185 



terminal joint of the maxillary palpi iiarrn\ver and more 
elongate, the antennse distinctly wider, with short fourth 
joint as in M. degressa, the posterior tibia strongly, sparsely 
setose along their lower edge, the third joint of the posterior 
taisi without detinite ridges. Three of the Silhouette 
speeiinens are labelled as having been bred from larvse found 

Fio-. 4. 




Mordellistena cotece, Cliampiou. Posteiior leo-. 

in the wood of an endemic tree, the " Bilimbi marron/' 
C'oA'rt pedunculata ; another from the same locality is marked 
" bi-ed from a pupa^"" found in same tree. All the examples 
are from various places in the mountain-forests, at altitudes 
rangingr from about 1000 to 2000 feet. 



S^. Mordellistena septemcaritiata, sp. u. 

Moderately elongate, narrow, convex, shining ; ferrugi- 
nous or castaneous, the eyes black, the under surface in 
part and the base of the pygidium black or piceous ; thickly 
clothed with greyish-brown pubescence. Antenna long in 
(^ , slightly shorter in $, slender, filiform, joints 3 and 4 
sliort, 4 a little longer and wider than 3, subtriangiilar, 
5-11 elongate, subequal, 5 about twice as long as 4. Apical 
joint of maxillary palpi moderately stout, subtriangular. 
Prothorax broader than long, not wider than the elytra. 
Elytra subparallel in their basal third, gradually narrowing 
from the middle, somewhat coarsely and not very densely 



Iy6 Mr. G. C. Champion on Coleojitera from 

punctate, the interspaces sliininp;, Pygidium long, becoming 
very slencU-r beyond the middle, as long as the hind tarsus. 
Anterior tibiae slender, sinuous within. Posterior tilnae with 
3, and the first two joints of the posterior tarsi each with .2, 
oblicpie ridges. 

Length (incl. pygid.) 3-3^ mm. (c? ? .) 

J.ur. Seychelles : .Mahe, Silhouette, Praslin. 

.Mnhe ; forest above Cascade Estate, and in the INIare anx 
Coihons district, in both cases over 1000 feet, also one 
specimen recorded from the low country ; Silhouette, various 
places in the mountain-forests above 1000 feet; Praslin, one 
specimen from Cotes d'Or Estate. 

A long series, mostly in very bad condition. Closely 
resembling M. co/ea, but smaller, narrower, and less cunei- 
lorm ; the elytra subparallel and somewhat coarsely sculp- 
tured ; the first joint of tlie posterior tarsi with two ridges 
only ; the pygidium very slender. 

25. MordeUistena dirempta, sp. n. 

Narrow, convex, shining ; testaceous or ferruginous, the 
elytra often darker towards the sides and ajjcx, the eyes 
and under surface black or piceons ; thickly pubescent. 
Antennae comparatively short, joint 3 very small, 4 slightly 
longer and wider, 5-10 broader, subtiiangular, not much 
longer than broad, subequal, 11 longer than 10. Prothorax, 
elytia, and pygidium much as in M. sc/j/emcarinafa. Anterior 
tibise slender, sinuous within, thickened towards the base ( c^ ). 
Posterior tibia) with 3 (the subapieal one short), and the 
first two joints of posterior tarsi each with 2, oblique ridges. 

Length (incl. pygid.) 2^-3 mm. ( (^ ? .) 

Loc. Seychelles : Silhouette, Alahe, Praslin. 

Silhouette, ]Mare aux Cochons and forest above, over 
1000 feet ; Mahe, high forest of ]Morne Blanc, and a speci- 
men also from the low country ; Praslin, Cotes d'Or Estate. 

Described from about a dozen examples, other damaged 
individuals probably belonging here. These were at first 
supposed to be diminutive females of 31. septemcarinuta, 
coming as they do from each of the islands quoted ; but, as 
both sexes appear to be represented in each series, this 
cannot be the ease. M. dirempta, therefore, may be described 
as a rather short, small form of M. septemcarinata, with the 
antennal joints 5-10 subserrate and but little longer than 
broad. 

26. MordeUistena argvtuta, sp. n. 

$ . Narrow, moderately elongate, convex ; black, the head 
(a large transverse patch of variable extent on the vertex 



I 



the Seychelles Islands and Aldabra. 187 

excepted), moiitli-parts, basal joints of the antennae, anterior 
coxaj, femora, and tibiie, and calcaria testaceons or rutb- 
testaceous ; closely, uniformly fusco-cinereo-pnbescent. 
Head very convex ; antennae slender, moderately lonjr, joints 
1 and 2 rather stout, 2 a little shorter than 1, 3 small, short, 
4 subtriangidar, 5-10 longer than broad, feebly subserrate ; 
last joint of maxillary palpi stout, securiform. Prothorax 
uiotlerately transverse, not wider than the elytra, rounded 
at the sides anteriorly. Elytra subparallel in their basal 
half. Pypdium long, acute, about as long as the })osterior 
tarsi. Anterior femora beneath and anterior tibise at base 
fnseo-ciliate, the latter sinuous within. Posterior tibiae witli 
two very long oblique ridges, in addition to the shoit sub- 
apical one. Posterior tarsi with joints 1 and 2 each with 
two oblique ridges. 

? . Similar to (^ , but wii h the head and the anterior legs 
in great part or entirely infnscate, the antennae a little 
shorter, the anterior femora and tibiae not ciliate. 

Length (inch pygid.j 2^-4- mm. {S ^ •) 

Loc. Seychelles: Maiie, Round Island, Anonyme Island, 
Silhouette, Felicite. 

A long series, almost all from low elevations. In Sil- 
houette a large number of examples was swept from grass in 
the low coconut-planted country near the coast at Pointe 
Etienne, 17. ix. 1908 ; a few were also taken near Mare aux 
Cochons. In ]Mahe specimens w'ere collected near Morne 
lilanc, 500-1000 feet ; on the marshy coastal plains of 
A use aux Pius and Ansa Roy ale ; and a few from over 
1000 feet in the Mare aux Cochons district. Examples 
were also found in two cultivated islets, Anonyme and 
Round Island. Felicite : six specimens from a rather dry 
type of forest near sea-level. 

A small, narrow, obscure form, with the head and anterior 
legs partly rufo-testaceous in ^ , the vestiture uniform, the 
prothorax rather long and not wider than the elytra, the 
pygidium long and acute. 

EXPLANATION' OF PLATE VI. 

Fiy. L Cacoplesia viriditinda, C!,]inmYit.<r\, (^ . 

Fit/. 2. Cacop esia aunulijyes, CIiKuipiou, J • 

Fig. 3. Stictoihya loll f/ipeiiiiis, ChuB^-pion, <^ . 

Fi(j. 4. Mycteroinimus insiilaris, Cliaiupion, $ . 

Fi(j. o. Furyt/enius f raff ilicvrnis, Chmiiinon, 2- 

Fiy. f). Xj/lnp/iiivs turticoniis, Chiau[)ion, J. 

Fiy. 7. Ditto. Anteuna. 

Fiy. 8. Xylophilvs seychellarnm, Cliampion, J . 

Fiy. 9. Xylophilus vlavicorni-i, C'liaiiipion, ^ • 
Fiy. 10. Mordelld ijcreyrinatofy Chaiupiou, J. 



188 Dr. G. A. K. Mai-.-^hall o)i new 



XIII. — On new Species of Indian Curculionidte. — Part III. 
By Guy A. K. Marshall, D.Sc. 

Subfamily EimMxiNM. 

Genus Peltotrachelus, uov. 

Head continuous with the rostrum, the cj'es comparatively 
•SQiall and widely separated. Rostrum about as long as the 
prothorax, its sides slojjiiig outwards from the cariuai 
bounding the median area, the gense more or less dilated, 
the apical emargination deep and trianguhir ; the scrobes 
apical and short, visible from above ; the lateral areas im- 
jjressed and with two furrows — one running just below the 
dorso-lateral carina, the other passing fiom the loMer corner 
of the scrobe to the lower margin of the eye ; the buccal 
aperture extremely oblique and much longer than the lower 
surface of the rostrum, the mentum bearing only two setaj. 
Antenna with the scape but little curved, subcylindrical, 
slightly thickened towards the apex, and reaching beyond 
the front margin of the thorax ; the funicle variable ; the 
club narrowly spindle-shaped. Prothorax transverse, the 
base deeply bisinuate and broader than the apex, the ocular 
lobes developed or not, but vibvissse always present. Scu- 
tellum small. Elytra with the shoulders obliquely rounded 
and not prominent, the dorsal outline flat or only slij^htly 
convex, the declivity steep, the apices sepaiately rounded, 
tlie striae partly hidden by the dense scaling. Leys with the 
front coxse nearer the anterior margin of the prosternuni ; 
the femora moderately clavate and with a small tooth ; the 
tibise simple, the corbels of the hind pair quite open ; the 
claws small and free. 

Type, Plafytruc/ielus puhes, Fst. 

The species included in this genus were erroneously 
attributed by Faust to Platytrachelus, Schh., owing to his 
having wrongly identified the genotype, P. pistacinus, Boh. 
Some years ago, through the kindness of Dr. Taschenberg, 
I was able to examine the type of that species, which is in 
Germar's collection in Halle ; it proved to be identical with 
Amhlyrrhinus viridamis, Fst. (Stett. ent. Zeit. 1890, p. 74). 
Platytrachelus differs from Peltotrachelns principally in the 
structure of the rostrum, which has the median area broad 
and the sides vertical ; the scrobes are therefore quite 
invisible from above and extend backwards for more than 
half the length of the rostrum. The only other species of 



Species of [tuHan (Jurculloiiidte. lb'9 

true PhittjtracheJns kno\yn to me are Amhhjrrhinus psitia- 
ciniis, Fst., and Coriyetas paviei, Auriv.j botli of which occur 
in [ndo~China. 

The other described species of Peltotrachelus are Platy- 
trachelus propinquus, Fst., P. ovis, Hell., Cyphicerus jiwencus, 
Fst. ( = MyUoceriis acacia, Stebh.), Acanthotruchelus albus^ 
Pasc., and Myilucerus isabe/linus, Boh. 

Peltotrackelus cognatuf^, sp. n. 

$ ? . Colour bhick or piceous, witli dense grey scaling 
and with the following denuded areas on the elytra : — A 
transverse patch just behind the scutellunQj extending to 
al);)nt the fourth stria ; a dentate transverse band before the 
middle, which is only broken at the suture ; a similar but 
couipleie and more curved band behind the middle ; these 
patches often partly obscured by whitish or yellowish 
powdering. 

Huad with the eyes lateral and almost flat ; the forehead 
with a central fovea. Rostrum longer than its basal width, 
sli:;htly narrowed from the base to beyond the middle, and 
dilated at the apex ; the dorsal area broadly and rather 
deeply impressed ; the submentum with a projecting tooth. 
Aateiince with the second funicular joint much longer than 
the first, the others longer than broad. Prothora.v with the 
sides slightly rounded aud shallowly constricted at the apex, 
the postocular lobes prominent, the dorsal anterior margin 
rounded ; the upper surface with rather coarse confluent 
punctation, and with a very shallow transverse impression 
before and a small rounded one behind the middle on each 
side. Elytra nearly parallel-sided ((J) or dilated behind 
the middle ( ? ), the intervals distinctly broader than the 
shallow striae and with short curved irregular setae. 

Length 6-7, breadth 2^-3 mm. 

Madras : Yercaud, 4500 ft., Shevaroy Hills (T. Bainbriyge 
Fletcher). 

Very closely allied to P. pubes, Fst., but differing in its 
colouring and its larger and less convex eyes ; the rostrum 
is longer and more deeply impressed, the prothorax is more 
narrowed in front, the shoulders of the elytra are less promi- 
nent, and the sides more dilated behiiul in the female. 

Peltotrachelus ruyipennis, sp. n. 

Colour black, with rather thin pale green scaling, whicli 
is often more or less abraded. 

Head with the eyes lateral, elongate, and only slightly 



190 Dr. G. A. K. Marshall on neio 

convex, the forehead thinly pubescent and without green 
scaling. Rostrum much longer than its width at the base, 
almost parallel-sided in the basal half, and strongly dilated 
anteriorly, the basal area broadly and rather deeply ioi- 
pressed, the median part of the subnienium elevated into a 
sharp conical process with tlie })oint directed backwards. 
Antenna with the scape gently curved and. gradually thick- 
ened ; the fimiclc with joint 2 longer than 1, and 3 to 7 
longer than broad. Prothoi'ax witli the sides subparallel 
in tlie basal half and narrowed in front, the dorsal anterior 
edge very slightly roa\uled, the ocular lobes strongly pro- 
duced ; the upper surface with close confluent puiictation 
which is not very distinct through the scaling, with a faint 
transverse impression before the middle and a deeper 
rounded impression on each side behind. Elytra with rows 
of large fovese, the intervals very narrow and irregular; in 
the vicinity of tiie suture the spaces between the fovese are 
slightly raised, so that the surface appears transversely 
rugose ; the sette extremely short, dense, and suberect. 

Length 5|— 7, breadth 2|-3 mm. 

JNIadras : Anaimalai Hills (H. L. Andrewes). 

Peltotrachelus illobatus, sp. n. 

Black, with dense pale green or greenish-grey scaling 
throught)ut, the head and prothorax with a yellowish tinge. 

Head with the eyes ratlier prominent and lateral ; fore- 
head with a short central stria, liostrum longer than broad, 
very gradually dilated from the middle to the apex, the 
dorsal carinse more elevated than usual and continued ou 
to the forehead. Antenna with the scape distinctly curved ; 
the funicle with joint 2 longer than 1, the latter longer than 
3 and 4 together, 5-7 much longer than broad. Prothorax 
with the sides almost straight and strongly narrowed from 
base to apex, tlie dorsal anterior margin straight, the ocular 
lobes absent, being replaced by a tuft of yellow vibrissae, the 
upper surface rather rugosely punctate, especially towards 
the sides. Elytra broadest behind the middle ( ? ), with 
rather deep and coarsely punctate striae, Avhich, however, 
appear very narrow and finely punctate when the scaling 
is intact ; the setse mostly very short and depressed, but 
scattered among them a number of comparatively long erect 
set re. 

Length 7, breadth 3j mm. 

Burma: Taung-ngu [G, Q. Corbett). Cambodia (MouAo^). 



Species of In'iiayi Curculionidse. 191 

Peltotrachelus smaragdus, sp. n. 

Black, with dense bright green scaling, the head usually 
with pinkish scales ; sometimes the insect is covered with a 
more or less dense whitish coating over the green scaling. 

Head with the eyes very small, prominent and lateral ; 
forehead with a central fovea. Rostrum longer than broad, 
only sliglitly dilated at the apex, the dorsal area broadly 
imjjressed, the under surface normal and with no projection. 
Aitteitiue with the scape almost straight; the fntiicle with 
j )int 2 nearly twice as long as 1, 1 hardly longer than .3, and 
•i to 7 much longer than broatl. Prothorax with the sides 
scarcely curved, only sliglitly narrower at the apex than 
at tlie base, the dorsal anterior margin straight, the ocular 
lobes al)sent, being replaced by a tuft of golden-yellow 
vibrissse ; the upper surface closely punctate and with a 
shallow fovea on each side behind the middle. Eh/tra with 
fine distinctly punctate stride and broad intervals where 
the scaling is intact, the strite bcnng a good deal broader 
when the scaling is removed, but even then distinctly nar- 
rower than the intervals ; the setae extremely short, dense, 
and suberect. 

Length 4-6, breadth 2-3 mm. 

Madras: Niigiri Hills {Sir G.Hampson, H. L. Andrewes). 

A very distinct specit^s. Apart from the absence of the 
ocular lobes, the facies is that of a typical Peltotrachelus. 

Genus ]Meionops, nov. 

i/^eaf/ separated from the rostrum by a very shallow trans- 
verse impression ; the eyes widely separated, comparatively 
small, and almost circular. Rostrum Y2it\\evhvovn[ and stout, 
longer than its basal width, the buccal aperture oblique, the 
apical eraargination angular but rather shallow ; the true 
scrobe apical and very short, the space from the scrobe to 
the eye broadly impressed. Anteiu/ce elongate and compara- 
tively slender; the scape cylindrical, abruptly clavate, and 
curved only towards the apex ; the f unicle with joint 1 much 
longer than 2, 3 to 7 subequal, and the club narrowly spindle- 
shaped. Prothorax simple, strongly transverse, the sides 
rounded, its greatest width almost or quite equal to that of 
the el} tra, the apex narrower than the base, the latter trun- 
cate or faintly bisinuate, the ocular lobes not very prominent, 
broadly rounded and with short vibrissce, the front coxae 
placed in the centre of the prosternum. Scutellum small. 
Elytra with the base vertically truncate, its margin being 



U)2 Dr. a. A. K. ^[arshall on ),eio 

slightly raised, the slioiilders feeble and obli(jucly rounded, 
punctato-striate, t!ie iuccrvals smoatli and even. Legs with 
the femora strongly clavate and having a rather large tooth, 
all the til)i:e sinuate internally near the base, the corbels 
of the hind pair entirely open, the tarsal claws free. 

Type, M. ((.f/fers/a, sp. ii. 

Allied to P/i;/fitsctij)/tiis, Schh., but dilFering from it in the 
very broad and roundeil prothorax, the vertical ijasal margin 
of the elytra, and tiie small and widely separated, eyes. 

Meioiwpa uspersus^ sp. n. 

Colour piccous, with chocolate-brown scaling and pale 
markings J the head fawu-coloured ; the prothorax with a 
broad dorsal and narrower lateral stripe of yellowish-creamy 
scales ; the elytra with a similarly coloured, broad, irregular, 
and broken lateral stripe, aud with small pale spots on the 
disk, which often coalesce along the suture. 

Rostrum only slightly widened at the apex, the dorsal area 
al nost plane and with a fine central carina, the lateral area 
with a deep narrow furrow running towards the upper edge 
of the eye and a broader one beneatli the scrobe. AntenncB 
with joints 3 to 7 of the funicle about as long as broad. 
ProtUorav not ([uite as broad as the elytra at the shoulders, 
the base slightly bisinuate, the upper surface with shallow 
punctures and slightly granulate, the sculpture being almost 
hidden by the scaling. Elytra jointly sinuate at the base, 
the apices jointly rounded, slightly broader behind the 
middle, the striae shallow, with very large subquadrate 
punctures (somewhat hidden by scaling), the intervals 
almost plane and smooth, with minute subdepressed setae. 

Length 5|-G, breadth 2^-3 mm. 

Assam. 

Meionojjs glaucinus, sp. n. 

Colour black, with dark greenish-grey scaling throughout. 

Rostrum with the dorsal area almost plane and without a 
carina. Antenna with joints 3 to 7 of the funicle evidently 
longer than broad. Prutliorax as broad as the elytra at the 
shoulders, the base truncate, the apical portion shallow ly 
constricted. Elytra truncate at the base, the sides parallel 
to beyond the middle, the punctures smaller. 

In other respects agrees with M. aspersus, Mshl. 

Length 5, breadch 2j mm. 

W, Bengal : Chota Nagpur (Cardon). 



II 



species of tiidi-m CLirculioiildgB. 193 

Subfamily Akthokomin^. 

Genus Onychocnemis, nov. 

tJead exserted, subconical ; tlie eyes lateral, small, almost 
circiilai'. Roatrum broail, flattened dorso-veutrally, longer 
than tiie head or the front tibia, almost straijj-ht, deflected, 
forming- a continuous line with the head, and with the apical 
margin entire j the scrobes narrow and deep, beginning at 
about one-third from the apex and continued obliquely to 
beneath the base of the rostrum ; the mentum small, sub- 
quadrate, about as long as its supporting peduncle, convex, 
impunctate, and very shining. AntenncB short, geniculate ; 
the seapi; almost straight, clavate, reaching the middle of 
the eye ; the fuuicle 7-jointed, joint 1 swollen and longer 
than any of the others, 2 subconical and as long as broad, 
the remainder strongly transverse, very closely packed, and 
rapidly widening outwardly, joint 7 being closely annexed 
to the club, which is broadly ovate and 3-jointed, Pro- 
thorax without postocular lobes, and with the base bisinuate. 
Scutellurii distinct, circular. Elytra oblong, broader than 
the prothorax, entirely covering the pygidium, with distinct 
shoulders and ten striae. Legs short and stout; the hind 
coxae ovate, not reaching the edge of elytra ; the femora 
moderately clavate and not toothed, the hind pair not nearly 
reaching the apex of the elytra ; the tibi;e almost straight, 
slightly compressed, strongly uncinate at the apex, and also 
with a short sharp mucro projecting perpendicularly from 
the inner angle; the tarsi broad, joint 2 transverse, 3 
broadly lobate, 4 short, the lower surface clothed with fine 
pale pubescence, which is sparse on the two basal joints, 
the claws very small and connate at the bf^se. Sternum : 
the prosternum very short, with the front margin shallowly 
sinuate, the coxse in the middle and narrowly separated ; 
themesosternum with theepimeranot ascending and broadly 
separating the episterna from the elytra, the intercoxal pro- 
cess bi'uadly truncate at the apex; the metasternum between 
tlie coxte about as long as the middle coxae, the episterna 
comjniratively l)road. Venter with the intercoxal i)rocess 
broadly rounded, the two basal segments fused together and 
delimited only by an almost straight shallow stria, the iutei'- 
mediate segments not angulated externally, 2 almost as lorg 
as 3 + 4 in the middle, and 5 but little longer than 4. 

Type, Onychocnemis careya^ sp. n. 

Allied to the European Br/i((yba/us, Germ., and the Sonth- 
A-fncau Thumnobius, Schh, The former genus differs in its 

Ann.d; Mag. N, Hist, Ser. «. Vol. xix. U 



194 Dr. G. A. K. .Marshall on new 

much longer, more slender, nnd cylindrical rostrum, its 
simply uncinate tibiae, free and bifid tarsal claws, and dentate 
front femora. In Thamnobius the rostrum is also more 
cylindrical, the scape does not exceed the front margin of 
the eye, the tibirc are merely uncinate (not miicronate, as 
stated by Lacordaire), and the tarsal claws are free and 
appendiculate. 

Onychocnemis careyce, sp. n. 

$ ? . Colour rcd-bnjwu, shining and sparsely clothed 
■with short recuujl)ent white setne ; the head darker; the 
elytra with the entire suture blackish brown, as well as a 
large common patch extending from the base to beyond the 
middle and laterally as far as the fifth stria, its outline 
being very similar to that of the elytra ; the niesosternum, 
metasternum, tarsal claws, and the two apical hooks of tlie 
tibia also dark brown or ])lackish. 

Head rugoscly punctate, the forehead a little narrower 
than the base of the rostrum and broader than the eye. 
Rostrum very gradually widened from base to apex, rugoscly 
punctate above from the base to the end of the scrobe, the 
apical area more lightly punctate (cJ) or impunctate ( ? ). 
Protlwrax subeonical, almost as long as its width at the 
base, gradually narrowed from there to the apex, the sides 
gently roundi (1, williout any anterior constriction, the basal 
angles nearly right angles, the base angularly })rodu','ed in 
the middle, the apical margin very shallowly sinuate dorsally 
and oblique at the sides ; the uppf^r surface v.'ith coarse 
reticulate punctation throughout and with a median stripe 
of denser pale rccimibent setse. Elytra almost ])aiallel-sided 
from the shoulders to well behind the middle, broadly 
rounded behind, the apices continuous, the hasal margin 
slightly raised and almost straight from the second stria to 
the shoulders; the striae broad, containing deep closely-set 
punctures, which diminish behind, the intervals scarcely 
broader than the striae, almost fiat and finely aciculate, the 
posterior callus nearly obsolete; the dorsal outline flat 
from the base to the middle, then gradually declivous. Legs 
coarsely punctate and clothed Avith curved white setae. 

Length 2-2^, breadth \-l\ mm. 

Mysore: IVfadhavgiri {H. H. Mann, Pusa Coll.). 

This species was found on the leaves of the jak-fruit tree 
[Carey a arborea). 



species of Indian Curculioiiii-Iaa. 195 

Subfamily Omophobinj!. 
Genus Teluropus, nov. 

Head globose, with the eyes lateral. Rostrum stout, about 
as long as the frout tibia, somewhat depressed, the apical 
margin very shallowly sinuate ; the scrobes invisible from 
above, beginning at some distance from the apex, enrving 
rapidly downwards behind the antennpe, and ending in a flat- 
tened punctate area almost on the lower surface of the base 
of the rostrum; mandibles stout, tridentate; mentum small 
and square, about equal in length to the peduncle of the 
submentum, and not broader than the lateral space on each 
side of it. Prothorax Avith the basal margm deeply bi- 
sinuate ; the anterior margin oblique at the sides and without 
any postocular lobes. Scutelluni distinct, almost circular. 
Elytra short and broad, with ten complete strife ; the in- 
flexed lateral margin unusually narrow, involving only the 
tenth stria, and without true epipleurae. Wings fully deve- 
loped. Legs short and stout ; the femora only slightly 
clavate and each with a small tooth, tlie hind pair scarcely 
reaching the apex of the elytra ; the tibiae with the external 
apical angle strongly uncinate, and the inner angle with a 
sharp mucro as well ; the tarsi short and broad, the second 
joint twice as broad as long, the fourth projecting only a 
short distance beyond the third, the claws simple and stout. 
Sternum with the front coxse very widely separated and placed 
behind the middle, the space between them quite flat ; the 
median coxa3 still further apart, the side-pieces of the meso- 
sternum fused together but divided by a stria, the suture 
between the mesosternurn and ei)isternum entirely oblite- 
rated, and the intercoxal piece broadly truncate ; the length 
of the metasternum between the coxae not greater than that 
of the median coxse, the episternaas broad as the base of the 
raid-femora and fused with the metasternum, but the line of 
junction quite distinct, the epimera impei'ceptible ; the hind 
00X36 as widely separated as the middle pair. Venter short, 
with segment 2 nearly as long as 3 + 4 and separated from 
1 by a deep straight incision, the intercoxal process very 
short and broad, with an angular projection in the middle, 
and segments 2 and 3 angulate externally. 

Type, Teluropus subcostaius, Sj). n. 

In general form the only known species bears considerable 
resemblance to the African genus Omophorus, Schh.*, and 

* In most collections this genus stMiids under the later name Metn- 
tyges, I'asc. M. tiirritus, Pasc, is a synonvm of O. stoniavJiosua, Boh., 
■while M. pcv'ous, Fat., u identical with O. indixpositus, Boh., the type or 
which is uow in the Oxford Uuiversitv Museum (Summer' « collection^. 

13* 



li'C Dr. G. A. K. Marshall on new 

the Fijian Physnrchus, Pasc, except that the shouhlers of 
tlie elytra are much less prominent. But both these genera 
differ, inter alia, in the absence of the inner apical mucro 
on the tibia;, and in having the front cox;e contiguous and 
the hind pair nuich closer together than the niidule pair. 

Teluropus ballardi, sp. n. 

cJ . Dark rcd-browii, fairly closely clothi'd witii short, 
curved, golden-brown setae. 

Head rugosely punctured throughout, the forehead almost 
as broad as the base of the rostrum, transvei-scly flattened 
and with a central fovea; the eyes almost circular, their 
great3st depth at about one-fourth from the hind margin. 
Rostrum stout, parallel-sided, and porrect from the base to a 
little beyond the middle, thence slightly widened and curved 
downwards, somewhat flattened longitudinally at the sides iu 
the basal half, and rugosely punctured throughout right up 
to the apex. Anteinue short ; the scape stout, slightly com- 
pressed, strongly clavate, and coarsely punctate ; the funicle 
with joint 1 rather longer than 2, and joints 2 to 7 of aljout 
equal width and widening regularly outwards, 7 being closely 
fitted to the club, which has three distinct joints. Prothoraoo 
broader than long, broadest near the base and rapidly 
narrowing in front, with a broad apical constrictioii, the 
anterior margin straight, the base with a large median lobe^ 
which is emarginnteat its apex; the upper surface couvex, 
coarsely and conHuently punctate throughout, and with two 
low broad elevations in the middle of the disk ; these merge 
and !-lope gradually away behind, but in front they are 
abruptly narrowed where they cross the apical constriction 
and enclose a large rounded depression between them ; 
below these prominences on each side is another much lower 
rounded elevation. Elytra together nearly as broad as long, 
parallel-sided from the shoulders to beyond the middle, and 
very broadly rounded behind ; each elytron strongly lobate 
at the base, the greatest de])th of the lobe being at the third 
interval, which bears a slight basal callus ; the juxta-basal 
area slopes steeply foiwards fi'om a transverse postbasal 
ridge, which bears a rounded prominence on intervals 3 and 
5 ; a little behind this is a short costate elevation on in- 
terval 3 and a less distinct one on 5 ; the striae are deep and 
strongly punctate and the intervals are rugose, the alternate 
ones being slightly more convex. Leys rugosely punctate, 
the femora with scattered granules, set with curved suberect 



Species of Indian Curculionidse. 197 

setje ; the anterior pairs of tibiae rather sharply angulate on 
the lower surface not far from the base. 

Length 4g-5, breadth 2^-3 mm. 

I\Jadras: Coimbatore (^E. Ballard, type). ]Mysore : 
Madhavgiri, on leaves of jak-fruit, Careya arborea {H. 11. 
Mann, Pusa Cull.j. 

Subfamily IsoEitaYNCRiNJE. 
PhcBnomerus angulicollis, sp. n. 

? . Colour black, sparsely clothed with rather stout, 
transversely recumbent, pale yellowish, hair-like scales, 
having the following patches apparently bare, but really 
clotJied with similar black hairs which are not very con- 
spicuous : — A large transverse patch on the anterior half of 
the ])roihora\', and two irregular patches on each elytron, 
one before and the other behind the middle. 

Head with scattered punctures, the eyes a little more 
widely separated thau in P. sundewalli. Rostrum red-brown, 
the thickeDed basal portion forming about one-fourth of the 
whole, and not sulcate, but with two posteriorly convergent 
rows of fine punctures on the disk ; the scrobcs continued 
to beyond the middle as a shallow punctate furrow, and with 
a fine stria just aboA'e them. Prothorax at least two and a 
half times as long as its basal width, the sides obtusely 
angulated in front of the middle, the dorsal margin bounded 
by a fine carina in the basal half, the upper surface with 
reiiculate punctures which are longitudinally subcoalescent, 
leaving a distinct smooth central carina. Elijtra narrowly 
cylindrical, about as broad as the prothorax at its angu- 
lation, \>ith shallow stride containing closely set transverse 
punctures, the intervals narrowly carinate, except the four 
outer ones, which are broader and almost flat. Legs similar 
to those of P. sundewalli, exce[)t that the large tooth on the 
elongate hind lemora is more deeply sinuate at the ba^e of 
its posterior edge, so that this edge is distinctly angulated 
in the middle. 

Length 3j, breadth | mm. 

Bengal: Sanderbaus, ]3. ii. 1915 [C. F. C. Beeson). 

Veiy similar sujjerficially to P. sundtwulli, Boh., but 
distinguished by its obviously narrower build, more widely 
se])arated eyes, the lateral angulation and basal lateral 
carina of the prothorax, and the shape of the tooth on the 
hind femora. 

Found in burrows in sundri-trees {Herifiera littoralis). 



198 My. (\ T. Kegan on the Clupeid Fishes 

Ph(jpnomerus hreviroslris, sp. n. 

(J ? . Colouriui;- similar to that of P. aiif/iiUco/Iifi, but the 
pale scales more generally {listribiited, so that tlicd;irk patch 
on the prothorax is indistinct and those on the elytra are 
very much rcdu eii. 

Heutl witli close shallow punctures, the forehead l)road, 
about twice the breadth of the fuuicle. Rostrum unusually 
short and stout, the thickened basal portion forming half 
(?) or more than half (c^*) its length, and bearing two or 
four shallow furrows, the apical area smooth and sparsely 
punctate; the scrobc continued to well beyond the middle 
in both sexes, but without any distinct furi'ow above it. 
Antennce short, all the joints of the funicle except the first 
very strongly transverse, the club shorter and more obtuse 
than iu P. sundewaUi. Prothorax about twice as long as 
broad, parallel-sided from the base to beyond the middle, 
thence narrowing gradually to the apex, the upper surface 
simply reticulate, the punctures not coalescing longitu- 
dinally, Avitli an indistinct central costa. Elytra cylindrical, 
very slightly broader than the prothorax, with coarsely 
punctate striae, the dorsal intervals narrow, subcarinate, and 
crenulate. Legs as in P. sundeirulli, except that the hind 
femora are much shorter, extending only a short distance 
1 eyond the apex of the elytra, the b:isal stem is more ra|)idly 
widened, and the large tooth is more deeply sinuate at the 
base of its posterior edge, so that the edge is distinct'y angu- 
lated in the middle. 

Ijcngth 3, breadth | mm. 

I'iMTiiD Pkovinces : Khaiiabenda, Kliash Forest, 29. xi. 
1913 (C. /''. C. Beeson). 

This species can be readily distinguislied from both 
P. SKiuhicuUi and P. aiujuUcoilis by its short rostrum and 
hind femora, and its broad forehead. Found in burrows iu 
dead sal-tree {Hhorea robust a) . ]\lr. Beeson informs me that 
all the three species of /V/teno?»er//.9 mentioned here occurred 
iu burrows of Seolytidre &e., and he is of opinion that they 
are predaceous upon those beetles. 



XIV. — A Tlevinon of ihe Ctupeid Fishes of the Genus Pello- 
nnla and of lietated Genera in the li(vers of Africa. By 
C. Tate Regan, M.A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 
FsLLOXULA and its allies are distinguished from Ch/peoj 
SardintHa, &c., by (he stronger dentition and by the absence 
of tiie anteiior sujn'amaxiilary bone, 



of the G'e/JW5 Pelionula c&(?. 199 

Syno-psis of the Genera, 

I. A-Ldominal scutes sharply keeled ; praemaxillary teeth rather strong. 

A. Lower jaw not or but little projecting; anterior mandibukry 

teeth enlarged, but no strong canines in either jaw. 

1. \). 16-18, above or just behind ),elvics, A. 16-21. Scales 

about 45/11-15. Vertebrae 42-43. Supramaxillarv large. 

1 . PcUonula. 

2. D. 12-14, above interspace between pelvics and anal. 

A. 20-21. Scales 8.3/8. Vertebrae 43 2. Pceeilothrissa. 

A. 21-25. Scales 38-42,10-12. Vertebrae 39-40. . 3. Microthrissa. 

3. D. 13-14, above pelvics. A. 17-18, far behind dorsal. Scales 

40-44/10. Vertebrae 42. Supramaxillary small. 

4. Potamotkrissa. 

B. liower jaw strongly projecting. 
PrtTmaxillaries with an inner seiies of 2 or 3 strong 

canine-like teeth on each side ; anteiior teeth 

of l')wer jaw enlarged 5. Cynoihrissa. 

Praeniaxillary teeth uni.«erial, with a canine on each 
side; lower jaw with a pair of strong anterior 
canines , 6. Odaxothrissa. 

II. Abdominal scutes in front of p.elvic fins feebly keeled : praa- 

maxillar}' teeth small. 

Jlaxillarj' narrow proxinially and expanded dLstally ; 

tongue and pulate toothless 7. Slolothrissa. 

Maxillary broad throughout its length ; a patch of 

teeth on each palatine and a strip on tongue . . 8. LimuoOirUsa. 



1. Pkllonula, G until. 1S68. 

Cat. Fish. vii. p. 452. 

Form elongate, compressetl; abdomen sharp-edged. Month 
moderate, terminal, with the lower jaw a little projecting ; 
upper jaw Avithont median notch; maxillary ot a narrow 
proximal and an expanded distal part ; in Iront of tijO narrow 
part a ligament runs from tlie end oi' the pra^maxillary to the 
broad part of the maxillary ; a single well-developed supra- 
maxillary. Teeth in jaws uni.serial, conical, acute; prse- 
maxillary teeth rather stiong, unequal, without well-marked 
canines; niandibiilary teeth enlarged anteriorly; maxillary 
teeth minute ; a patch of conical teeth on each palatine ; an 
elongate patch of small teeth on tongue. 6 Iranchiostegals. 
Scales with entire edges, moderate, in a longitudinal series 
one to each myotome ; ventral scutes sliar|.iiy keeled and 
acutely pointed, commencing on or behind the thoracic keel 
fornied by the hypocoracoids. Dorsal of 16-18 rays, anal of 
16-21. Pelvics 8-rayed, below or a little in advance of 
dorsal. Vertebrpe 42 or 43. A bluish-silvery lateral band. 



200 



Mr. C. T. Regan on the Chipeid Fishes 



PeUouula moJrsfa, Fisclier (Jalirl). TT:iml). Wiss. Anst. ii. 
1885, p. 7.")), I'lom Eloby, is placed by Bouleiiger in the 
synoiiyiny of F. vora.r, but unless tiie di'scriittion is quite 
iiiconcct (teeth in jaws minute, tongue and palate toothless, 
no lateral band, &c.) it is not a Pellonula at all, and is most 
likely a Fardinella. 

A species from the coa*t of Brazil, described by Stein- 
daehncras Pellonula //a/(/eH.s/s(Sitzuniisb. Akad. Wifnjxxx. 
], 1880j ]•>. 181, ])1. iii. fio-. 2), of which S^irdinella fiernam- 
huranfij Schrtiiier & lliheiro (Arch. j\lu-!. Rio Janeiro, xii. 
1903, p. 72), ajipears to be a synonym, evidently belonos to 
the genus J/eiingio, Fowler, 1911 {lilnnosardinio, Eigen- 
ninnn, 1912), the t3'pe of whicii is H. amazonica, Stcind., 
from the Amazon and Guiana. 

S^nojysis of the Species. 

26-30 gill-ralcers on lower part of anterior avcli. Depth 
3 to 4 in the length ; caudal peduncle as long- as 
deep 1. vorax. 

27 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior aich. Dej.tli 5 
in the length ; caudal peduncle a litlle longer than 
deep , 2. leonensis. 

33 gil!-rakers on lower part of anterii>r arcli. D^pth 4 

in the length ; caudal peduncle H as long as deep . 3. stanleyana. 

1. Pellonida vorax. 

PeIIo7wIa vorax, Giintli. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 452 (1868). 
Fclhjmila vorax (part.j, Eouleug. Cat. Air. lisL. i. p. 156, fig. 124 
(1909). 

Depth of body 3 to 4 in the length, lengtli of head 3^ to 4^. 
Snout neaily equal to diameter of eye, which is 3 to 3| in 
length of head ; maxillary extending to below anterior 
margin or anterior part of eye ; lower jaw a little projecting. 
2() to 30 gill-rakeis on lower part of anterior arch. About 
45 scales in a longitudinal serie.s, 14 in a transverse series; 
ventral scutes 13-15 + 8-10. Dorsal lG-18 ; origin equi- 
. distant fiom end of snout and base ot caudal, or nearer snout. 
Anal 18-21. Pelvics varying somewhat in position, rarely 
entirely below the dorsal, sometimes entirely in advance of 
it. Caudal peduncle as long as deep. Vertebrae 42. 

West Africa, from the Senegal to Angola. 

Kumeious examples, measuring up to 140 mm. in total 
length. 

Tiiis species may occur in the Lower Congo, but none of 
llie specimens from the Congo eninnerated by Boulenger ^ 
belongs to it ; I refer specimens 18 and 19 to Cyvothrisna 



of the Genus Pellonula &c. 



201 



orisoriji>\ 20-23 and 24-25 to Mic.rothrissa pnrra, 26 to 
Polamotlirlssa ocutirostria, '27 and 28 to Poeciloihrissa con- 
(/ica^ and 29 and 30 to I'ellonula stanleijana. 

2. Pellonula lean en sis. 
Felhnula konensis, Eouleng. Cat. Afr. Fish. iv. p. 172, fig-. Ill (1916). 

Depth of body 5 to 5_]^ in the lengtli, length of li.ead 3| to 4. 
Snout nearly a.s long a.s dinmeter of eye, which is 3 in length 
of htad; maxilhiiy extending to below anterior \ of eye; 
lower jaw a little projecting. 27* gill-raker.s on lower pait 
of anterior !ircb. 45 scales in a longitudinal series, 11 or 12 
in a transverse series; ventral scutes 13-14 + 8-9. Dorsal 
IG ; origin equidistant from end of snout and base of caudal. 
Anal 16-17. Pelvics below origin or anterior rays of dorsal. 
Caudal j)('duncle a little longer than deep. 

Sierra Leone. 

Two specimens, 57 mm. long, from the North Sherbo 
District. 

3. Pellonida stanleyano, S]"). n. 
Tellonida vorax (part.), Eouleng. Cat. Afr. Fish. i. p. 156 (1909). 

Depth of body 4 in tlie length, length of head 4^. Snout 
as long as diameter of ej'e, which is 3.^ in length of head ; 
maxillary extending to below anterior margin of eye ; lower 
jaw a little jirojecting. 33 gill-rakers on lower part of arite- 
rior arch. 45 scales in a longitu.dinal .'■eries, 14 in a trans- 
verse series; ventral scutes 14 + 9. Dorsal 16-17; origin 
nearer to end of snout than to base of caudal. Anal 18. 
Pelvics below anterior rays of dorsal. Caudal peduncle 1^ 
as long as <\eQ\). Vertebras 43. , 

Stanley Falls. 

Two specimens, 110 mm. in total length ; one of these is 
a skeleton^ but I have been able to count the gill-rakers. 

2. PcECiLOTiiKiSSA, gen. no v. 

Ch'Scly related to Pellonula, differing in that the scales in 
a longitudinal series are less numerous than the myotomes, 
the suj)iamaxillary bone is rather small, and the tongue is 
toothless. Dorsal fin of 13 rays, above the interspace be- 
tween pelvics and anal, tbe last with 20-21 rays. Scales 
33/8. Vertebrte 43. 

* I find 27 gill-rakers on the lower part of the anterior arch in each 
of the type-specimens, which I have examined under a binocular 
luicroscoiu;. 



202 ^fr. C. T. Regan on the Clupeid Fishes 

Pcecilothrissi congica, sj>. n. 
PeUonuIa vorax (part.), Bouleng. Cat. Afr. Fish. i. p. 156 (1909). 

Do|ftli of boly 4 in the length, lengtli of head 4j. Snout 
n little shorter than diameter of eye, which is 2j in length of 
liead ; jaws equal anteriorly ; maxillary extending to vertical 
from anterior edge of eye; maxillary teeth quite distinct; 
19 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 33 scales in a 
longitudinal series, 8 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 
11-12 + 9-10. Dorsal 13; origiji equidi.staut from end of 
snout and base of caudal. Anal 20-21. Pelvics well in 
advance of dorsal. Caudal peduncle longer than deep. 
Lateral band narrow, present only on posterior half of tish. 
Vertebia3 43. 

Congo. 

Two s{)pcimens, 55 and G.O mm. in total length, from 
Coqnilhatville and irom Mousembe. 

3. MiCKOTHRissA, Bouleng. 1902. 

Ann. Mus. Congo, Zool. ii, p. 26. 

Scarcely generically distinct from Pellotnila, but tongue 
toothless, dorsal fin of 12-14 rays and anal of 21 to 2.5, and 
pf-lvics in advance of dorsal. Scales 38-42/10-12. Ver- 
tebvse 39-40. 

1. Microthrissa parcii, sp. n. 
Tellonula vorax (part.), Bouleng. Cat. Afr. Fish. i. p. 156 (1909). 

Depth of body 4 to 5 in the length, length of head about 4. 
Snout a little shorter than diameter of eye, which is rather 
more than ^ the lei'gth of bead ; maxillary extending to 
vertical from anterior edge of eye ; lower jaw a little pro- 
jecting. 26 or 27 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 
40 to 42 scales in a longitudinal series, 10 or 11 in a trans- 
verse series; ventral scutes 12-13 + 7-8. Dorsal 12-14; 
origin nearly equidistant from end of snout and base of 
caudal. Anal 21-23, not extending forward to below dorsal. 
Pelvics in advance of dorsal. Caudal peduncle longer than 
deep. 40 vertebrae. 

Upi'er Congo. 

Two specimens of 40 mm. from Coquilhatville and three 
of 30 mm. from the Tumba Lake. 



of the Genus Pellonula Sfc. " 20'3. 

2. Microthrissa royanxi. 

Microthn'ssa royav.vi, Bonlfner. Ann. Miis. Congo, ii. 1902, p. 2Ci, and 
Ciit. Air. Fish. i. p. 161, tig.''l29 (1909). 

De[)tli of body 3-3^ in tlie lengtli, length o£ head 4. 
Snout shorter than diameter of eye, wliicb is 3 in length of 
head; jaws equal anteriorly; maxillary with minute teeth, 
extending to below anterior niaigin of eye ; 14 gili-rakers on 
lower part of anterior arch. 38 to 40 scales in a lonoituilinal 
.«erieSj 12 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 12-13+6-7. 
D')r:-;ai 13 ; origin equidistant from end of siiout and 
base of caudal, behind the 8-iayed pelvics. Anal 23 (-25), 
exteiKh'ng forward nearly to below end of do;-sal. (Jaudal 
peduncle a little deeper than long. 39 vertebrse. 

fli.anghi 11. 

One of the types, 55 mm. in total length, from Bauzyville. 

4. POTAMOTHRISSA, gen. uov. 

Closely related to Pdlonula, but maxillary narrow, snpia- 
inaxillary bone quite small, and no teeth on tongue or on 
niaxiihiry. Dorsal fin of 13 or 14 rays, placed well forward, 
its origin nuudi nearer to end of snout than to base of caudal, 
above or in advance of first ray of privies ; anal of 17 or 18 
rays, far b. hind dorsal. Scales 40-44/10. Yertebrse 42. 

1. Potamothrissa obtusiroNtris. (Fig. \,2.) 

Pellomda ohtiisirostris, Bouleng. Cat. Afr. Fish, i, p. 1.58, fig. 126 
(1909). 

Jaws equal anteriorly. IG glll-rakei-s on lower part of 
anterior arch. Ventral scutes 9-10+ 9-10. 
Aruwinii River, Congo. 
Two specimens, 72 mm. in total length. 

2. Potamothrissa acutirostris. 
PeUunula acutirostris, Bouleng. Cat. Afr. Fish. i. p. 159, fig. 127 (1909). 

Lower jaw shorter than upper. 19 gill-ral<ers on lower 
part of anterior arch. Ventral scutes 12-13 + 10-12. 
Upper Congo. 
Five specimens, uj) to 75 mm. in total length. 

5. Cynotiirissa, gen. no v. 

Differs from Pellomda in the very prominent lower jaw 
and in the presence of an inner series of pnemaxillary teeth, 



204 



Mr. C. T. Regan on the Clupeid Fishes 



compiisinfj 2 or 3 strongly enlarged teeth on each side. 
Vericbrae 42. 



Fig. 1. 




Pleads of 1. Cynothrissa mento, 2. Potamotlmssa ohtusirostris (x 2^). 

1. Cijnothrissa mento^ sp. n. (Fig. 1, 1 .) 
Fellomila vorax (part.), Bouleng. Cat. Afr. Fish. i. p. 15G. 

Depth of body 4 in the lengtji, lengtli of head (without 
lower jaw) 3f. Snout longer than diameter of eye, which is 
3f in length of head ; niaxillary extending to below anterior ^ 
of eye. 19 gill-raker.s on lower part of anterior arch. About 
45 i-cales in a longiiuiiinal series, 14 in a transverse series ; 
ventral scutes 15 + ^>. Dorsal 17; origin above base of 
pel vies, equidistant ironi end of snout and base of caudal. 
Annl 21. Caudal peduncle longer than deep. 

Kigei ia. 

A single specimen^ 130 mm. in total length, from Agberi, 
Soul hem Nigeria. 

This new species is distinguished from C. ansorgii by the 
more slendtr form, fewer gill-raker.«, and more numerous 
anal rays. 

2. Cyhotlirissa av!ior(]ti. 

Pellovula vorax (part.), Bouleng. Cat. Afr. Fi&h. i. p. ]56 (1909). 
Odaxothrissa aiisurgti, Boulenger, op. cit. iv. p. 172, tig. 11:^ ^1916). 

Depth of body 3 to 3^ in the length, length of head 
(without lower jaw) 3? to 4. iSnout as long as or longer 
than diameter of eye, which is 3 to 4 in knglh of head; 
niaxilhiry extending to below anterior ^ or middle of eye. 
23 to 25 gill-iakers on lower jiart of anterior arch. 42 to 45 
scales in a longitudinal serie.«, 14 or 15 in a transverse 
seiiesj ventral scutes 13-16 + 9-11. Dorsal 15-17; origin 



I 



of the Genus Pellonula dbc. 205 

above or immediately behind base of pelvic", nearly equi- 
distant f'roin base of caudal and end of snout. Anal 17-19. 
Caudal peduncle as long as deep. Veilebrie ■i'l. 

Lower Congo and Angola. 

Nine specimens, 110 to 160 mm. long, including the types 
from Angola and two from Boma and from Vivi, Lower 
Congo. 

6. Odaxothrissa, Bouleng. 1899. 

Diflfers from Pe.llo'iula in the very prominent lower j.iw, 
with a pair of strong canines anteriorly ; prseuKixillarj teeth 
uuiserial, with a canine on each side. 

1. Odaxothrissa vittata, sp. n. 
Odaxothrissa losera (part), Bouleng. Cat. Afr. Fisli. i. p. 160 (19D9). 

Depth of body 4^ in the length, length of head 3|w 
Snout longer than diameter of eye, which is 4 in length of 
head; maxillary extending to below middle of eye ; canines 
very strong. Gill-rakers shorter than gill-Mlaments, 22 or 23 
on lower part of anterior arch. 45 scales in a longitudinal 
series, 14 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 12 + 1^. 
Djrsal 16; origin a little nearer base of caudal than end 
of snout, immediately behind base of pelvics. Anal 21, 
Caudal peduncle Ij as long as deep. A well-detined silvery 
lateral band. 

L^banghi River. 

A single specimen, 110 mm. long, from Banzyville. 

2. Odaxothrissa losera. 

Odaxothrissa losera, Bouleng'. Ann. Mas. Congo, Zoo!, i. 1899, p. 6^j^ 
pi. xxxi. fig. 1. 

Depth of body equal to or a little less than length of head^ 
which is 3^ in the length of fish. Snout a little longer than 
diameter of eve, which is 31?- to 4i- in length of head : max- 
illary extending to below anterior ^ or middle of eye. 27 
gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 44 to 46 scales in 
a longitudinal, 14 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 
11 + 9. Dorsal 16-17 ; orig"in equidistant from end of snout 
and base of caudal, immediately behind base of pelvicSi. 
Anal 21-22. Caudal peduncle as long as deep. Lateral 
band vestigial. 

Upper Congo. 



20t5 



Clupeid Fishes oj the Genus Pellonula d&c. 



TIio above cK'scri|)tion is based on one of the types, a speci- 
men of 85 mm. from Coqnilhatville, and on the fii>-ui-e of tlie 
larger type-specimen, 160 mm. long. In the smaller fish the 
gill-rakers are rather longer than the gill-filaments, but in the 
larger they are said to be much shorter and to numbtn- only 
38 on file lower part of the anterior arch ; tliis may be a 
msprint for 2S, or possibly in the adult the anterior gill- 
rakers may be vestigial. 

7. Stolothrissa, gen. noy. 

Moil h formed as in Pellonula, but teeth in jaw? quite 
small and no teeth on palate or tongue. Abdomen in front 
of pelvic fins rounded, with the scutes but weakly keeled ; 
scutes behind pelvic fins strongly keeled and acutely pointed. 
VtrtebriB 44. 

Stolothrissa tangani'cce, sp. n. (Fig, 2,2.) 
Pellonula miodon (part.), Bouleug. Cat. Afr. Fish. i. p. 157 (1909). 

Depth of body about 6 in the length, length of head 3^ to 
4. Snoiit rather longer than diameter of eye, which is o^ 
in length of head; maxillary not or barely reaching vertical 
fiom anterior margin of eye; lower jaw slightly projecting. 
40 to 42 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. About 
45 scales in a longitudinal and 13 in a transver^^e series ; 
ventral scutes 13-14 + 8-9. Dorsal 15; origin nearly equi- 
distant from end of snout and base of caudal, Anal 17. 
Pelvics below or a little in advance of middle of dorsal. 
Lateral band broad. 

Tanganyika. 

Four specimens, 80 to Do mm. in total length, from Vua 
arid Mdauvie. 

Fig. 2. 




1. 2. 

Heads of 1. Lhnnothris^a miodon, 2. Stolothrissu ianganiccB (x 2). 



On TiibaniJge from Australia (&c. 207 

8. LlMNOTHRlSSA, gen. nov. 

Maxillary broad tlirongliout its length, its dentigerous 
margin extending right up to the prseniuxilhiry ; latter with 
quite small teeth, but dentition of lower jaw, palatines, and 
tongne as in Pellonula. Abdomen in front of pelvic fins 
rounded, with scutes but weakly keeled; scntes behind 
pelvic fins strongly keeled and acutely pointed. Vertebise 44. 

Limnotkn'ssa miodun. (Fig. 2, /.) 

rdhmula miodon (part.), Bouleng. Cat. Afr. Fish. i. p. 157, fig. 125 
(1909j. 

Depth of body 4| in the length, length of head 3| to 4. 
Snout as long as diameter of eye, which is og- in length of 
head ; maxillary extending to below anterior j u£ eye ; h^wer 
jaw slightly prdjei'.ting. 31 to 33 gill-rakers on lower part 
of anterior arch. About 45 scales in a longitudinal and 
14 in a transver.^e series; ventral scutes 13-14 + 10-11. 
Dorsal 15 ; origin equidistant from end of snout and base 
of caudal. Anal IG-IS. Pelvics below middle or anterior 
pait of dorsal. Lateral band broad. 

Tanganyika. 

Four specimens, 100 to 140 mm. in total length, from 
Ndaj)vie, Tembwi, and Kasakalewa ; also some young 
examples not included in the description. 



XV. — Neiv Species of Ta.han'idx from Australia and the 
Fiji Islands. By Gkrtkude Ricakdo. 

The identification of species and descriptions of new species 
contained in this paper are from specimens forwarded to 
Mr. Marshall by Dr. E. W. Ferguson ami Dr. J. Burton 
Cl'land. 

One new species from the Fiji Islands, tlie tvpe being in 
the British jNluseum Coll., is included. The types of all the 
new species will be presented to the British Museum by 
the Imperial Institute of Economic Entomology, A^ith the 
exception of a few species belonging to the South Australian 
Museum and the National Museum, Victoria ; in these 
cases, paratypcs are kept tor the British Museum. 



203 



Mii^s (i. HicaiJo on Tabanidse/zo/rt 



Panooa^inje. 

Diatomineura ruficornis, Macqnart, Dipt. Exot., Suppl. i. 
p. 25 (18 If)) ; AVallvcr, List Dipt. pt. v., Supjil. 
i. p. 142 (1851) ; Ricardo, Ann. & Ma-. Nat. Hist. 
(7) V. p. 113 (lUOO). 

FemaU'S and males from the summit of 'Sit. Wellington^ 
Tasmania. 

I l)elieve these specimens are ]Macquart\s species, th.e type 
of ^vhich Avas examined by me at Lille in l!J06, and tlie 
f(dlo\ving note made of it : — '' Palpi witli the first joint 
short, tiie second long, flattened at base, broad, ending in 
a fine point. Subcallns fulvous, forehead darker. Tliorax 
blackish, Avith yellowish tomentum ; this describes it better 
than Macqnart's remarks, the stripes he speaks of consist 
of pubescence, sides with yellow pubescence ; the other 
details of his description are correct.^' 

Tliis species is very prob ibly identical with Diatomineura 
constans, Walker, as suggested by Mr. White. 

Diatomincui'a constans,Wii\\<er, Dipt. Sauiid. i. p, 15 (1850); 
Kicardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) v. pp. 113, 118 
(1900) ; White, Royal Soe. Tasmania, 1915, pt. ii., 
Diptera Braehycera of Tasmania, p, 20. 

Nine females from Waratah, Tasmania (Lea). 
One female from Hobart (Lea). 

Diatomineura auriflua, Donovan, Gen. Illustr. Ent. Hyra. et 
Dipt. (1805) [Tabanus] ; Wied. Aus>zweiH. Ins. i. 
p. 194 (1848) {Panyonia) ; Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (7) V. pp. 112, 119 (19 JO) ; id. (8) xvi. p. 27 
(19J5) ; White, Royal Soe. Tasmania (1915), pt. ii., 
Diptera Brachycera Tasmania, p. 19. 

{Tangonia $olida, Wile] 
[^Panyonia dices, Macq.] 

One male and one female from Mt. Washington, Tasmania 
{Lea). 

Two males and one female from Devonport, Tasmania 
(Lea). 

Diatomineura breviro.itris, Macq. Dipt. Exot., Suppl. iv. 
p. 326 (1842); Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) v. 
p. 113 (1900) ; id. (8) xvi. p. 29 (19J5). 
Two females from Dorrigo, New South Wales (^. Heron). 



Australia and the Fiji Islanda. 209 

Six females from Clarence River^ New South Wales 
{A. i>; F. R. Zietz). 

Diatomiveura testacea, Macquart, Dipt. Exot, i, p. 103 
(J 838) ; Walker, List Dipt. pt. v., Suppl. i. p. 145 
(1854) ; Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xvi. p. 31 
(1915). 

One female from Cairns Disti'ict, Queensland (Dodd). 

Diatomineura ahdominalis, ? , sp. n. 

Tvpe (female) and another from Laurieton, New South 
Wales, 19. 10. 15. 

A species nearly allied to Diatomineura brevirostris, hut 
distinguished from it hy the absence of any white or yellow 
haired spots on abdomen and hy the first posterior cell 
being considerably narrowed at the border, only half open. 

Length 15 mm. 

Face, palpi, and antenna as in T>. brevirostris. Forehead 
parallel, also the same ; the frontal callus when not denuded 
appears to be small, peax'-shaped. Thorax dresden-brown 
with short black pubescence, no stripes are visible; shoulders 
Avitli chiefly yellowish-white hairs continued on sides of 
thorax as far as the scutellum, but they do not quite reach 
the apex of scutellum; a faint white spot is visible on each 
side of thorax near the suture, on the dorsum. Abdomen 
amber-brown, mottled with blackish markings, smooth, 
shining, with very short black pubescence ; sides with 
yellowish- white hairs ; apex and sides of posterior segments 
paler in colour ; underside paler with black spots. Legs 
reddish-yello"w ; the tarsi bi'ownish, pubescence chiefly black. 
Wings clear, stigma yellowish, veins broAvn, no appendix; 
first posterior cell narrow at border, but open. 

Erephopsis maculipennis, Macquart, Dipt. Exot., Suppl. iv. 
p. 20 (1849) ; Schiner, Reise Novara, Dipt. p. 99 (1868) 
\^Pangonia'\ ; Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) v. 
p. 106 (1900); id. (8) xvi. p. 23 (1915). 

A series of specimens from South Australia appear to be 
this species, judging from Macquart's description, though 
there are a few discrei)ancies ; his type came from the East 
Coast of New South Wales. 

The ivings have an appendix and two brown spots, which, 
however, amount to little more than dark shading on the 
transverse veins. Abdomen black, at base testaceous, with 

Ann. (tj Mag. X. Hist. Scr. 8. Vul. xix. 14 



210 ^liss G. Ricaido on Tabanidoe /rom • 

median black spots on tlie first two segments. Anfennts 
red, palpi with the second joint a little longer than the first, 
which is blackish; the second one reddish, black at borders, 
concave and broad, ending in an obtuse point. 

Erephops'is lasiophthalma, Boisduval, Voyage ' Astrolabe,' 
Zool. ii. p. G66 (18!^^) \_Pango^uu^^•, Macquart, Suites 
h Buffon, i. p. 193 (1834) ; Walker, List Dipt. Brit. 
Mas. v., Suppl.i. p. 139 (1854) ; Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (7) v. p. 154 (1900). 

The type was described from Cape Jervis, S. Australia. 
Fi'ephopsis CGntigua, Wlk., is not identical as Walker stated. 
Pangonia fidiyincnse, Boisduval, is from New Guinea; 
whether it is the same as Erephops'is lasiophthalma is 
doubtful. 

Three females from Mt. Kosciusko in N.E. Victoria, 
and two females from Moon bar, New South Wales {Mar- 
grave) (1915), in Brit. Mns. Coll., belong, I believe, to this 
species, answering 4;o the description by Boisduval. AVhether 
the specimens Macquart placed under this species are 
identical is doubtful. 

The wings have one dark band crossing the base of the 
discal cell and the apices of the basal cells, and the trans- 
verse veins at fork of third vein and apex of discal cell are 
shaded ; there is the rudiment of an appendix present; the 
first posterior cell is narrowed at border, but open. Abdo- 
men reddish with a black median spot on the first three 
segments, then usually darker at the apex. Antenna reddish 
yellow. Palpi same colour, very short; the second joint not 
much longer than the first joint, very concave. Forehead 
twice as broad anteriorly as it is at the vertex, with dark 
furrows above, continued to the antennas. Walker's species 
has two very distinct dark bands on the wings. E. maculi- 
pennis differs in the wings, which are only shaded, and the 
first joint of palpi is dark. 

Erephopsis guttata, Donovan, Ulust. Ent. i.. Hyra. et Dipt. 
(1806) [Tabanus]. 

One female from Queensland. 

Erephopsis gibbulu, Walker, List Dipt. i. p. 140 (1818); 
B.icardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) v. pp. 112, 117 
(1900) ; id. (8) xvi. p. 22 (1915). 

Five females from Warren Kiver, West Australia. 



II 



Australia and the Fiji Islands. 211 

Erephopsis aureohirta, Rioardo, Ann. & ^Nlar. Nat. Hist. (7) 
V. pp. 112, UG, pi. i. fig. 10 (1903); id. (8j xvi. 
p. 2.3 (1915). 

Two females from Queensland. 

"Erephopsis doddi, ? , sp. n» 

Type (female) and others fro;ii Warren River, West 
Australia {TV. D. Dodd). The type is iu the South 
Au.strali;in Museum. 

A species with shaded transverse veins on the wings. 
Abdomen testaceous at base with median black spots and 
blackish at apex an I greyish or reddish segmentations. 
Antennae blackish. Palpi very small, short, and concave. 
Legs testaceous and blackish, 

Ijcngth 1.5 mm. 

Face reddish, with grey tomentum and long black hairs, 
some Avhite ones intermixecL Beard yellowish white. 
Palfji testaceous, the first joint with long black hairs, the 
second one conical and concave with curved upper border, 
and a few short black hairs at apex. Antennce black, the 
first two joints with long black hairs. Forehead reddish 
brown with L-rey tomentose sides and with black thick 
pubescence, broadest anteriorly, being quite a third broader 
tijan at vertex ; ocelli distinct. Thorax blackish with two 
narrow, grey, tomentose stripes on anterior half of dorsum 
only ; pubescence as in E. gemina, Walker, Abdomen very 
similar to this last species, the third seument with a black 
spot similar to the one on the second segment; hairs 
on sides chiefly white, black on the third, fourth and fifth 
segments ; underside bright testaceous with a few white 
hairs. Legs testaceous, but blackish on the upper sides of 
femora ; pubescence black. IVings with the first posterior 
f;ell closed or slightly open. 

Pelecorrhynehus eristahides, Walker, List Dipt. Brit. !Mus. i. 
p. 193 (1818) [Silvius] ; Ricai'do, Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (7) V. p. 1U2 (1900) ; W^hite, Royal Soc. Tasmania 
(1915), pt. ii., Diptera Brachycera, p. 22. 

One male from Huron River^ Tasmania (Lea), 

Genus Silvius. 

Mr, Taylor has lately forwarded me a copy of his pfiper 
(Proceedings Linneau Soc, of New S, Wales, 1915, vol. xl. 

11* 



212 Miss G. RicavJo on TabaniJie/ro?^ 

pt. 4, Nov. 24tli), coutaiiiing ei^ht new species of this 
genus, which, with the four new species named by me in the 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xvi., Oct. 1915, brings the known 
species occnrring in Australia to twenty. Seven new species 
are now added, which are all distinct from those described 
by Mr. Taylor, judging from his descriptions. 

Silvius grandis, ? , sp. u. 

Type (female) and another from Fortescue River, Ham- 
mersley Range, North-West Australia, and another in tiie 
Brit. Mus. Coll. from N. Australia (/. R. Elsey), 57.13.4 — 
this latter in bad preservation. The type is in the South 
Australian ]Museum. 

A lari^e dark brown species: antennae, palpi, and legs 
blackish. Abdomen with white-haired segmentations. 

Length 15 nun. 

Face blackisli, covered with grey tomentum and with 
some white hairs. Palpi si*nilar to those of a species of 
Tabarius ; large, black, stoat at base, ending in a point. 
Reard scanty, white. Antenride black, the third joint wide 
at its base, the first two joints with black hairs. Eyes bare. 
Forehead narrow, and narrower anteriorly than at vertex; 
frontal callus narrow, pear-shaped, with long lineal exten- 
sion; ocelli distinct; traces of g(4den-coloured pubescence on 
forehead. Thorax (denuded) blackish brown, some white 
liairs at sides and on shoulders. Abdomen blackish brown, 
the segmentations white-haired, the other female has the 
first and second segments partly yellowish brown; traces of 
grey tomentum appear on segments ; pubescence on abdo- 
men black ; underside blackish, with white-haired segmen- 
tations. Legs blackish brown with black pubescence, the 
tibise more reddish brown. Wings greyish, slightly tinged 
yellowish browu; veins and stigma yellowish; no appendix. 

Silvius fuscipennis J ? , sp. n. 

Type (male) from Claudie River, Queensland (7". A. B.). 

Type (femalej from Cape York, N. Queensland {Mac- 
gillivray). 

Three females from Claudie River and one female from 
Cape York. 

Tiie types are in the Nat. Museum, Victoria. 

A species apparently belonging to this genus, to be 
recognized at once by the brown wings with one irregular 
clear band and tAvo clear spots. 

Length 13-16 mm. 



Australia and the Fiji Islands. 213 

Female. — Face covered with 3'ellowisli-grey tomeutuni and 
with a few white hairs. Beard white. Palpi fairly stout, 
reddish yellow or darker in colour. Antennce blackish, the 
first two joints rather large with black hairs, the third broad 
at its base. Eyes bare. Forehead narrow, but a little wider 
anteriorly, the frontal callus black, club-shaped, with an 
extension not reaching the vertex ; forehead Wlackish with 
yellowish-grey tonientum. Thorax and scutellum blackish 
brown. Abdomen broad, blackish with narrow reddish- 
yellow bands; underside the same, but more reddish brown. 
Leffs blackish. Wings sepia, the pale irregular band crosses 
the bases of the first submarginal, the Hrst posterior, the 
discal, the fourth and fifth posterior cells ; there is a small 
clear spot at the base of the fork of the third longitudinal 
vein, and a larger one on the apex of the discal cell, 
embraciiig the base of the second and third posterior cells; 
stigma dark brown ; wing at base somewhat pallid. 

In the female from Claudie River the palpi are blackish, 
the abdomen on the first four segments is yellowish with 
a black spot in the centre of each segment, the remaining 
segments blackish with yellow segmentations ; underside 
yellowish with broad whitish segmentations, darker at apex. 

Male somewhat different from the female in the colouring 
of the abdomen, which has black spots in the centre of each 
of the first three segments, and the apical segments are 
entirely black ; pubescence on the yellow ])arts yellow, black 
elsewhere; underside identical. Sides of thorax with bright 
reddish-yellow hairs, dorsum deep black. Scutellum, the 
same, with black hairs. Wings paler brown than in the 
female. 

Silvias nigripennis, ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) and another female from Claudie River, 
North Queensland (J. A. Kershaio), 11/12 and 2/13. One 
female from same place, 28. 1. 14. 

The type is in the National Museum, Victoria. 

A species rather Tabanus-\\\\.e in appearance, and xery 
similar to Silvius grandis, sp. n., in all particulars, except 
the wings ; easily distinguished by its almost wholly brown 
wings and black abdomen with white bands. 

Length, type, IGi mm., the others 14 and 17 mm. 

Face flat in centre, covered with grey tomentum and witli 
white pubescence. Palpi black, rather stout on their whole 
length, ending in a short point. Antenna black, broad at 
base of third joint, Tabanus-like in shape. Forehead slightly 



211 



Miss G. RIcardo on TabaiiiJge from 



broader anteriorly, about four times as long as it is broad, 
covered, with grey tomeutum ; frontal callus brown, pear- 
shaped, M'ith short lineal extension ; pubescence scanty, 
white ; ocelli distinct. Tliorax blackish, covered with grey 
tomeutum ; pubescence black, with some oppressed white 
liairs. Scutellam same colour. Abdomen black with black 
pubescence; bands of white hairs on posterior borders of the 
first four segments, not reaching the middle of segment ; 
underside black with three complete white bands. Leys 
black with black pubescence. Wings dark brown, pale at 
the extreme apex, with a clear streak below the stigma, 
and the extreme edge of the posterior border of wing 
aLo pale. 



Silvins ferguso7ii, $ , sp. n. 

Type (female) from Nelson Island, Hawkesbury River, 
New Soutli Wales, 26. 2. 16. 

This handsome species, named after the donor, is nearly 
allied to Sllvius nifjripennis, sp. n., from the northern part of 
Australia ; but is distinguished by the pale base of wing. 
These two species, together with Sllvius grandis, sp. u.,forra 
a group unlike the typical forms by their larger size and 
dark abdomens marked with paler segmentations, and by 
their coloured wings. 

Tliis species measures 17 mm. 

Face covered with light ashy-grey tomentum and with 
some silvery-white hairs in centre of face, and longer, more 
numerous ones in the furrows between the face and the 
cheeks, joining the beard of same colour. Pu/jji blackish, 
with some ashy-grey tomentum, and short dark hairs; they 
arc large and stout with an obtuse point. Antenme black, 
the first two joints with black hairs, the third large and 
wide at the base with a distinct angle. Subcallus same 
colour as face. Forehead, same colour, narrow, parallel, 
about six times as long as it is broad anteriorly ; the frontal 
callus black, shining, not reaching the eyes, pear-sha{,ed, 
witii a long stout lineal extension reaching the ocelli. 
Thorax blackish brown, somewhat shining, with two grey 
tomentose stripes and grey at sides ; pubescence chietiy 
black; some white hairs on the stripes; pubescence on 
shoulders long, black, with tufts of white hairs at base of 
wings. Scutellum the same colour. Abdomen blackish 
brown, the first two segments with broad grey tomentose 
bands, which are represented on the lemaining segments 
(july at the sides; these bands have white hairs, thickest at 



Australia and the Fiji Islands, 215 

the sidfcs, pubescence elsewhere black ; vmderside is iden- 
tical, l)ut the ^rey bands are present on every segment for 
their wliole width. J^egs black, the fore coxte with whitish 
tonientura and pubescence. Wings blackish brown, darkest 
on the fore border in the submarginal cells, becoming paler 
at apex and on posterior border, and almost clear in the 
basal, anal, and axillary cells ; stigma blackish ; veins brown. 
It is distinguished from Silvius nigripennis by the pale 
ba>^e of wing, and by the shape of the frontal callus and 
forehead. 

Si/vius niger, $ , sp. n. 

Type (female) from Helensburgh, New South Wales, 
9.3.15. Was resting on branch of low shrub; when dis- 
turbed it circled round my head, evidently seeking to bite 
(E. ir, F.). 

A small robust black species, with a broad abdomen and 
clear wing>5. Eyes slightly pubescent. Antennae and palpi 
dull reddish yellow. Legs blackish. 

Length 1 ] mm. 

Face covered with bi'ownish tomentum, paler on cheeks, 
and with some dark hairs in the centre; on the cheeks they 
are much thicker and long, increasing in length as they 
attain the bases of cheeks. Beard same colour. Paljn 
reddish yellow, curved on their upper edges, which are 
clothed with a distinct fringe of black hairs, the lower 
edges have a similar fringe; they are somewhat stout at 
base, ending in an obtuse point. Antenn(B rather a darker 
shade than the palpi, the first two joints with black hairs, 
the third joint with a very few at the base and on the 
extreme tip; the tooth represented by an obtuse angle. 
Forehead same colour as face, Avith black puhescence, 
pai-allel ; the frontal callus dark brown, very narrow, keel- 
like. Ocelli very distinct. Thorax sepia, with two hroad 
grey tomentose stripes and grey sides ; a few scattered white 
liairs on dorsum ; long black hairs on the grey tomentose 
shoulders. Sautellum a little darker. Abdomen blackish, 
grey tomentum on the first segment; on the second, third, 
and fourth segments appear short white hairs on the sides 
and in the middle, not, however, joining each other to form 
a baud; pubescence elsewhere black; segmentations with 
traces of grey tomentum ; underside black with very narrow 
white-haired segmentations. Legs black ; knees reddish 
yellow, the tibise obscurely so ; pubescence black. Wings 
clear, veins yellowish brown, stigma yellowish. 



216 Miss G. RicarJo on Tabauidae /rom 

Silvius montamis, $ , sp. n. 

Type (female) and auother from Mt. Tambourine, 
Queensland {A. M. Lea). 

The type is in the South Australian Museum. 

A blackish-brown species with yellowish segmentations 
on abdomen and traces of median yellow spotsl Antennse 
reddish yellow. Legs blackish brown, some of the tibise 
yellowish. 

Length 10 mm. 

Face covered wnth greyish toraentum and with y-ellowish 
tomentum near the eyes; pubescence consists of long blackish 
hairs. Beard whitish. Palpi stout, covered Avith grey to- 
mentum and with black pubescence, yellowish at extreme 
base. Antennce with the first joint greyish, covered Avitli 
black hairs, the second yellow with black hairs, the third 
reddish brown, apex black. Forehead broader anteriorly, 
covered with yellowish-brown tomentum, brown in the 
centre ; the frontal callus elongate, apparently broader near 
the vertex; forehead covered with black hairs; ocelli distinct. 
Eyes bare. Thorax reddish brown with two grey stripes, 
most distinct anteriorly, covered with greyish-yellow hairs 
and with black pubescence intermixed, and longer black 
hairs at sides. Scutelhim brown, Avith black hairs. Abdo- 
men brown ; the segmentations widely pale yellow, with 
white hairs, which form median spots ; pubescence black ; 
hairs at sides chiefly white ; underside blackish, with white- 
haired bands. Legs blackish, the fore and mid tibiae ob- 
scurely yellowish, the hind tibiae reddish brown ; pubescence 
on legs black. Wi7iffs greyish, the transverse veins shaded, 
the other ones faintly shaded ; no appendix : stigma yel- 
lowish ; veins brown. 

Silvius insularis, $ , sp. n. 

Type (female) and another from Bathurst Island, N. 
Territory. 

The tyj)e is in the South Australian Museum. 

A small narrow blackish-brown species, with a greyish 
tomentose stripe on abdomen ; legs pale yellow, the femora 
darker. Palpi long, narrow, with truncated tips. 

Length 10 mm. 

Face reddish, covered with grey tomentum. and with some 
short white hairs. Palpi Acllowish, with black hairs. An- 
tenna: yellowish, the first two joints with black hairs, the 
third wide at its base. Forehead almost parallel; frontal 



Australia and the Fiji Islands. 217 

callus blackish, quadrate, reaching the eyes, with a lineal 
extension, covered with grey tomentum. Ocelli distinct. 
Thorax and scutellum reddish brown, with white short 
pubescence and some grey tomentum anteriorly on thorax. 
Abdomen blackish brown, with a broad median stripe of 
grey tomentum and grey segmentations, and scattered 
white hairs on stripe and segmentations; underside dark, 
with grey segmentations. Legs with some brown colour 
on the femora and on apices of tibiae and tarsi ; pubescence 
white, with «ome black on tibiae and tarsi. Winys clear, 
veins yellowish. 

Silvius indistiiictus, Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xvi. 
p. 262 (1915). 

Two females from Melville Island, N. Australia {W. D. 
Dodd) . 

Five females from Bathurst Island, Northern Territory. 

One female from Coen Eiver, Cape York Peninsula, 
N. Australia {W. D. Dodd). 

Ectenopsis australis, (^ $ , sp. n. 

Male (tyi'c) from Milson Island, Hawkesbui-y Ilivcr. 
Ihis type is not in the Brit. iMus. Coll. 

Female (type) from Sydney (C GiLbons), 16. 12. 14. 

A species nearly allied to Ectenopsis vvlpecula, Wicd., but 
distiiiguisihed Irom it by the very distinct stripes on thorax 
and by the darker, not uniform, colour of abdomen and of 
the face. The legs, which, however, appear to be variable 
in colouring in the typical species, are here reddish yellow ; 
the tarsi dusky. 

Female. — Face aud forehead chamois-coloured, with some 
grey tomentum. Atitennce with the first two joints pale 
reddish yellow with black hairs, the third joint with tlie 
first division raw-sienna in colour, the next two divisions 
dusky with grey tomentum, and the remainder blackish. 
Thorax covered with yellowish-grey tomentum, with a 
narrow median brown mahogany siripe, becoming broader 
beyond the suture, and a broad one of the same colour 
at each side. Scutellum uniform brown mahogany-colour. 
Abdomen the same colour, with paler grey tomentose seg- 
mentations, developing on the second, third, and fourth 
segments into triangular median spots ; underside almost 
a uniform paler shade. Appendix of wing lonu'. 

The male is similar, but the triangular median pale spots 



218 Mitfs G. RicarJo on Tabanid£e//om 

of abloraen are absent. Lg^;/^ duskier. Tlie following note 
on the eyes of the male is funrished by the collector : — 
" Eyes brilliant green^ with reddish -brown lines across at 
lower third; lines sharply defined below, fading above; 
similar line round whole eye. Eyes appear reddish brown 
iu some liuhts.'' 



Tabanus. 

Group IV. * 

Tabanus angusticallus, $ , sp. n. 

Type (female) and another from Melville Island, N. Aus- 
tralia (JV. D. Dodd). The type is in the South Australian 
Museum. 

A small _^-reyish-brown species, which may be included 
in Group IV., as the frontal callus is only represented 
by a very small black line. Antennae and. legs reddish 
yellow. 

Length 7\ mm. (type) ; the other female 9| mm. 

Face ViW^ forehead covered with yellowish-grey tomentutn ; 
pubescence on face consists of a few white hairs and longer 
brown hairs belo\v and on cheeks. Palpi long and narrow, 
hardly iucrassate at base, yellow, with short black pubes- 
cence. Beard consists of white hairs below and brown 
above. AntenncB bright red-yellow, the two first joints 
pale yellow with black hairs, the third joint very broad at 
base, with a few black hairs at angle. Forehead parallel, 
about five times as long as it is broad, viith some black 
pubescence. Eyes bare. Thorax, scutellum, and abdomen 
the same colour, blackish brown, with grey tomentum, and 
■with short black pubescence ; a few yellowish hairs at base 
of thorax, segmentations of abdomen narrowly pale ; Tinder- 
side w^ith wider yellow segmentations and white jmbescence. 
Legs yellow, with black pubescence. Wings clear, grey; 
veins and stigma very pale yellow ; long appendix present. 

Tabanus nemotuberculatus^ Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (8) xiv. p. 388 (1915). 

Three females from Cape York. '^ 

One female from Claudia River, N. Queensland. | 

t 

Tabanus nemopunctatus, Ricardo, Ann. & jNIag. Nat. Hist. ;.' 

(8) xiv. p. 388 (1915). ■^ 

A series of females from Ycelanna, S. Australia, appear 



Australia and the Fiji Ifihunh. 219 

to belong to this species, tliougli the type came from 
Q:ieeiisland. These females have a broader forehead, wider 
anteriorly, whereas iu the type it is parallel. 

Group VII. 

Tabanus stranytnanni, c? , Ricardo, Ann. & jNIag. iSTat, Hist. 
(8) xiv. p. 393 (1914). 

One male from Cairns District {W. D. Dodd). 

Tabonus rufinotntus, Biaot, Mem. Soc. Zool. de France, v. 
p. 673 (189.'2) (Ati/lotus) : Kicardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (8) xiv. p. 392 (1914). 

A series of females from ^lelville Island, X. Territory. 

Tabanus psevduardens, Tavlor, Austr. Inst. Trop. Med. 1911, 
p. 06, pi. xiv. fig. 18 (1913) ; Austen, Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (8) xiii. p. 265 (1914) ; Kicardo, ibid. ('^) 
xiv. p. 272 (1915). 

A series of females from Cairns District, Queensland. 

Group VIII. 

Tabanus victoriens'is, Ricardo, Ann. & ^^'<^^- Nat. Hist. (8) 
xiv. p. 275 (1915). 

Females from Mt. Tambourine, S. Queensland, 

Group IX. 

Tabanus macqvarti, Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 
xiv. p. ^77 (1915). \_Tabunus limbatinervis, ]Macq. 
Dipt. Exot., Suppi. iv. p. 333 (1852).] 

A series of females from Cairns District, Queensland. 

Tabanus neogermanicus, Ricardo, Ann. & ]Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 
xiv. p. ^83 (1915). 

A series of females from INlelville Island, S. Queensland. 

Tabanus clavicallosus , $ , sp. n. 

Type (female) from Milson Islai;d, New South Wales, 
10.1.15; other females from the same locality, and one 
female from Sydney ." ("Eyes of a dull broAvn colour Avhen 
alivu " : note by collector.) 



220 Miss G. Ricardo on Tabaniclse/;•o/?^ 

The type is in the South Australian Museum. 

A small species allied to Tahaiius neogermanicus, Ricardo, 
but differing iu the darker colour of the abdomen, and in 
the shape of the frontal callus which is rather distinctive 
for this s[)ecies. 

Length 11-12 mm. 

Face covered with yellowish-grey tonieutum, almost devoid 
of pubescence. Beard composed of spar^^e white hairs. 
Palpi long and slender, pale yellow, a little stouter on the 
basal half, ending in a long point; pubescence on the first 
long, white, on tlie second joint short and black. Antennce 
bright reddish yellow, dusky at the tips, the first two joints 
with black pubescence, the tiiird not very wide at its base, 
with a slight tooth. Forehead and subcallus darker than 
the face, the latter often appearing reddish through the 
tomentum; the forehead Avith black short hairs beyond the 
frontal callus, which is blackish brown, not reaching the 
eyes; large and club-shaped, ending iu a very short jioint, 
Avhich isj however, drawn out on some of tlie specimens ; 
the whole callus is Iwug, otten attaining half the length of 
the forehead, which is about four times as long as it is 
broad and is the same width throughout. Thorax blackish, 
covered with yellowish-grey tomentum and with appressed 
pale fulvous hairs ; pubescence on the reddish shoulders 
black, some white hairs at sides at base of wings. Scutellum 
identical. Abdomen blackish brown ; poj«terior halves of tiie 
segments with greyish tomentose bands, extending in the 
middle as indistinct median spots, most discernible on 
the second to the fifth segments; some very short white 
pubescence is present on the segmentations and is longer 
at the sides. Legs blackish ; the femora a^ ith some grey 
tomentum, and at their aj^ices reddish yellow, or almost 
wholly so ; the tibiae reddish yellow, dusky at their apices. 
Wings clear, stigma yellowish brown, veins brown; a short 
appendix i:)resent. 

Dr. Ferguson states that this is a common sp: cies. 

Tabanus milsonis, ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) and another from INIilson Island, Kew 
South ^Vales. (" Occurs on the cattle, but is rare and hard 
to catch ^' : note by collector.) 

A medium-sized species, blackish brown, with yellow 
palpi and blackish antennae. Legs dusky in colouring. 
Abdomen with grey tomentose bands and spots. \Vings 
with an appendix. 



Australia and the Fiji Islands. 221 

Length 16 mm. 

Face covered with pale toraentum and some white short 
hairs. Beard white. Palpi pale yellow, swollen on their 
basal half, ending in a point which is about equal in length 
to the basal half, some grey tomentura ou this latter; pubes- 
cence black, white l)elow. Antenna blackish, the first two 
joints reddish, the third joint broad at its base. Forehead 
parallel, about five times as long as it is broad ; the frontal 
callus chestnut-coloured, oblong, not reaching the eyes, with 
a lineal extension ; forehead darker than face, with black 
hairs. Thorax blackish brown, with two narrow grey tomen- 
tose stripes and grey at the sides. Scutellum identical. 
Abdomen blackish brown with broad grey tomentose bands, 
extending into blunt triangular spots in the middle; the 
ground-colour under the tomentum often appears reddish, 
and the sides are reddish yellow ; pubescence on segmenta- 
tions white, and on sides, elsewhere black mixed with the 
white at sides, and rather long and abundant at sides; 
underside reddish brown with grey tomentum. Legs dusky 
in appearance, the femora with grey tomentum, the ti4)ise 
obscurely reddish ; pubescence chiefly black, some white 
hairs on the femora and long ones on their under sides. 
Wings large, clear ; veins blackish brown, with an appendix ; 
stigma yellowish. 

Group X. 

Tabanus nigritarsis, Taylor, Eeport Austr. Inst. Tropical 
Medicine, 1911, p. 18 (1913) ; Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. 
Kat. Hist. (8) xiv. p. 288 (1915). 

Two females from Northern Territory. 

Tabanus sanguinarius, Bigot, Mem. Soc. Zool. de France, v, 
p. 675 (1892) [Atyhtus'] ; Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (8) xiv. p. 287 (1915). 

Series of females from Mt. Tambourine, S. Queensland. 

Tabanus kershawi, ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) and another from Claudie River, N. Queens- 
land (J. A. Kershaiv), 11/12 and 13.2. 14. 

The type is in the National Museum, Victoria. 

A small black species, at once distinguished by the pale 
tibiffi and the reddish-yellow antennae. 

Length 10 ram. 



1 



222 Miss G. Rlcaido on Tahiui'ulx fro :n 

Face black, with some brown tomentiim and black Inirs. 
Palpi blackish, very stout, ending in a very sliDrt point ; 
pn!)escence black. Beard black. Antenntc reddish yellow, 
with a very small anp;le on the third joint ; some hbick liairs 
on tlie first two joints. Siibcallns shining black. Forehead 
a third narrower anteriorly, al)ont eight times as long 
as it is broad anteriorly, covered with grey and brown 
tomentnm ; frontal callns small, oblong, reaching tlie eyes, 
with a lineal extension. Eyes bare, with traces of three 
stripes. Thorn.v, scutellum,, and abdomen bhickisli with some 
few appreSsed grey liairs on tlsorax: and scntellnm, and on 
segmentations of abdomen; pnbescencc at sides black. Legs 
black, the fore tibiae whitish, darker at extreme apex, the 
middle tibiae and the hind pair wholly whitish; fore tarsi 
black, tlie others almost wholly Avhitish. Wings clear, 
veins and stigma yellow; no appendix. 

Gronp XI. 
Subgenus Tiierioplectes. 
Species with pubescence on the eyes. 

Tabanus regis georgii, Macqnart, Dipt. Exot. i. p. 13,2 
(1838); liicardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xvi. 
p. 276 (1915). 

One female from S. Australia {Tiev. A, P. Burgess). 
(''Eyes in this species are dull-coloured^': note by the 
collector.) 

Tabanus circwndatus , Walker, List Dipt. i. p. 185 (1848) ; 
liicardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xiv. p. 280 
(1915); White, Royal Soc. Tasmania, 1915, pt. ii. 
p. 14. 

( Tabanus nepos, Wlk. ; abstersus, Wlk. ; brevideniaius, 
Macq. ; and hebes, Wlk., are all synonyms of this species.) 

A series of females from Yeelanna, S. Australia, aud from 
Swansea, Tasmania. 

Tabanus cirrus, ? , sp. n. 

Female (type) from Milson Island, Hawkesbury River, 
New South Wales. 

A stout, medium-sized, black species, distinguished by the] 



AuslraUa and the Fiji Islands. 223 

tufts of white hairs on the tliorax at base of wing and by 
the white-haired fringe of scutellum. 

Lengtli 15 mm. 

Face covered with ashy-grey tomentiim and in the centre 
with hnig, fairly dense, white hairs. Beard wiiite. Palpi 
yellowish with grey toraeutum, stont at base, ending in a 
rather short point ; the pubescence scanty, chieHy pale. 
Antenna dusky, tlie first two joints with black hairs. Eijfs 
very distinctly pubescent. Forehead broad, about three 
times as long as it is broad anteriorly, where it is distinctly 
wider than at vertex ; forehead and subcallus a Itttle darker 
than face ; frontal callus bare, protuberant, almost reaching 
the eyes, pear-shaped, witli a short lineal extension, pitcliy- 
brown in colour ; pubescence on forehead black. Thorax 
blackish brown, with two grey tomentose stripes and another 
on each side below the suture ; shoulders reddish with black 
hairs; a tuft of white hairs below base of wings, and another 
continued to the scutellum; pubescence on dorsum black. 
Scutellum blackish brown, fringed with white hairs on its 
posterior border. Abdomen blackish brown^ with broad 
greyish-white tomentose segmentations and traces of white 
hairs on them, which are distinct on the side edges of the 
segments ; pubescence elsewhere on dorsum black. Leys 
black, the fore coxse covered with ashy-grey tomeutum and 
with white hairs; the tibiae reddish yellow, black at their 
apices; femora and tibiae with chiefly white pubescence. 
Wings clear, veins blackish; an appendix present ; stigma 
brownish. 

Tabanus neocirrus, ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) from Swansea, Tasmania (Lea)^and another 
female from S. Australia. 

The type is in the South Australian ]\Iuseum. 

A black species Avith whitish spots and segmentations on 
the abdomen ; smaller than Tabanus cirrus, sp. n. 

Length, type, 12 mm.; the other female 10 mm. 

It differs from Tabanus cirrus in the following par- 
ticulars : — Palpi slender, the long point nearly as long as 
the slightly incra>sate basal part, covered with white 
pubescence. Third joint of antenncB broad at base. Pubes- 
cence on thorax black with many white hairs, which are 
long anteriorly and shorter posteriorly. Abdomen with a 
distinct stripe composed of white-haired, median spots ^ 
segmentations also white-haired, thickest at the sides. 



224 On Tabanidje /;•()?« Australia dr. 

Tabonus posfpotiens, \Ya.\kcY, List Dipt, i. p. 179 (1818); 
Ricardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xvi. p. 28:2 
(1915). 

^lalcs and females from South Australia. 
The femora are sometimes dark. 

Tabanus pacificus, ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) and another female from Suva, Fiji Islands, 
.•^0. vi. 1910 and xii. 1910 {Dr. P. H. Bahr). Presented by 
London School Tropical Medicine. 

For list of species from these islands and surrounding 
region, see llicardo, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xiii. p. 470 
(1914). 

A narro\v-bodied dull-coloured species : palpi slender, 
blackish. Antennae dull reddish yellow. Forehead narrow. 
Legs dull yellowish and brown. 

Length 12 mm. 

Face covered with tawny tomentum. Beard scanty, 
brownish. PaJpi long and slender, almost the same width 
throughout; blackish with some gfeyish tomentum and a 
few black hairs. Antennre tawny, the first two joints yel- 
lowish with black hairs, the third joint with a small but 
distinct tooth on its first division at base, clothed at tip 
with some black hairs ; the next three divisions are equal 
in length, yellowish, tlie last one dusky and nearly as long 
as the three preceding ones together. Forehead narrow, 
slightly narrower anteriorly, about six times as long as it 
is broad anteriorly ; frontal callus shining dark chestnut- 
brown, oblong, reaching the eyes, with a long, stout, lineal 
extension reaching nearly to the vertex. Thorax mummy- 
brown, with some traces of grey tomentum and some 
yellowish short hairs, but chiefly black ones, on the dorsum. 
Scutelluin the same colour with black pubescence. Abdomen 
mummy-brown, appearing darker by reason of the rather 
thick, short, black ])ubcscence ; there are small, whitish, 
yellow-haired, median spots on each segment except the 
last two, and indistinct, narrow, grey segmentations, not 
visible on the apical segments, and almost absent on the 
other female; underside with white-haired segmentations 
and no spots. Leys mummy-brown, the femora yellowish, 
pubescence on legs black. Wings grey, faintly tinged brown 
on fore-border and on cross-veins; sti-ma and veins brown; 
appendix present, but very short. 



On new Species of Use natopota yVom India. 225 



XVI. — New Species 0/ Hsematopota /row India. 
By Gertrude Hicardo. 

These species were handed to me for identitioation by the 
Imperial Bureau of Economic Entomology, the types to be 
given to the British Museum Collection. 

Hvematopota monfanus, ? , sp, n. 

Type (female) and another from Bababuddin Hills, 
Mysore, 4i703 ft., vi. I9I5 (Ramakreshna Coll.). 

A small species allied to tlematopota latifascia, Ricardo 
(•'Records Indian Museum,' iv. p. 355, 19II), having one 
broad band extending across the apex of wing, but dis- 
tinguished from it by the absence of a black baud on the 
face. 

Length of type 8 mm. ; the other female 10 mm. 

Face covered with grey tomentum and with small dark 
browu spots on the upper part, in the other female there is 
a trace of a black bund on the lower edge; there is also a 
dark spot between the antennie ; hairs on face scanty, white. 
Palpi pale yellow with black hairs. Antenna long and 
slender; the first joint as long as the first annulatiou of the 
third joint, only slightly incrassate, yellow with black 
pubescence ; the second one very small, blackish; the third 
yellowish at base, then dusky ; slender throughout. Fore- 
head same colour as face ; the frontal callus blackish brown, 
reaching the eye^, straight on both borders; the j^aired spots 
the same colour, touching the eyes, but not the band; some 
black pubescence on forehead. Thorax yellowish brown 
with appressed yellow hairs and some black ones ; scutellum 
same colour with black luiirs. Abdomen mummy-brown, 
with pale yellow segmentations and an obscure pale median 
stripe; pubescence black, some yellow hairs at apex ; under- 
side paler. Legs yellowish with blackish-brown rings ; fore 
femora rather dusky and the others dusky at their apices ; 
tibite at base and apex blackish and a black ring in middle, 
the fore tibije white at base, fore tarsi wholly black, on the 
otlier tarsi the basal joint is pale yellow; pubescence on 
dark parts black, on the pale jjarts white; fore tibiie in- 
crassate. PVings with the usual rosettes; the apical band 
starts from the junction of the first vein with the border 
and attains the posterior border, it is rather sinuous on both 
borders; on the posterior border pale spots are present in 
every cell: veins and stigma brown. 

Ann. c£* May. X. //Ist. Ser. S. I'ol. xix. 15 



'2-2C} Mr. C. T. Uo-iui Oil (lie 

Jhetnatnpola hindostani, ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) and two other females from TJjibabuddin 
Hills, Mysore, 4700 ft., vi. 1015 (llamakrislina Coll.). 

A species in the same ^roiip as H. montanus, sp. n., bat 
rather allied to H. assnmensis in the w'nv^ having a sinj^le 
hand at apex, not reaching the border; face with a black 
baiitl : palpi rather stont and short, pubescence on them and 
on Face rather thick. 

Length 8 mm. 

Face covered with grey tomentum and with some white 
hairs, and a black band on npper part of face. Palin 
covered with grey tomentum and with thick black pubes- 
cence ; some white hairs on the first joint below. Antennee 
dull reddish, the third joint dusky at apex, the first joint 
rather stcnit, shining, with black hairs, the second one very 
small, same colour, the third a little broader at base, the 
first joint longer than the first annulation of third joint. 
Forehead black, covered with brownish tomentum. Frontal 
callus black, shining, reaching the eyes, with a straight 
l)()rdcr and a black spot between the antennas. Thorax 
mniiimy-brown, with three pale stripes anteriorly, the side 
ones ending in a pale spot at the suture and there is another 
])ale stripe posteriorly at the sides ; pubescence chieHy 
consists of pale appressed hairs ; s(;utellum sanie as thorax. 
Abdomen same colour as tliorax, with pale yellow segmen- 
tations and a pale median stripe; pubescence almost nil; 
underside yellowish. Legs yellowish with darker rings; 
apices of femora and the tarsi dark. IViitfffi with the usual 
rosettes, the apical band short, not reaching far beyond the 
fork of third vein ; sometimes a pale spot is visible on 
border, but never joining the band; veins and stigma 
brown. 



XVII. — The Fishes of the Genus Clupea. 
By C. Tate Keg an, M.A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

]n a preliminary arrangement of the Cluj)eoid fishes in the 
collection of the Natural History AJuseum, 1 had put together 
examples of Clupea arcuafa, Jenyns, aiid specimens received 
froju Kevv Zealand as Cltipea antipodunij Hector, as be- 
lunging to a genus distinct from Clupea; on ginng through 



Fishes of the Genus Cliipen. 227 

tiie material a second time I find that such a genus cannot 
be maintained, and that Clupea must be enlarged by the 
addition of C. arcuata and tlie closely related C. melanoatoma 
as well as by the species generally known as C. antipodum^ 
but here called C, muelleri, Klunz., since reference to the 
original description shows tliat the name C. antipodiun should 
be given to the species recently described by rae as C, holodon. 
The synopsis given in my former paper (Atm. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (8) xviii. 191(), p. 3) may be modified to include the 
three additional species. 

I. Pelvic fins 9- (rarely 8- or 10-) rayed ; vomer toothed. D, 17-20. 

A. 14-20. Vertebrae 50-59. 40 to 51 gill-rakers on lower part 

of anterior a,rch. (Northern species.) 

Ventral scutes all keeled 1. hareni/xs. 

Ventral scutes in front of pelvic fins not keeled . . 2, pallasii. 

II. Pelvic tins 8-rayed. D. 15-19. A. 17-21, Vertebne 42-51. 

35 to 40 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. (Soutiiern 
species.) 

A. Vomer toothed. 

Depth of body 4j in length. Scales 48/13-14 .... 3. antipodum, 
Itepth ofbjdy3 to3^ in length. Scales 43-44/10-11. 4. mudleiL 

B. Vomer toothless. 

Vertebrae 49-51 5. fuegensis. 

Vertebrae 4<j (j. Lassensis. 

III. Pelvic fins 7-rayed ; vomer toothless. 

A. 34 to 40 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 

A 17-21. Scales 44-50/12-15 7. spraftus, 

B. 25 to 30 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 

A 22-23- Scales 42/15. Depth 3 to 3^ in lenirth . 8. arcuata, 
A 17-20. Scales 42/11-12. Depth 3-^ to 4 in 

length 9. mtlanostoma, 

l)escriptions of ('. antipoduin, C. mueVerij C. arcuata, and 
C. melanoston.a follow. 

Clupea aiiti'podum^ 

Chtpea sprattus, var. antiiwduin, Hector, Edible Fish. N, Zealand, 

p. 133 (1872). 
Clupea holodu7i, liegan, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xviii. 1916, p. 5. 

An elongate-ovate patch of teeth on vomer, a broad-ovate 
patcli on tongue. De[jth of body 4|^ in the length, length of 
liead 4 to 4^-. Diameter of eye 4 in length of head ; 
maxillary extending to below anterior part of eye; 36 gill- 
rakers on lower part of anterior arch. Numerous radiating 
grooves at free margin of scales ; 48 scales in a longitudinal 
series ; 13 or 14 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes keeled 
and pointed, 214-12. Dorstd 16-17; origin a little nearer 
to base of caudal than to end of snout. Anal 16-18. 



228 On the Fishes of the (leuus Clupea. 

Pelvios 8-raye(1, iiiaerted below ori<;in of dorsal. Caudiil 
pedunle loiig».r than deep. Vertebra? probably not fewer 
than -JG. 

IStewart Island. 

The type, from the Foveaux Straits, was 150 mm. long; 
the specimen in the British Museum measures 122 mm. in 



total length 



Cluijea viuelleri. 



Clupea Diuelleri, Klunziuger, Sitzungab. Akad. AVien, Ixxx. 1880, 
p. 41G. 

Au elongate ])atcli of teeth on vomer, an ovate patch 
on tongue. ]'e[)th of body 3 to 3^ in the length, length of 
head 3^ to 3|. Diameter of eye 3^ in leiij^th of head ; 
maxillary extending to below anterior part or middle of eye j 36 
to 39 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. No radiating 
grooves at tree margin of scales; 43 or 44 scales in a 
longitudinal series, 10 or 11 in a transverse series ; ventral 
scutes strongly keeled and acutely pointed, 19-20 + i)-ll. 
Dorsal 15-16; orijiin nearer to base of caudal than to end 
of snout. Anal 16-18. Pelvics 8-rayed, inserted below or 
a little in advance of origin of dorsal. Caudal peduncle 
deeper than long. Vertebrfe 42. 

New Zealand. 

Five specimens, 90 to 100 mm. in total length, from Ofago 
and Canterbury, leceived from the (^tago and Canterbury 
Museums as examples of (.'. antipodiwi. 

Clupra arcuata. 

Clvyea arcuata^ Jenyus, Zool. 'Beagle,' Fibli. p. 134 (1842) ; Giintli. 
tat. I'isb. \ii. p. 442. 

A narrow strip of teeth on tongue; palate toothless. 
Depth of body 3 to Z\ in the length, length of head 4 to 4^. 
Diameter of eye 3 to 3^ in length of head; maxillaiy 
extending to below anterior^ of eye; 28 gill-nikers on 
lower ])art of anterior a]ch. No grooves at free margin 
of scales ; about 42 scales in a longitudinal and 15 in a 
transverse series ; ventral scutes strongly kecded and acutely 
pointed, 18-19 + 9-10. Dorsal 16-18; origin nearer to 
base of caudal than to end of snout. Anal 22-23. Pelvic? 
7-rayed, inserted below or a little in advance of origin of 
dorsal. 

Urn;i-ua\' to Northern Pala-'onia. 



I 



Barnacles from the Hall of the ' Ttrra Nova' 229 

Five examples, 60 to 90 mm. long, three from Monteviileo, 
and two, Iroin Baliia Blaiica, types oi the specie?, kindly 
lont to me for exaniination by .Mr. C. Forster Cooper. 

Clupea niela no stoma. 

Pomotobus melanodomtis, Eigenmann, Proc. Washington Acad. viii. 
1907, p. 452, pi. xxiii. tig. 6. 

Mouth toothle.^s. D'pth of body 3^ to 4 in the length, 
length of head 4^ to 5. Diameter of eye 3 to 3^ in Jengtli 
of liead ; maxilliuy expending to below anterior margin or 
anterior ^ of eye; 25 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior 
arch. Ko grooves at tree nnugin of scales; about 42 .scales 
in a longitudinal and IL or 12 in a transverse seiies ; ventral 
scutes stronj>ly keeled and acutely pointed, 17-20 + 9-10. 
Dorsal 15-16 : origin nearer to base of caudal tlian to end 
of snout. Anal 1/— 20. Pel vies 7-rayed, inserted iu advance 
of origin of dorsal. Vertebrie 43. 

Rio de la Plata. 

Eleven specimens, G5 to 80 mm. in total length. 



XVIII. — Barnacles from tie Hull of the ' Terra 3"cfa ' : 
a Svte. ^y L. A. Bokradaile. 

When the 'Terra IS'ova,' with the Bnti.-li Antarctic Ex|)('- 
dition on board, was at Lytleltuu, New Zealand, in 1910, 
barnacles weie removed from her bottom. !Some of these 
were included in the collection of Cirripedes taken by the 
Expedition, upon which I have recenily repoited (Brit. 
Antarct. (' Terra Nova ') Exped. 1910, Zool. iii. p. 127, 1916). 
Others came into the posse.'ssion ot the Ota go Museum, and 
are mentioned by Mr. Jennings in an article on the Pedun- 
culate Cirripedia of New Zealand, publi.^htd in 1915 in the 
* Transactions of the ^.ew Zealand Institute ' (xlvii. p. 2(55). 
IJnfoitunatel}', at the time of writing n)y report I had not 
Mr. Jennings^s work before me, and tliere are consequently 
between our pa[)ers ceitain discrepancies. Tiie object of 
the present note is to Ciill attention to and explain these, as 
fullows : — 

]. J\Iy Lepas affinis is Mr. Jennings's L. anatifeia^ var. c. 
If I had seen Mr. Jennings's descri[)ti<n of this form, I 
shouhl still have thought it advisable to name it as I did, 
becau e in my view it is as nearly le'aled to L. htllt as 
lo L. aiiutijtia. and all three terms aie of tiic .-ame rank. 



230 Gvoloyical Society. 

w hoi hor species or varieties. L. affinis is unduubtedly a link 
between L. auatifera and L. hilli\ liilt in the circumstances I 
have not [jroposed to reduce />. hilli to the rank of a variety, 
pictViring to leave tlie discussion of its status till the genus 
is next revised as a whole. 

2. In the material at Mr. Jennings's disposal were speci- 
mens of Conchodervm virgatum and 0. nuritnm from the 
hull of the ' Terra Nova.' In the collection placed in my 
hands neither of these species was represented from that 
source. C. auritiun, which was taken u|)on whales in New 
Zealand waters by the 'Terra Nova/ is also reported by 
Mr. Jennings from whales in the same neighbourhood. 



P1U)CKK1)1N(;S OF LEAllNED SOCIETIES. 

(iKOI.OGICAI. SOCIKTV. 

November «th, I'JK).— Dr. Alfred llarker, IMt.S., rrcsideiit, 
in the Chair. 

Tlie following corainunication was read: — 

^ An Una rotiformis, gen. et sp. nov., Philh'psosfrcpa hennahi 
(Lonsdale), and the Genus Orionaslra'a.'' Bv Stanley Smith, 
B.A., D.Sc., F.G.S. 

The prunary object of the present communication is a descrip- 
tion of a new and interesting coral genus of colonial habit, Aulina, 
obtained from the highest limestone that can be associated with 
the Lower Carboniferous — the Fell Top Limestone of North- 
mnberland and its equivalent horizon in Teesdale, the Botany 
Beds. 

Since this form has been confounded with another Carboniferous 
species, well known under the name of ' PhiUlpsaairaia radiata 
(S. Woodward),' it has been found advisable, in fact necessary, 
to extend the original scope of the paper so as to include a 
revision of the genus Phillij)sastrcEa and a description of 'Ph. 
radiata ' and its allies, which I have grouped together under a 
new generic name, Orionastrcea. Several type-specimens, including 
that of Pkillipmstrcea hennahi (the genotype of Phillipsastrcea)., 
are described and figured. 

The new genus from the Fell Top Limestone is a very distinctive 
form, on accomit of the remarkable annular wall developed within 
the theca, and may prove of considerable value as a zonal 
index. 



Geological Society. 'I'M 

The corallum in this genus, as also in PhiUipaaHrcpa and in 
Orionastrcea, represents a stage in colonial development in which 
the epitheca of the individual coi-allites has entirely disappeared, 
and these are consequently united by their dissepimental tissue — 
a type of colony to which the term ' Astrajiform ' may be applied. 

Diagnoses. 

Aulina rotiformis. — The corallum is massive, and the corallites 
are united by their extrathecal tissue ; all the septa dilate at the 
theca, and those of the major cycle again dilate at their axial edges, 
in such a manner as to fuse together, and so build a cylindrical Avail 
or tube within the theca. The structure of the form is in most 
respects similar to that of Phillipsasfrcea, but it appears to carry 
forward the septal characters peculiar to tlmt genus to a fm'ther 
stage of development. 

PhiUipansfrcpn. — The corallum is composite and massive; the 
corallites are united by their dissepiments, or are only separated by 
a thin epitheca ; in the former case, the septa are often confluent. 
Major and minor septa dilate at the theca ; the latter terminate 
there, and the major septa attenuate and advance into the intra- 
thecal region, and there often dilate again at the axial edge. The 
central part of the corallite is occupied solely by tabulse. 

OrionastrcEa. — The characters of this genus are essentially those 
of Lithostrotion, but of a modified form. The corallum is compo- 
site and massive, and the corallites are either defined by a thin 
epitheca, or, in the more typical instances, by no epitheca at all ; in 
this latter case the corallites are united by their dissepiments and 
the septa are confluent. 

The distii^uishing characters of the three species recognized and 
described are as follows : — 

(1) 0. enaifer (Edwards & Haime). Septa not confluent. Columella present. 

(2) 0. phUlipsi (McCoy) Septa confluent. Columella present. 

(3) 0. plnceiitn (McCoy) Septa confluent. Columella absent. 



November 22nd, 1910. — Dr. Alfred Ilarker, F.ll.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following communication was read: — 

' Characeae fi'om the Lower Headon Beds.' By Clement Reid, 
F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., and James Groves, F.L.S. 

'I'he investigations here recorded have been made at Hordle ClifFs 
(Hampshire), where the strata, below the sujji'rticial gravel, belong 



232 Geohijical Society. 

cntiivly to the Lowvr Heaclon Beds, and consist of fresliwater 
and hnickish-wator (more or less calcareous) dej^osits, laid down 
apparently in wide shallow lakes and lacfoons. Svu-h habitats are 
the most favourable to the growth of Ciiaraeeie, and several of the 
beds have yielded numerous remains of these ))lants. 

Theiv is a great diversity in the fruits of Chnra found, repre- 
senting evidently a numl)er of species, belonging to several different 
sections or genera. \\\\\\ the exception of a few, which are ])ossibly 
abnormal variations, tlie fruits can be roughly grouped under the 
following eight types : — 

I. Tuberculate series. (Type of C. tuherculata 'Lje\l = Ko8mogyra Stache, 
emeinl.) 
(a) Splicrical. 
(6) Obovoid or pyriform, with (li.stinctly prolonged base. 

II. Non-tnberculate series, 

(r) Large spherical, diam. c. 1 mm. (type of C. medicaginnla Brongn.). 

(<?) Large ellipsoidal (type of C. helirteres Brongn.). 

(e) Medium-sized, subglobose, tapering more or less at both ends, 

if) Cylindric-ellipsoidal, showing more numerous striae. 

{(j) More or less pyriform : that is, definitely tapering towards the 

base. 
{h) Minute, snbglobose-ovoid (long. = c. 350 to 500 /i). 

It is difficult to determine the exact number of species found, 
on account of the extreme variability of some of the forms, but 
the Authors consider that at least twelve ma}^ for the present, be 
conveniently treated as distinct. 

The vegetative remains are comparatively few, consisting of 
minute portions of stems and bi-anchlets of different diameters, 
and these it is impossible at present to connect with any particular 
ty])es of fruit. 

Though investigations of some earlier formations have shown 
that there are extinct forms of Chanice;e exliibitin^ important 
points of difference from their living representatives, the remark- 
ably distinct and characteristic oogonium of five elongated spirally- 
twisted cells has remained constant certainly as far back as the 
Inferior Oolite, and it is onl}'^ in earlier formations that any doubt 
arises as to whethi-r bodies are or are not Chora fruits. 

Characeie are found in still fresh or brackish water all over the 
world, under widely different conditions as regards heat, etc., and 
may therefore be exjwcted to occur in almost all freshwater 
formations. For these reasons it is suggested that the fruits of this 
group of plants, when more widely collected, may prove of consider- 
able value as zonal fossils for the correlation of lacustrine deposits 
lying in isolated basins. Doubtless, on account of theii* small size, 
tlie Characeifi have in the past often been overlooked. 



.4^ 



THE AxNNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATfJRAL HISTORY. 

[EIGHTH SERIES.] 
No. 111. MARCH 1917. 



XIX. — Notes from the Gafty Marine Laboratory , St. An- 
drews.— ^o. XL. By Prof. M'Lvtosh, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c., Gatty Marine Laboratory, University, 
St. Andrews. 

[Plates YII.-XIL] 

Ofi the Nervous System and other Points in the Structure of 
Owenia and Myriochele. 

Since the remarks on Owenia and Myriochele were made in 
the volume on the British Marine Annelids lately issued by 
the Ray Society, a few observations on both types were 
carried out, though, unfortunately, no living forms could be 
obtained ; yet Owenia formerly was cast on the beach at 
St. Andrews in hundreds, whilst Myriochele is not uncommon 
on the west coast of Ireland, and in certain foreign localities 
it occurs in swarms. Such blanks, which may stretch over 
many years in the British area, are in the case of the fishes 
often regarded as evidence of serious diminution ; but, so 
far as observed during a long period of years, neither in the 
case of the fishes nor in the case of the invertebrates is there 
much of a basis for this supposition. The two forms above 
mentioned are of interest especially as regards their nervous 
system, which differs from that in the majority of the 
Polycheets in having the cephalic system as well as the 
Ann. d: May. N. Ilist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 16 



?34 



Prof. M'lntosli's Xotcs from the 



nci-vc-tmnks whollv liypodermal. The latter arraTigement 
of the ventral cords is that characteristic of most Polychats 
yet ahout ten families have their «;reat ventral nerve- 
trunks enclosed by the iiiuscnlar tissues of tlie body-wall, 
besides the basement-layer, hypoderni, and cuticle, showing? 
liow uncertain any siuii^le factor is in the classification of this 
group. In the .Vrehiannelid Prulodrihis the nervous system 
agrees with that in Oivcnia and Myriocliele in being mainly 
hypodermic, and in Saccocirrus and Stcniaspis (though this 
is not a Polychict) the cerebral ganglion is similarly situated 
and the ventral nerve-cord is not segmented into ganglia. 
Tiiey contrast thus with the Nemerteans, iu which the 
cephalic ganglia are internal and the longitudinal cords either 
enveloped in tiie muscular walls of the body or entirely 
within them. It is further interesting, in comparing 
the Nemerteans with the Polycluets, that no Polychiet 
possesses the proportionally large nerve-supply to any organ 
— a supply, moreover, more bulky in its distribution than in 
its origu), and which undergoes remarkable changes of form, 
both in contraction and dilatation — as that of the Neinertean 
proboscis. Hence its lattice-like arrangement gave rise 
to the term "elastic layer '^ iu the early memoirs. This 
feature is as noteworthy as the passage of the proboscis 
between the dorsal and ventral commissures of tiie cephalic 
ganglia. Some consider that this arrangement of the nerves 
causes it to be an organ of sensation ; but it is often thrown 
off \>hen brought into contact Avith foreign bodies, and, 
though renewed, its functions for the interval are in 
abeyance. In the AmmocharidcC under cousideration what 
appears closely allied to nervous matter is distributed as 
a continuous layer beneath the hypoderm of the gullet — a 
condition much more primitive than the elaborate system of 
the Nemertean proboscis or than the j)roboscis of a typical 
Polycluet such as Nereis. 

In glancing at the literature of the subject, it is found that 
the acute and a(Com[)lishcd Clypaiede, familiar as he was 
Avith the ordinary nervous system of the Polyehaeta, failed to 
find the central nervous system in Oiuenia " qu"*]! m'a ^t6 
j)arfaiteraent impossible d'en trouver la moindre trace chez 
V Oweniu fu.nfonnis sur les coupes d'individus conserves^'*, 
and he even had difficulty in discriminating the ventral cord 
in tiie fresh animal. Yet he had described and figured a 
similar condition to that of Owenia in Telepsavus costaruni, 
one of the Chaetopteridac, in which the central nervous 

• Anntn. S(5dent. p. 129. 



Gotty Marine Lahoriilory, St. Andrtws. 2''5 

system forms a subhypodern)ic band resting on the basement- 
tissue, and Avliich Clapuiede interpreted as a transverse 
commissure between the ganglia =♦=, yet to be considered as 
tlie representative of the cerebral ganglia, and the two eyes 
in Te/ejjsarus rest on it. The ventral cords, moreover, show 
no ganglia and are wide apart. He does not allude to the 
minute structure of the nerve-tissue. 

In 1885 von Drasche f gave a careful account, with figures, 
of the structure of Owenia ^' jiliforniis " as it occurred at 
Trieste, dealing in the first instance with the external 
characters, and especially the '• Lippenorgan^' at the oral 
aperture, the hypoderm and nervous system, the muscu- 
lature, alimentary canal, coeloniic cavity, and long mucous 
glands. So far as he goes, the structure of these organs is 
correctly described, with accompanying figures. He could 
not satisfy himself as to the " nephridia^' and the mode of 
exit of the genital products. He observed no nerve-cells in 
theuiinute structure of the central nervous system or in the 
ventral cord, only a fibrillar structure and Leydig's punctate 
substance. The ventral cord showed no ganglionic enlarge- 
ments. Below the epithelium of the alimentary canal a 
strand similar in structure to the central system is briefly 
mentioned, but nothing definite is recorded concerning 
the nerve-supply of the uiternal organs nor concerning the 
nephridia. 

In looking around for analogous relations of the central 
ganglia, it is found that in Phoronis CuVlwoiiX observed that 
the central nervous system remained in the epidermis, and 
therefore represented the primitive condition. In tlie adult 
the central system is in the form of a post-oral ring, the anus 
lying outside it. In Phorouis buskil of the ' Challenger ' § 
the nerve-centre rests on a broad plate of basement-tissue, 
with the hypoderm externally extending from the nephiidia 
forward to the centre of the whorl of tentacles on each side, 
and it agrees precisely in minute structure with that in 
Cep hah discus and Owenia. 

The central nervous system in Cephalodiscus dodrca- 
lophus 11 occupies an area of considerable proportional size at 

* Annel. Sedent. p. 127. 

t ' Beitrage zur feinereu Auatoraie der Polychaeten,' Zweites Heft, 
Wien, pp. 1-22, 2 plates. 

X Proc. lioj. Soc. vol. xxxiv. p. 372. 

§ Zoologv, vol. xxvii. part 75, pp. 18-21, pi. ii. figs. 1 & 2, pi. iii. 
figs. 1-0 

II ' Challenger,' Zoologi', vol. xx. part G2, p. 2.3, pi. vi. fig. 3, and pi. vii. 
fig. .3. 

16* 



23G 



Prof. M'liitosh's Xotes from (he 



the l)asr of the plumes external to the median space, and U 
bounded externally by the thick coat of hypodcrm and 
internally by the basement-layer. It extends laterally iu 
the hypoderni along the basal region of the plumes and for 
some distance along the dorsal side of the buccal shield. In 
microscopic structure it is minutely cellular and granular, 
intermingled with fil)res, and corresponds generally in 
position with that iu Owen'ia and Myriochele. 

Benham * (1896) described the central nervous system of 
the 'SVrchiannelida " as in contact with the epidermis, and 
pointed out that in some Polychwta it holds a similar position 
in the epidermis ; but he does not mention this condition 
in the Ammocharida?, which he associates with his Spioni- 
formia, nor in the Chaitopteridae included by Levinsen and 
himself under the same group or suborder. 

Gilson (1897-98) devoted much attention to the structure 
and function of the various parts of Owenia. Besides a 
careful account of the remarkable secreting glands f, which 
form such prominent organs, he has furnished an extended 
description of the "valves sei)tales''J and of "cellules 
rausculo-glandulaires" in the body-wall §. Perhaps the most 
important contribution is that connected with the ''valves 
septales/^ wherein he gives a systematic description of each 
septum, with its functions, one of the most striking being 
the second septum [i. e., between the fourth and fifth seg- 
ments), his sphincter muscle being in the position of the 
ordinary oblique muscle at its insertion over the nerve-cord. 
The muscular arrangements of this septum are specially 
connected with the coelomic fluid and the branchiae. After 
describing the special apertures in the septa and their 
mechanism, he shows that apertures at several of these 
connect the ccelom with the exterior ; that in the sixth seg- 
ment two zigzag cutaneous canals springing from funnels at 
the septum between the sixth and seventh segments perform 
the function of genital ducts, since nephridia are absent — a 
feature of a peculiar character in a Polyehset. In his paper 
on the musculo-glandular cells he states that a peritoneal 
membrane or ccelomic coat proper is absent iu Otcenia, thusi 
resembling such forms as the Nematodes, Acanthocei)hali,] 
many Annelids and Archiannelids. The body-wall is formed ! 
by a combined musculo-glandular coat — that is, it cannot bej 
separated into a muscular and a glandular layer. The inner 



♦ Camb. Nat. Hist., Worms, Rotifers, and Polvzoa. pp. 243, 255, & 325.\ 

t ' La Cellulp,' t. x. fasc. 2. 

4 Ibid. t. xii. fasc. 2. § Ibid. t. xiv fasc. 2. 



1 



Qatty Marine hahoratory, St. Andrews. 237 

region of this coat secretes albuminoid substances, fat, and 
urinary products. As will be shown subsequently, such is 
a misajjprehension of the structure of the peritoneal surface, 
probably owing to the condition of the accomplished Belgian 
author's material. 

In connection with Gilson's opinion, for it is nothing 
more, that the liypodermic canals in the sixth segment are 
genital ducts, it is notew^orthy that Arnold Watson observed 
the reproductive elements in Owenia issuing from two pores, 
to the right and left of the anus, a portion of the posterior 
end of the bod}' projecting from the anterior aperture of the 
tube. Thus Gilsou's theory of the advantages of the ante- 
rior opening of the hypodermic tubes (his genital ducts) 
lapses, were it only by the thrusting out of the much more 
delicate tail anteriorly. 

Ogneff"^ (1899), working at the Naples Station, took up 
the subject of Gilson^s "'cellules musculo-glandulaires^' in 
Owenia. In his prepax'ations he found within the muscular 
\-d\ev of the body-wall a protoplasmic and cellular layer 
w liich lined the coelom. In the muscle-fibres of the longi- 
tudinal coat themselves were spindle-shaped cells with nuclei, 
as Schwalbe first described in the muscles of worms and 
lamellibranchiate mollusks, and also on the surface of the 
muscles in a protoplasmic layer. Over these, however, is a 
layer of peritoneal cells, which are cup-shaped, with rounded 
inner or deeper surfaces and flattened surfaces toward the 
cceloni, w ith an oval nucleus, fat, and granules like the white 
of egg in the protoplasm. A fine protoplasmic network 
stretches from these amongst the muscle-cells. He thought 
there were as many as fifteen to twenty peritoneal cells to 
one muscle-cell. He did not consider that Gilson's " muscle- 
gland-cells" existed in Oivenia, the misapprehension being 
due to the less elaborate methods of preparation and section- 
making. 

In 1900 a very interesting paper on Oivenia fiisiformis 
was communicated to the Linnean Society by Mr. Arnold 
Watson t, whose observations on the living animals are 
noteworthy. His description of the lip-organ and its func- 
tions, the occurrence of a prostomial pore^ the discovery of 
theemi-sion of the sexual elements through twocoelomo-ducts 
(anal pores), the structure and repair of the tubes, and the 
rearing of the ova to the Mitraria-stnge are the chief features 
of this contribution to the life-history of the species. 

• Biol. Centralblatt. Bd. xix. p. 136. 

+ Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xxviii. p. 259, pi. xxii. 



238 Prof. M'Intosh'.s Xotes from the 

Ouc of tlic latest contributions is a liistological paper on 
Owenia by Ziircheri*, avIio enters into t])o minute structure 
of tlie nuisck's, showinpj that the lonjj^ spindle-shaped niusele- 
crlls have a spiral character (formerly noted by Ogneff), 
M hich in transverse section give them a barred aspect. A 
(' rcular muscular coat occurs only at the second dissepiment 
and forward to the branchial lobes. This also has spindle- 
shaped cells witli_ nuclei. lie combats Gilson's view, as 
Ogneff had previously done, that there is no line of demar- 
cation between the muscular coat and the peritoneum, that 
the nuclei are rare in the mnscnlar fibres and by-and-by 
vanish, and that it is impossible to distinguish the nuclei of 
the muscles and those of the glaiul-cells. He points out 
that the peritoneal nuclei are generally rounded, whereas the 
nuclei of tlie muscles are oval and flattened, with the long 
axis in the line of the muscle-cell. He goes somewhat fully 
into the histology of the circulatory system (his hremocoel), 
the main trunk consistijig of a dorsal vessel cariying the 
blood forward and a ventral trunk carrying it backward. 
The dorsal forms a blood-sinus round the gut to the second 
septum, then breaks up into a network over the canal, the 
trunks fusing at the first septum and sending forward a 
scries of vessels to the branchise, the returning vessels 
uniting to form the ventral trunk below the gut. The walls 
of the vessels have a fine epithelial coat and a delicate circular 
muscular layer with minute nuclei in their spindle-shaped 
cell-. The author also objects to Gibson's statement that 
no special constrictor to the alimentary canal occurs at the 
septa, and points out that at the third septum an efficient 
constrictor apparatus exi^ts both for the canal and the blood- 
sinus, the muscular apparatus showing the large muscle-cells 
at the outer ends of the fibres. Posteriorly also the 
filimcntary canal is mouihform from its constrictions. He 
is inclined to think that Drasehe's bladder-like tissue on the 
ventral mesentery is part of the reproductive apparatus. 
The ampullae on the ventral blocrd-vessel, which Drasche 
observed to be rythmically contractile, are confined to the 
genital region of the body, and bear the reproductive 
elements on their outer surfaces, and, though they have 
muscular walls, ZUrcher would attach more importance to 
their nutritive capacity. The red blood contains rounded 
or lenticular corpuscles with nuclei, and some corpuscles 
undergo mitosis. He found them in the ampullse and less 



* Jexiai«clie Zeitschr. far Natwrwi.'^?. Bd.xlv. pp. 181-220. pis, xv.-xx. 



I 



Gatty Marine Lahorniory, St. Andrexos. 239 

frequently in the vessels and sinuses. Tliere is a mixture of 
venous and arterial blood in the braneliire. The author 
does not touch on the structure of the nervous system of 
Oivenia, the topography of the alimentary ca»iai, the hypo- 
dermic canals of the sixth seoment, and other features subse- 
quently to be described, and his main points are liistological. 
The illustrations are ciiicfly in outline. 

Ko trace of a central nervous system is observed in 
Owenia fusiformis till the folds of the month are cut in the 
transverse sections*, and the fir^t definite aj)pearance of a 
layer similar to nerve-tissue is the presence of a pale band 
external to the stained basement-layer of the inner border 
of a lateral flap of the mouth. It resembles a differentiated 
stripe of hypoderm from which cells and pigment are absent, 
but the fine stride are continued through it to the basement- 
tis.sue, the whole being minutely fibrillar like the nerve- 
tissue, and generally dotted with minute grannies. It. fades 
away before reaching the free or ventral edge of the lateral 
Hap, and disappears similarly at the dorsal edge of the fold. 
Then (for it is difficult to cut exactly on the same level) a 
corresponding band appears on the opposite labial fold. 
This pale belt is considered by some, e. y., Ziircher, to be 
basement-tissue, but it seems to be somewhat ditf'erent. In 
any case, the contrast between it and the condition, for 
instance, in the proboscis of the armed Nemertean with its 
large strands of nerves and their reticulations is marked, yet 

* Whilst many advautafres are pained by the use of paraffin, cellu- 
loidiiie, and other substances for imbedding, the old plan of fine sections 
made directly from careiully prepared spirit-specimens is not without 
value in checking' tlie proportional tliickness of the muscular layers and 
other parts. Thus, in the case of Oivenia the great thickness of the 
longitudinal muscles of the body-wall can only be appreciated in this 
way, and so with the proportional size of the mucous glands and the 
tough nature of the basement-layer. In such preparations more than 
forty years old the delicacy of the hypodermic ^ layer has caused most of 
it to be removed in the manipulations before and after preservation, but 
in every case the nerve-cord iirmly adheres to the basement-tissue in the 
mid-ventral line, thus demonstrating its comparatively tough nature in 
contrast with the hypoderm. In such sections the gut tills the entire 
area, with the exception of the mucous glands, though, of course, in life 
the coelomic space was larger. The term hypoderm in the structure of 
the I'olychseta refers to the glandular and granular layer, often areolaled, 
beneath the cuticle. It is an ectodermic structure. 

* I am indebted to Mr. E. W. Shnnn, B.Sc, now Captain in the 
Northumberland Fusiliers, Mr. J. W. Pryde, M.A., now Lieutenant in 
the Black Watch, and to Miss Harvey, of Edinburgh, for aid in making 
the various section?. 



t?40 Prof. M'Intosh's Notes from the 

the functions of both are equally well performed. The 
Ncmcrtean brain, as in many Polycliiets, is distinctly isolated 
from tlic tissues outside it, and the same may be snid of the 
main trunks in that j;ronp. llcre^ in ■what is considered to 
be a hiiiher series, the opposite condition prevails, the nerve- 
centre and main trunks beinji,- hypodernial, as are the cords 
in the majority of the Polychicts. In Owenia this belt 
a<>;rrcs in minute structure with that surrounding the central 
system, and occupies a corresponding position. 

AVith the disappearance of a central fillet in the dorsal 
arch of the body-wall a slightly ])ale band is noticeable in 
the hypoderm of the I'egion, yet that layer ])asses to the 
basenuMit-tissue (which stains) unintcrriiiitedly, a series of 
the ends of severed fibres being grasped in spaces bounded 
by reticulations between the basement-tissue and the ad- 
joining circular muscular fibres. Then the pallor of the 
inner portion of the hyj)oderm becomes more pronounced, 
and in the next section or two (Fl. YII. fig. 1) a distinct 
nervous layer, as in Cephaloiliscus, stretches along the mid- 
dorsal arch. It shows both fine transverse and vertical fibres 
or strife, and minute granules occur next the basement-tissue 
(PI. YII. fig. 2). It fades on each side into the ordinary 
cells and areohe; of the hypoderm, which likewise continues 
to the surface externally without evident break. The nerve- 
tissue, in short, is marked by no hard-and-fast line from the 
hypoderm, but is traversed by its fibres, and the neuropile, 
ncmoglia, and neurilemma of the ordinary Polyeheet ganglia 
are not distinguishable. From end to end in section the 
tissue has a uuiform structure, and where, for instance, it is 
separated from the basement-layer only projecting vertical 
fibres and granules appear. Certain granules occur at its 
outer border next the deejjly stained cells and granules of 
the hypoderm, but these could not be associated with the 
nerve-band, the finely fibrillar edge of which coursed evenly 
along. In succeeding sections this great nerve-band stretches 
downward at the sides, becomes more distinctly differentiated 
from the hypoderm externally and the basement-tissue in- 
ternally, and then a slight narrowing of the mid-dorsal arch 
takes place, the lateral extensions being thicker. The mouth 
is still divided ventrally in these sections, and the nervous 
expansion extends over the entire arch of the body-wall with 
the exception of a comparatively short region of the ventral 
edge of the lateral lip, the thickest layer being lateral, for 
the dorsal is now diminishing. A narrow layer, apparently 
of basement-tissue, occurs, as indicated, simultaneously in 
the sections external to the hypoderm lining the mouth, and 



Gatty Marine Lahoralorrj , St. Andrtws. 241 

at this level all round, thoufih it is thickest ventro-Iaterally, 
and it was this layer whieli was first encountered in front. 
The structni'e of this lateral band of so-called basement- 
tissue closely resembles that of the central system, and it is 
possible that it may ])erform functions of a sensory kind in 
connection with the lateral flaps of the vestibule. The flaps 
gradually unite to form the lower half of the A'estibnle, the 
thicker band of j)ale tissue still being retained ventrally 
with a thin connecting-band dorsally. Proceeding a little 
backward the main nervous band disappears from the dorsum 
and is confined to the lateral regions of the body-wall, from 
which it gradually thins off dorsally. Finally, Avhen the 
lip-organ appears in the section over the oral gap, a large 
nerve-cord alone is left at the lower limit of the former nerve- 
band (PI. VII. fig. 3, nc), all the hypodermic layer dorsad of 
it having assumed the usual condition. In sections of Sacco- 
c/rrw5 near the mouth Dr. Goodrich * found the lateral cords 
(his " oesophageal commissures ") in a similar position. This 
limited nerve-area presents in section ])ale, finely granular, 
transverse striation, tlii'ough which delicate fibrils from the 
hypoderm external to it pass to the basement-tissue. When 
the circle of the body-wall is complete — that is, immediately 
behind the oral gap (PI. VII. fig. 3), — the large nerve-cords 
are situated a little below the middle line of the body-wall, 
and have a blood-vessel in the muscle to their inner side. 
The central region is still lined by hypoderm, and the thick 
pale baud of the inner layer is iufero-laterally conspicuous. 
Then the hypodermic layer of the vestibule passes into ttie 
gullet, and sections of the lip-organ {Ip.) appear, whilst the- 
hypodermic inner lining of the dorsal region is shut off by a 
deep fold with a narrow layer of hypoderm from the vesti- 
bule, the rest of the large arch above having a thick coat of 
the same tissue. Externally, again, a change has occurred 
in the mid-ventral line, for the thick lateral coat of hyi)o- 
derm in which the nerve-cords lie has thinned off ventrally, 
leaving a considerable area with just a trace of it ; but thi» 
appears to occur only for a short distance. With the 
termination of the vestibule lined by hypoderm, and the 
increase of the lip-organ in section, the ventral hypoderm of 
the body-wall again gradually thickens from the middle line 
outward. Moreover, the narrow pocket formed by the 
first septum lies on each side of the lip-organ (PI. VII. 
fig. 4), and then is quite shut off from the upper cavity 
(vestibule) lined by hypoderm, and which represents the 

* Quart, Journ. Micr. Sci. n. s., vol, xliv. 



242 Prof. M'liitosh's Notes from the 

gullet proper (which may have complex functions), sur- 
rounded by a tough (muscular) investment, from which 
various strands radiate to the body-wall amongst the blood- 
vessels of the region. The body-wall at this i)art has a 
thinner coat of hypoderm both mid-dorsally and mid- 
ventrally, its thick layer being lateral. The longitudinal 
muscles form a somewhat thin layer of fasciculi all round, 
and the lip-organ shows a thick mass of modified vertical 
cells with nuclei, each mass probably lubbiug against the 
other. The massive lip-organ then forms a thick-walled 
tube in section, WMth a central cavity (PI. VII, fig. 5) and 
an external muscular investment, whilst the oesopiiagus has 
a thick mucous layer, continuoTis w^ith the hypoderm, to 
subserve its special functions, the radiating strands and 
numerous blood-vessels still continuing. 'I'hese radiating 
fibres show that the movements of this thick-walled region 
(PI. VIII. fig. 18) must be more or less restricted, yet the 
longitudinal bands, especially on its dorsal wall, would point 
to protrusion and retraction. Externally the hypoderm — 
thickest laterally at and above the nerve-cords, vrhich are 
descending — has increased in depth dorsally, but is thin 
ventrally. Behind the foregoing the lip-organ loses its 
central cavity (a fold) and diminishes in size, but its complex 
muscular coat is proportionally thicker,and in thesurrounding 
area the blood-vessels are larger. Finally, the muscles of 
the lip-organ alone are visible, and then disappear, showing 
that it is, in short, attached by a muscular stalk, first hollow 
and tlien solid, though the sections would indicate that the 
muscular fibres (retractor) are fixed to the body-wall close 
behind and for some distance backward. Moreover, a fan- 
shaped ariangement (PI. XII. fig. 17) occurs anteriorly 
"where the fibres spread into the lip-organ. Besides, various 
oblique and transverse fibres act on the folds and give 
complexity to the movements (PI. XI. fig. 16). A double 
layer of muscular fibres, further, lies beneath the basement- 
tissue bounding the gland-cells — the one the reverse of the 
otlier, — so that in sagittal section the cut ends of one series 
abut on the thick inner [i. e. toward the coelom) belt. 
Gland-cells also occupy considerable areas internally at the 
edge of the organ. The mIioIc structure of this organ there- 
fore differs from mere labial folds of the vestibule, as mere 
clearly seen in vertical sections (PI. VII. fig. 6), the densest 
part of the cellular layer being toward the middle of the 
ventral fold and thinning off dorsally and laterally. The 
lip-organ, in short, is a highly differentiated ap[niratus, both 
secretory and manipulative, for the tube-forniation and other 



Gatly Marine Laboratory., St. Andreios. 243 

functions. It is interesting that Dr. Goodrich"^ found a 
similar organ (his " muscular pad ") in Saccocirrus and 
Protodrilus. The hody-wall at this level again presents a 
change in its hypoderni (which throughout has a firm 
exterior film or cuticle), since, though somewhat diminished 
dorsally, it is now of a considerable tiiickness mid-ventrally, 
its densest part being at the nerve-cords, which have moved 
downward, so that they are separated by about a sixth of the 
circumference of the body (PI. VIII. fig. 7). The oesophagus 
has special fasciculi of muscles laterally and dorsally, besides 
the radiating fibres. 

The next important change is the merging of the oesopha- 
geal region of the canal, with its boldly arranged coat con- 
tinuous with the external hypoderm, into the stomachal 
region at the third septum, with its granular glandular 
surface (PI. VIII. fig. 7) and its external muscular coat, the 
wiiole internal surface of the stomach being by-and-by thus 
transformed. 

At the couimencement of this region of the gut at the 
third septum a complex muscular sheath connected with 
the lip-organ occurs ventrally, with thickened muscular 
pillars at each side — abutting on a membranous space to 
the exterior and just over the nerve-trunks, certain of the 
fibres, moreover, a little further back being attached to the 
basement-tissue over the outer part of the nerve-cords. 
Blood-vessels occur in the large space which is thus soon 
formed below the alimentary canal, and the vessel in the 
median mesentery (which is attached to the upper border of 
the mass of muscle stretching from side to side over the area 
above the nerve-cords — a little behind the section figured in 
PI. VIII. fig. 7) is distinct, the special mesenteric area still 
being visible externally, though much reduced in size. 
Between the basement-tissue of the body-wall and this trans- 
verse muscular mass lie the ventral longitudinal muscles 
[vmS). The great cavity appears to contain coelomic fluid 
and corpuscles, and is shut off by a shelf of septal tissue 
(PI. VIII. fig. 7, bt.) continuous at each side with that of 
the body-wall, whilst the upper area on each side of the 
alimentary canal is occupied by elastic connective-tissue 
strands and by the muscular fasciculi along the dorsal wall 
of the canal. The body-wall at this region has dorsally the 
longitudinal muscles {dm.), which may be held to cease at 
the junction of the transverse platform of septal tissue a 
little below the middle, of longitudinal muscular fibres 

* Quail. Jouni, Micr. Sci. ii. ,<., vol. ,\liv. p. 415, sections 18 >.^- 20. 



, 



211 Prof. M'liitosir.s Xot^'sfroin the 

ending at the junction of the ventral transverse band, and, 
lastly, of the median (ventral) longitndinal fibres {vm.) 
beneath the latter (PI. VIII. fig:. 7). The nerve-cords at 
this part are separated by fully a sixth of the circvinifercnce 
of the body-wall. The transverse septal plate above the 
ventral longitudinal muscles has a central structureless part 
— ap})arently of a homogeneous nature (pale and elastic), 
the muscular fasciculi fraying out especially at the dorsal 
surface and ends (PI. VIII. fig. 7 a). In its ]nogress back- 
ward a change in the diminishing area between the nerve- 
trunks is inaugurated, the homogeneous central region of 
the transverse baiul, the anterior part of which is indicated 
in PI. A'lll. fig. 7, being shortened transversely and increased 
vertically, so that it pushes as a lozenge-shaped and then 
wedge-shaped area into the centre of tlie ventral muscular 
mass, whilst the upper muscular fibres externally become 
defined as more or less independent masses, bounded exter- 
nally by sloping muscular fibres which simulate the oblique 
in certain sections — at least, at their insertion. The lozenge- 
shaped area of the homogeneous (for it can scarcely be called 
" tendinous ") tissue tliins oft' on each side to a plate, to 
tlie upper edge of which fasciculi of muscular fibres are 
attached, whilst ventrally processes pass into the median 
ventral longitudinal muscles. The whole thus forms a com- 
plex muscular apparatus attached to the central tough tissue, 
which gradually in its progress backward shrinks, leaving 
the fu>ed muscular fasciculi to form the massive ventral 
longitudinal muscles as shown in PI. VIII. fig. 8, rm. By 
the gradual diminution of the tough central area of the 
before-mentioned transverse band to which the median 
mesentery from the gut is attached, and by the grouping of 
the several longitudinal ventral muscles into a mass on each 
side, the tyi)ical ventral longitudinal muscles are formed, 
and at this part they exceed in bulk the dorsal muscles. 
This evolution of these continuous ventral fasciculi out of 
the elements in front is probably connected with a change 
in the function of the contents as well as in the body-wall 
itself. 

The disappearance of the longitudinal muscular fibres and 
the radiating strands from the dorsal wall of the gut leave3 
the two halves of the upper division of the coelomic space for 
coelomic fluid only, and it is separated from the two much 
larger spaces inferiorly by strong muscular bands at each 
side of the transversely enlarged alimentary canal; yet the 
appearance of the canal beneath — to which the median 
mesentery is attached ventrally — apparently leaves a gap by 



Gatty Marine Laboratory ^ Si. Andrews. 245 

wliich the two cavities communicate superiorly under tlie 
transversely enlariied canal. 

The anterior end of the stomach is a narrow tube as seen 
in Pi. XI. fig. 23, and in the various transverse sections. It 
further presents a bifid border ventral ly, a narrow process of 
tlie cavity endinjij in a dilated rim on each side below, the 
ventral blood-vessel and the mesentery occupyin^^ the gap, 
whilst a spacious sinns surrounds the stomach. This birid 
condition gradually disappears, the organ assuming the 
outline shown in PI. X. fig. 30. 

A mesentery with the dorsal blood-vessel in the centre 
passes from the upper arch of the gut to the dorsal wall^ 
and another mesentery, with the ventral blood-vessel, goes 
to the mid-vcutral tissues, the coclom being thus divided 
into halves. Then a process from the wall of the stomach 
above the rugose and somewhat triangular ventral arch 
appears, and a little behind is tacked to the ventral portion, 
and thus cuts it off as a separate canal with folded mucous 
mend)raiie internally, the longer upper chamber having its 
inner surface smooth and symmetrically folded. The in- 
ferior and somewhat pear-shaped chamber (PI. YIII. fi<r. 8, 
St., stomach) is surrounded by blood-vessels, which form a 
vascular plexus around it on their way to the branchial 
region, and from its apex inferiorly a mesentery passes 
to join a mid-ventral homogeneous (pale tough) area arching 
over a special muscular region which terminates on each 
side over the outer edge of the nerve-cord, now approaching 
that of the opposite side. 

At this level the body-wall has thin hypoderm in the 
mid-dorsal line, then it increases in depth laterally, again 
becomes thinner, and then swells out ventrally at the nerve- 
cords. Within are the basement-tissue and circular fibres, 
then the dorsal longitudinal muscles {dm.), which end below 
the attachment of the upper canal on each side, and the 
ventral longitudinal (vm.), which are more massive, and 
have the differentiated region with the arched fibres in the 
middle line, such, indeed, forming the only separation 
between them. This differentiated region is prol)ably in 
connection with the movements of the alimentary canal. 
The nerve-cords in section show a granular and fibrillar 
aspect, and they are much better differentiated than in front. 
The occurrence of bristle-tufts makes the separation between 
the dorsal and the ventral longitudinal muscles more pro- 
nounced, and below the tuft is a well-defined pore of the 
mucous gland with large nuclei in its cellular wall ( PI. VIII. 
fig. y, inp.), one side abutting on the hypoderm, tiie other 



1'4C. VvoL M'Iiitosir.s Xotes from the 

luxviiig muscular fibres from the bristle-tuft attached to it; 
aud the hypoderm is thiuucd at the tuft aud has au incurva- 
tion at its upper edge, whilst it rapidly thickens above it. 
^Moreover, a distinct muscular slip {inc.} occurs in the mid- 
ventral line, the remnant of tlie complex condition in front. 

Tiie next change is the infolding of the stomachal wall 
(PI. Vlll. fig. 10, 5/.), the loss of its lateral connections, and 
the termination of its cavity ; whilst the intestine enlarges, 
its folds become more prominent aud alter their character, 
resembling, indeed, the oesophageal hypodermic lining. The 
intestine still shows a plexus of vessels, about seven, for 
instance, being cut on eaeli side, and they resemble buds 
from the investment of the gut, though they are only sections 
of longitudinal trunks with their internal and external 
investments. The dorsal mesentery and its enclosed vessel 
now pass upward from the gut-wall, and inferiorly are the 
veutral mesentery aud its vessel, the membrane trending to 
a fissure between the more massive veutral longitudinal 
muscles, since the special median muscular area and its fibres 
(shown in PI. "S'ill. fig. 7 a) liave disappeared. The nerve- 
cords are separated only by their own breadth from each 
other, and they are, perhaps, more distinctly granular than 
before. The mucous glands, with their secretion rendered 
fibroid by preparation, are now prominent, each placed 
above the ventral muscle of its side. The coelomic S])aces 
(PL IX. Hg. 11, c), reduced to one on each side, have a 
translucent coagulum with granules. 

When the nerve-cords touch and fuse (PI. IX. fig. 11, 7ic.) 
it is seen that the glandular tubes in the ccelom approaeli 
each side of the ventral vessel, and slope outward as they go 
forward to the excretory duct below the bristle-tuft. The 
gut has become pear-shaped, the narrow end being below 
with its mesentery, whilst two mesenteries pass from the 
dorsal arch and join before reaching the dorsal blood-vessel. 
This arrangement makes an additional sujira-iutestinal 
chamber. 

The hypoderm still presents a symmetrical enlargement 
just above the bristle-tuft on each side, this thickened region 
being difl'erentiated by the narrow layer immediately above 
it, for it gradually deepens dorsally and again becomes 
narrow as it reaches the mid-dorsal line. From the lower 
edge of the bristle-tuft it gently increases to the nerve-cords 
in the mid-ventral line. The dorsal longitudinal muscles 
are thinner than the massive ventral, but they extend over 
a larger area of the body-wall. 

A little fuither back (PI. IX. fig. 12) the gut increases ii; 



Gatly Murine La^'oratory, >)>L Andr-^ws. 2-47 

vertical diameter, forming a long flattened organ extending 
from the dorsal to the ventral region in section, and the 
cellular lining is thrown into rugae. Both dorsal and ventral 
short mesenteries are double, and the wall of the dorsal 
vessel is more muscular. The gut has the same vascular 
investment as just mentioned, and the vessels lie outside the 
mesentery just alluded to. At the next bristle- bundle a 
pore similar to the fiist gives issue to the secretion of the 
second pair of glandular tubes. The ventral longitudinal 
muscles retain their more massive outline. 

After an interval the body (PI. IX. fig. 13) increases in bulk 
proportionally, but thehypoderm becomes thinner all round, 
the tliKkest part being that situated ventrally on each side of 
the nerve-cords. The ventral longitiuliual muscles pass far 
upward, and encroach on the dorsal, which occupy only the 
upper arch of the body, and each pair has a distinct median 
notch into which the mesentery fits, the ventral mesentery 
having the ovaries or spermaries attached to it laterally, 
and the contents of which are shed into the ccelom. Two 
mucous glands in section occupy the upper half of the 
coslom on each side, and the nuclei of the cells forming their 
walls are regularly arranged. The gut stretches nearly from 
dorsal to ventral arch, held in position by the median 
mesenteries and also by the septa at intervals. The double 
attachment superiorly forms a blood-channel, which com- 
municates with a sinus [sin?) surrounding the gut, so that 
here, instead of the isolated though reticulated vessels, there 
is a continuous blood-channel — a development in all proba- 
bility attained only in the adult or nearly adult condition. 
The nerve-coi'd still has numerous hypodermic fibres passing 
from the outer to tlie inner (ventral to dorsal) or vice versa, 
and, in addition, fine reticulations and granules, some of 
which are probably nuclei. Usually a slight ventral furrow 
and a median peak dorsally indicate the double nature of the 
area. The second pair of glandular tubes is situated to the 
exterior of the first pair in transverse sections. 

The sixth segment is distinguished by the presence of 
Gilson's epidermal tubes, which stretch from the septum 
between the sixth and seventh segments to that in front. 
They are readily recognized by their position in transverse 
sections, viz., dorsad of the groove (Gilson's " gouttiere de 
la sole*'') which runs along the dorso-lateral region. They 
are canals of considerable size, and are separated from the 
basement-layer by a stratum of cells, the cavity in section 
being also bounded externally by an arch of hypodermic 
cells. Gilson supposed that these hypodermic canals served 



243 Prof. M'liitosh'd Notes from the 

for the transmission of the reproductive elements, and 
possibly also for an interchange l)et\vcen the coelomic cavity 
and the exterior as in certain 01igo{'ha?ts, True ncphridia, 
at any rate, are absent in Otrenin. "Whatever the fnnction of 
these canals may be, Arnold AVatsou has shown that sperms 
and ova esca|)C by dillerent channels. 

In front of the tail the liypodermic coating of the surface 
is of moderate thickness. The massive muscnhir investment 
is conspicuous, and it is difficult to distinguish where the 
dorsal loniiitudinal muscle ends and the ventral begins, 
though a fold above the miu^ous gland seems to indicate the 
separation. '^I'he nerve-cords have shrunk to a small lenti- 
cular area, which in minute structure has the same fibrillar 
and granular character as in front. The intestine, held in 
position by a dorsal and a ventral mesentery, is considerably 
less, but it has large vessels or sinuses on each side, the 
ampulhe from the ventral vessel passing into the large gonad 
below the gut. Two mucous glands are still in evidence 
under the dorsal M'all, and they have the same character as 
in front. Moreover, their ducts open above the long line 
of hooks in the space between these and the bristle-tuft, 
which is now dorsal in position, and so leave the entire 
lateral wall to the hooks ; thus the restricted area occupied 
by the dorsal longitudinal muscles is defined. The whole 
lateral and ventral regions are covered by the ventral longi- 
tudinal muscles, Mhich, however, are much thinner than the 
dorsal, the reverse of the condition in front. The con- 
spicuous development of the gonads in this region and the 
ampullte of the veunal vessel are noteworthy. The mucous 
glands have now ceased (PL IX. fig. 14). 

One of the interesting features toward the tail is the 
occurrence of the septa (PI. IX. fig. 15). Their first appear- 
ance is indicated by the envelopment of the intestine and 
its blood-sinuses by a sheath which springs from each side 
of the vertical mesentery under the dorsal blood-vessel, and 
stretches to the mid-ventral mesentery considerably below 
the ventral blood-vessel. In such a view it might be sup- 
posed tiiat the middle of the septum has been sliced, leaving 
the upper and lower attachments ; but such will not explain 
all the outlines of these posterior septa. 

Reproductive elements occur in the spaces outside the 
septum as well as within it and its areas. Then the upper 
and lower arches separate, each having a zigzag outline as 
it passes to the body-wall. The coelom is thus divided into 
six areas — two dorsal, two ventral, and the lateral with the 
gonads inferiorly on each side of the gut. 



Gatty Marine Laboratory ^ St. Andrews. 249 

The first appearance of the septum in the sections is 
heralded by a tuft of muscular fibres attached to the exterior 
of the j;ut-\vall and the ventral septum ; then the muscular 
ring (tlie ventral septum and the gut l)eing free) loosely en- 
velops the gut and its vessels, besides the ventral blood-vessel 
and its mesentery, almost to the ventral longitudinal muscles, 
but leaves the dorsal blood-vessel for the most part free. 
The septum, indeed, springs on each side from the lower 
wall of the vessel, and encloses that part of the mesentery 
between the vessel and the sinus around the gut, whilst the 
distal part of the mesentery passes freely to the gap between 
the dorsal longitudinal muscles. This muscular sheath or 
tubular chamber by-and-by swells out into a large area, its 
upper arch or roof being attached on each side to the body- 
wall between the dorsal and ventral longitudinal muscles, 
and its floor stretches from the median ventral mesentery 
to the wall of the body a considerable distance below the 
attachment of the roof. This chamber encloses the alimentary 
apparatus and the gonads, but the more advanced sperms 
lie in the two coelomic chambers outside its roof — that is, 
between the latter and the body-wall (PI. IX. fig. 15). It 
is difficult to explain the exact nature of these septa — 
whether they are modifications of the ordinary septa, which 
extend far backward in the caudal region, or only the 
ordinary septa sliced so as to present these characteristic 
appearances, — for it is unlikely that two septa would fall 
into the line of section. These septa seem to differ in 
disposition and aspect from those in front, and are probably 
associated with the special functions of the caudal region — 
respiratory, purely intestinal^ or otherwise. 

On viewing the animal externally from the dorsum, a 
broad fillet passes from each side of the collar anteriorly and 
slopes obliquely inward and backward on the dorsum to the 
constriction behind the third bristle-tuft, then bends a little 
outward, and is continued along the dorso-lateral . region 
posteriorly. A groove exists at the collar just below the 
anterior end, and which apparently is functional also for the 
median ventral ridge and groove, so that, if ciliated, it may 
send a current outward and forward to it. These ridges 
apparently are those which show the remarkable pennate 
arrangements in the hvpoderm in the preparations (PI. IX. 
fig. 20). 

In certain longitudinal sections (PI. VIII. fig. 18) the dark 
pigment stretches as a broad band behind the collar, a gap 
intervening between it and the edge of the fold behind, such 
probably representing a sensory groove, and its borders have 

Ann. li- Mag. X llt'st. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 17 



iir.o 



ri(>f. M'liitosli's Xofeit from the 



the specially Jimdificd cells. Von Draschc * Hji^nres tlic 
pigment only bcliind the collar, and his " <;angliou " is snrifl 
and considerably in front of the collar, tlins diver}:;ing from 
the condition described here. Ziircher does not deal with 
this rcijion. 

In loni^itndinal sections a marked feature is the pennate 
condition of the hypoderni of the anterior region — that is, 
between the first and second dissepiments, as well as a little 
in front of the former in certain cases ; and it appears to be 
specially developed on the dorsum. The Hypoderni is there 
thrown into a series of ridges, which in section present a 
streaked granular basal region terminating externally in 
a pennate and symmetrical series of small granular cells, 
after the manner of the barbs of a feather (1^1. IX. fig. 20), 
the breadth of the ridge varying, whilst the processes (in 
section) increase in size from l)ehind forward, culminating 
in the collar with the deep groove in front (PI. XI. fig. 16, and 
PI. VIII. fig. 18). Some of the ridges, springing from tlie 
continuous base, are narrow distally, so that the lateral rows 
of cells are close on the midrib and a few are more or less 
conical. The transition from the hypoderm of the succeeding 
segment is by a gradual raoditicatiou in the arrangement 
of the vertical cells, Avhich by-and-by are fan-like and then 
pennate. This pennate condition in the preparations of 
tlie hypoderm is apparently limited in distribution, since it is 
absent iu most sections both dorsally and ventrally, and Von 
Drasche neither mentions nor figures it. Moreover, in trans- 
verse sections, so far as observed, it is not seen, and therefore 
may be due to the arrangement of the cells in a vertical plane 
after preparation. An approach to this condition of the 
liypodermic cells is observed in some longitudinal sections 
of Mi/.vico/u, but it is less distinct than in Oivenia, and is 
probably due likewise to the effect of the preservative fluid 
acting on a thick glandular hypoderni. The inner edge of 
the collar has a series of minute cells along its anterior 
border, aud a fan-like series of strands and cells posteriorly, 
whilst the tip is symmetrically pennate. The anterior curve 
of the furrow is furnished with a special series of granular 
pigmented cells, oc, closely arranged at the surface, and 
Avhieh in'ob;il)ly have the functions of eyes. They extend 
the whole length of the collar from side to side on the 
dorsal surface, and are partly i)rotected b}' that fold (PI. VTII. 
fig. 18, and PI. XL fig. 16)' 

Tlie mucous glands (jng^) present either a characterisUc 

• Op. cit. Taf. i. fig. 3. 



II 



Gathj Marine Laboraior//, St. Andrews. 251 

pennate aspect iu longitudinal section or a series of straight 
or curved transverse l)ai's, according as the long tube is cut 
in a median or lateral plane (PI. X. fig. 19). In the former 
case a central axis of the secretion is flanked on either t>idc 
by a series of plates, often slanting distally^ and containing 
an occasional nucleated cell or a series of granules in the 
plate. Such a condition may be due to the action of the 
preservative spirit, or to the method of secretion, but it is 
worthy of note. The slender posterior ends of these glands 
are curved forward and outward. The secretion forms a 
lining to the tube, and attaches foreign structures such as 
sand-particles and foraminifera to it externally ; and in 
many cases, so firmly do the annelids adhere to it after 
preservation, that rupture of the tissues accompanies their 
removal. 

The hypoderni coverii)g the mouth and buccal region, 
including the •'lip-organ," differs from that on the surface 
of the body and branchise. It is bounded by a uniform and 
definite investment, and has a finely-granular and fibrillar 
structure, so that it forms a tougher, more massive, and 
more consistent layer, which, however, at certain parts 
diminishes in thickness as it approaches the branchise. It 
rests on a basement-layer having beneath it a complex series 
of muscular fibres. The same kind of hypoderm dips down 
and envelops the lip-organ, though it is more translucent 
in section, from the paucity of granules which stain more 
deeply. Then the organ forms a deep furrow (PI. VII. fig. 6) 
with massive pale walls, whilst a double fold which now 
appears to the inner side, as well as the folds dorsad of the 
mouth, stain distinctly, as also do all the folds of the mouth 
and pharynx. The pale region thus lies in the figure between 
a and a in the centre of the organ, but it thins off on each 
side — that is to say, the middle region of the fold has thickest 
■walls. The buccal mucous membrane is like that first men- 
tioned in the lateral area of the cephalic region, viz., closely 
fibrous and granular, and it continues to the second dia- 
phragm. It rests on a basement-membrane and a firm 
outer layer of both circular and longitudinal muscular fibres, 
the anterior or buccal region having numerous trabeculse 
fixing it to the body-wall ; and this is specially marked at 
the thick pale folds (lip-organ, Ip., in the various figures). 
The anterior buccal region is probably capable of partial 
protrusion. In front of the second diaphragm the folds of 
the canal have thick muscular walls, so that a certain amount 
of difierentiation exists — either as proventriculus or stomach. 
Behind the second dissepiment the Avails of the canal are 

17^ 



•);,•> 



Prof, M'lntosli'd Xotes from the 



apparently uniform, ami coutaiu mud rich in organic 
remains. 

Tiic fornun' or stomachal region enters the followitig or 
intestinal region by au aperture which is thrust backward as 
a cone. Moreover, the walls of the organ undergo a struc- 
tural differeutiatiou, for a short distauce before reaehiug the 
aperture (text- fig.) they become finely reticulated and dotted 
as if formed of muscular or erectile tissue {ec), whilst the 
liniug of the tube consists of the same mucous membrane 
as in frout. Further, the adjoining circular fold of the 
diaphragm {sj)t. 3) is provided with a similar, though 
thinner, layer of the sauie tissue (ec), which likewise 




Longitudinal section of tlie alimentary apparatus at the third septum, 
spt.S, showing traces of the special uuiscular layer, ec, enveloping 
the postei'ior wall of the stomach and its sinuses, and continued 
over the valvular region, vaL ; hp., liypoderm ; coel.c., ccelomic 
corpuscles ; m^., mucous glands. 



occurs in two of the folds of the organ in front of the 
foregoing. This tissue is apparently muscular, and its 
minute structure is interesting as showing the peculiar 
muscle-cells with their granular contents and nuclei which 
stud the free border of the muscle. Ziircher ^ has given a 
good description and figures of the structure of this tissue. 
It evidently controls not only the wall of the canal but the 
blood-sinus on its outer surface, and thus may have con- 
siderable effect on the main trunks proceeding forward 
to the branchiae. The cadomic corpuscles often form a 

* Op. cit. p. 203, and fig.«. 33 & 35. 



I 



Gattij Marine Lahoraforij, Si. Andrew!. 253 

translucent mass {coilc.) behind the diaphragm and on 
each side of the gut. 

Myriochele, the second genus of the Ammocharidaj, differs 
from Owenia in the simplicity of its anterior end, for it is 
l)roadly truncated, with a smooth margin, a deep pit or 
vestibule leading to the mouth, and a ventral fissure; yet it 
is found that, thougli tiie branchiae aie absent, the nervous 
system is formed much on tlie same plan as that of Owenia. 
Myriochele is even more broadly truncate than Owenia, and 
as a transparent object its large blood-vessels in front 
and the great longitudinal mucous glands which follow 
give the body a striped aspect. 

The cilia covering the large funnel-shaped oral cavity of 
Myriochele are long and powerful, so that the currents they 
cause are probably considerable. Moreover, the oral aperture 
is oblique, the rim dipping backward to the notch at the 
ventral border, thus somewhat resembling the condition in 
the young of Oivenia^ though the oral gap is larger. 

In the early sections of the snout of Myriochele the 
hypoderm presents more distinct elements than in Owenia, 
and it appears to be somewhat thicker, its minute cells and 
granules in the gelatinous matrix being conspicuous. The 
sections have a horseshoe-sha|)ed appearance, the wide oral 
gap beneath forming the heel of the shoe, Avhich, however, 
is ta])ered at the tip, the wall thinning off at each side. The 
exterior of the shoe has cuticle, glandular hypoderm, and 
basement-tissue resting on a gelatinoid layer which has 
numerous minute nucleated cells along both outer and 
inner borders. Basement-tissue, again, bounds the vesti- 
bular hypoderm on the inner border, which differs from that 
of the outer wall in having a distinct inner coat, from which 
cilia probably spring. The basement-layer in both cases 
is apparently elastic. The surface-layer of hypoderm 
often presents clear spaces or vacuoles — proliably from 
rupture and extrusion of the glandular tissue. Moreover, 
its external surface forms a more definite cuticle, whilst its 
inner border rests on the basement-layer, no nervous belt 
appearing in the first sections ; but circular fibres occur 
within the basement-layer, and then a well-developed longi- 
tudinal coat of muscle which stretches downward to the 
oral edge, from which the epithelium of the mouth passes 
inward (PI. XI. fig. 22) as a thick layer of cylindrical cells 
with nuclei, bounded internally by a thin sheet of cii'cular 
fibres and a few longitudinal strands. The space (coclom) 
between the body-wall and the oral wall shows many 



254 Prof. M'lutosh's jS\)tes from the 

fjranular cells with fine connective-tissue fibres at certain 
]Kirts, besides blood-vessels. Tlicn a narrow pale belt 
i)ecomes distinct within tlie circular fibres and basement- 
tissue of tlie oral wall, apparently corresponding to the 
pale sensory layer of Oivenia in the same region. The 
nerve-centre appears as a narrow pale granular band in 
section at the inner border of the hypodcrm of the body- 
wall, and stretching downward from the dorsum (PI. XI. 
tig. 2.2) as it passes by-and-by into the trunks connecting 
it with the ventral cord. This region therefore represents 
the prostomium, though devoid of any external indication. 
The minuteness of the nerve-centre in comparison with that 
of Oiceu'ta renders its finer details obscure, and it is more 
tra)isparent. No fine strands from the hypodcrm could be 
made out, the slightly prominent cells and interstitial tissue 
alone appearing at the edge, whilst its inner border rested 
on a smooth basement-tissue. Its ])Osition and extent 
agree with that in (hvenia. 

In horizontal (longitudinal) sections the central nervous 
system appears as an area at the inner border of the hypo- 
derm about the point of the V-shaped oral funnel (PI. XI. 
fig. 23), and its transverse breadth is shown by its appearing 
on each side in these sections. So far as can be ascertained 
in the preparations, no special sensory apparatus is present 
either in the form of a groove or deposit of pigment in the 
body-wall, but the pigment may have been removed by 
long })reservation in spirit. Therein it differs from Owenia 
with its j)ignicuted cells and its groove. 

Then, the hypoderm, again, extends over the Avhole depth 
to the basement-layer dorsally, and the nerve-cords are 
differentiated laterally — at first high up, nearly on a level 
with the dorsal arch of the mouth (PL XI. fig. 25), and 
then gradually descending as in Owenia. Very soon 
between the mid-dorsal and the oral walls a blood-vessel 
appears, and one in each lateral space, the connective-tissue 
strands and cells which connect the Avails apparently 
keeping them more or less in position, the vessels being 
proportionally large for the size of the annelid and perhaps 
subserving respiration (PI. XI. fig. 25 and PI. XII. fig. 24, 
hv.). When the body-wall becomes continuous — that is, 
just behind the ventral (oral) slit — the cords have reached 
the commencement of the lower third of the body-wall, and 
the median arch dorsally and the mid-lateral regions of the 
gullet present the thickest layer of cells, the upper angles 
and the lower edges being thinner. jMoreover, a section of 



Gatty Marine Laboralor>/, St. Andrews. 255 

tlie lip-organ (Ip.) aj)j)ear.s. A pale bnnd indicates a difFer- 
entiation outside the cellular layer dorsaliy and another 
laterally. The chamber by-and-by assumes a figure-of-8 
outline, the section of the lip-organ occurring in the lower 
division; and this shows a dorsal lenticular region of firm 
pale nucleated cells, somewhat symmetrically arranged, the 
lower pait still having its cavity surrounded by the softer 
and more deeply-stained nucleated cells of the vestibule 
(PI. XI. tig. 26). The figure-oF-8 outline of the chamber 
is now complicated by a median process on each side and by 
the appearance of a diverticuhun (gullet) dorsaliy, whilst the 
increase in its size dimiuishes the sj)ace between it and the 
body-wall laterally and superiorly, though from the first it 
clings to that wall ventrally. The pale streaked dorsal region 
of the lip-oi'gan is gradually increasing in size as the sections 
pass backward ; the diverticulum joins the upper region of 
the canal, which is soon separated from the lower by tlie 
junction of the median processes or isthmuses, thus con- 
lining the lip-organ to a special chamber (PI. XII. fig, 27). 
The upper chamber is lined by the soft cellular mucous 
coat; the lower has a thin lining of epithelium, with longi- 
tudinal and a few circular muscular fibres externally, the 
whole becoming continuous with the upper edge of the lip- 
organ on each side, the remains of the ventral wall with its 
nuacous lining at first linking it to the lip- organ and then 
disappearing, the mid-ventral region being occupied by 
strong muscular fibres, probably the protractor of the 
organ. The nerve-cords are on each side and widely 
separated, and the ventral wall of the body is very thin. 
A blood-vessel lies on each side at the upper edge of the 
lower chamber; a section of a succeeding part of the canal 
appears at the upper border of the wall of the lower chamber, 
and soon stretches across the entire region. A change 
is also taking place in the upper chamber, the lower region 
of which is thickened and its cells rendered paler. In the 
roof of the lower chamber the cells are assuming the chordoid. 
condition of those in the lower region, so that very soon both 
halves make an efficient organ for compression or manipu- 
lation. The upper chamber becomes also smaller, and the 
space between the two larger. Strong muscular fascicules 
appear both dorsaliy and ventrally over the lingual organ in 
the lower chamber; and the nuclei in the elongated cells of 
the modified organ form a row nearer the outer than the 
inner border. In the interval between the upper and lower 
chambers another diverticulum of the upper chamber has 



256 Pruf. ^['Intosli's Notes from the 

been intnuliiif;, and is easily recognized by the numerous 
uncloi. The luilves of the lip-orjjan in the h)\vcr chamber 
are becominu continuous and. fusinjjr, form a dense cylinch'r 
with only a chink in the ('cntre, the nuclei of the cells being 
situated near the external bonier. The alimentary canal in 
the upper region occupies more than half the area Mithin the 
body-Avall. At this level the liypodcrm is thickest laterally 
and has increased ventrally with the downward progress of 
the nerve-cords, the lip-organ is now solid in section and 
smaller, whilst the canal above has increased in size, and 
a central chamber of ditferent cellular structure makes its 
appearance, whilst by-and-by only muscular fibres occupy 
the place of the lip-organ inferiorly, and a coelomic space 
occurs at each side. The nerve-coi*ds touch and soon fuse. 

The alimentary canal now takes a median position in 
tlie body-cavity, with a dorsal and a ventral mesentery, 
and it occupies a large space. The thinning of the dorsal 
longitudinal muscles in the mid-lateral region indicates a 
differentiation, Avhilst a considerable mass over the ventral 
nerve-cord and a thinner layer on each side represent the 
longitudinal ventral muscles. Tlie mucous glands now 
appear toward the lower region of the coelom, and they 
seem to liave the same structure (PI. XII. fig. 28) as in 
Owenia, and to open by similar wide ducts. The dorsal 
and ventral blood-vessels in the respective mesenteries are 
large. The hypoderm at this level is thick all round, espe- 
cially ventrally, where the nerve-cords are in juxtaposition, 
and the dorsal and ventral longitudinal muscles are thicker 
and better differentiated (PI. XII. fig. 29). The alimentary 
canal next ])resents various wiinkles; and a pale band passes 
from each side of the nerve-cords (M'hich are proportionally 
large) outside the basement-layer, as if extension were 
indicated. The alimentary canal is thrown into deej) folds, 
as if a stomachal or gizzard-like part existed in the lateral 
regions, whilst the dorsal and ventral arches have the 
ordinary mucous structure; then considerable vertical con- 
striction occurs, the dorsjd and ventral arches disappear, 
and avascular sinus is established laterally. Thereafter the 
gut is pointed above and is split into two lobes ventrally, 
with muscular bundles in the gap. The latter (gap) by-and-by 
disappears, the canal enlarges, the lumen is much filled up 
with the den^e coating of cells, and the vascular sinus around 
it is continuous in the sections (PI. X. fig. 80). Externally 
at this level the hyiioderm is massive ventrally, thins off 
laterally, and again becomes thin dorsally. The longitudinal 
muscular coat is thinner, and fibres radiate from a little 



Gutty Marine Laboratory^ St. Andrews. 257 

above the dnct of a mucous gland, impingiug on the wall of 
tiie blood-siuus ou one side, and apparently attached to the 
depression in the liypoderm and indicative of an opening in 
the mid-lateral region. The epithelium in the food-canal 
differs quite troui that in front, being almost fihro-granular 
in aspect froui the elongation of the cells, the nuclei of which 
lie toward the outer border, and at first the surface presents 
reticulations. The alimentary canal enlarges behind the 
foregoing, but the chriracter of the mucous lining remains 
the same, and the venli-al blood-vessel lies in the mesentery 
over tlie nerve-cord, which is large, with a median peak 
dorsally and a specially thickened hyptiderniic layer at each 
side. Ou the dorso-lateral regions of tiie body the hypoderm 
appears to be thicker tiian on the mid-dorsal and mid-lateral 
parts. No specialized dorsal blood-vessel appears in this 
region, ibr it has fused wiih the sinus. 

In horizontal longitudinal section (PI. XI. fig. 23) the 
alimentary apparatus has a similar appearance at the second 
septum to tiiat shown in Otvenia, though the details are 
slijihtly difi'crent and the scale is much less. The mucous 
lining is thickened as it approaches the septum, and a 
centro-lateral fold bulges forward into the stomachal or 
gizzard-like division, whilst the central opening is narrowed 
and enters the succeeding part of the alimentary canal as a 
prominent papilla. The narrow termination of this region 
stains more deeply than the rest; indeed, it is coloured like 
the muscular septum, so that it is probable that it has 
specially develoi)ed muscular fibres at this part so as ta 
enable it to peiform sphincter-like functions, the food being 
retained in this chamber for some time and then permitted 
to pass backward by relaxation of the muscular guard. 

In vertical sections of the middle region the gut is at first 
flask-shaped, the wide part, with the contents, being dorsal, 
the narrow part ventral ; and the mucous lining lias agaia 
altered its character, the cells being larger, their nuclei 
largei", and the inner edge smootli. The coslomic space in 
the female is distended ou both sides with large ova having 
a clear nucleus, an opaque nucleolus, and granular contents, 
and they spring from the epithelium of the luesentery below 
the ventral blood-vessel, the smaller ova being inferior, the 
larger superior. A noteworthy change is the disappearance 
of the blood-sinus around the gut and the piesence of a 
dorsal vessel in the upper mesentery, the ventral trunk 
remaining as before. The thick layer of hypoderm ventcally 
has a furrow over the median nerve-cord, and this coat is- 
comparatively thin laterally and dorsally. The dorsal and 



, 



258 Prof. M'liitosli's Xofcsfrom the 

ventral mesenteries separate the muscles ot" the sides, but 
there is little to distiufjuish between the areas of the dorsal 
and the ventral muscles respectively. 

Proceeding backwai'd the epithelium ot" the gut becomes 
somewhat finer, the longitudinal muscles form a uniform 
laver all round without evident dillerentiation other than 
the attachment of the median mesenteries, and the hypoderm 
still remains thicker ventrally, whilst the blood-vessels and 
ova show no change. A gelatinoid (i)rotoplasmic) layer 
envelops the longitudinal muscles internally, the repre- 
sentative of the cojlomic epithelial layer. 

Then the intestine iu section shows a keel ventrally, and 
septal strands, apparently muscular, p;iss from it to the 
body-wall, making membranous (and partly muscular) septa 
to the latter, viz., one on each side of the gut. These septa, 
however, soon reach the dorsal region and become attached 
to a process from the dorsal wall of the gut on each side, 
the dilated (globular) region of the caiud being tilled with 
food below these, the ventral portion forming i. solid apex. 
The septa tend to mount upward, on the interior of the 
body-wall, leaving two great areas ventrally on each side of 
the canal and a narrow dorsal chamber above the septa. 
Finally, the septum disappears, leaving only a small vessel 
at the dorsal mesentery. Then a sinus again forms on the 
upper wall of the gut, the ova continue as in front, and 
tjjc section of the nerve-cord is more or less circular. 

Behind the former region the body-wall becomes somew hat 
tliiuner, the thickest region of the areolated hypoderm being 
the ventral. The nerve-area is comparatively large and ovoid. 
The basement-layer and, it may i)e, fine circular fibres occur 
internally, whilst the longitudinal muscular (ibres are only 
differentiated by the median mesenteries dorsally and ven- 
trally. The gut is large, with a firm external wall and a 
single layer of cylindrical epithelium, the nuclei being 
symmetrically ariangcd in the middle. No dorsal vessel 
is visible, but the frilled external wall of a sinus occurs 
laterally on the intestine. The venti'al blood-vessel is large 
and the mesenteiy leading to the ventral wall is loaded on 
each side with developing ova, the larger forms distending 
the coelomic cavity on each side (PI. IX. fig. 31). 

The tip of the tail is bilobed, with, iu addition, a ventral 
median semicircular lobe, and is richly ciliated (PI. X. fig. 32), 
a short terminal portion of the intestine being straight, the 
next (in front) being indicated by a slight constriction, whilst 
the third is almost elliptical, fi'om maiked cousti'ictions 
iu front and rear. In most cases, when removed from the 



Gatty Marine Laboratory^ St. Andrews. 259 

tubes after preservation, the caudal region is thrown into 
various zig-zags or spirals^ and the tufts of bristles are 
more conspicuous than in front. One or two of the terminal 
bristles are single on each side, those preceding being in 
groups of two, three, four, and five or more. In certain 
examples, in lateral view, the ventral process at the tip 
of the tail projects more than the dorsal, though, perhaps, 
irregularity of the dorsal lobes occasionally occurs. The 
arrangement of the septa is apparently on a similar plan 
to that in Oivenia, where they are very distinct. The 
septa in Myriochele probably cause the constrictions, and 
the tips of the lozenge-shaped sections of the intestine are 
fixed by membranous attachments to the body-wall. A 
pinnate aspect is apparently due to the blood collecting at 
the septa, where it was darkened by the stain (haematoxylin). 
The reproductive elements appear to be lodged on each side 
posteriorly, but their mode of exit has not been demon- 
strated. So far as could be made out, no pores were present 
posteriorly. 

In sagittal sections of the tail (PI. X. fig. 33) the 
constriction present a short distance from the tip appears 
to be normal, the gut being narrowed at this point and 
furnished with a valvular process projecting forward [val.p.). 
The terminal region of the body thus marked off is divided 
dorsally into five compartments by short transverse septa, 
on the anterior faces of which layers of blood occur, probably 
from extravasation, as no walls other than the septa are 
visible. The continuation of comparatively large intestinal 
sinuses almost to the tip of the tail, in addition to the ventral 
trunk, indicates their importance in the economy of the 
annelid, probably in connection with a respiratory function. 

The transverse sections of the extreme tip of the tail show 
a ring of hypoderm with a ventral gap (PI. X. fig. 34), on 
each side of which the wall is thickened, so that it is lobate. 
Moreover, a differentiation occurs in this lobate part, as if an 
aperture existed; but such may be due simply to the more 
vacuolated condition of the hypoderm of this region. The 
cells are larger than on the dorsal surface, and after the 
completion of the posterior aperture they form a distinct 
pale area on each side of the middle line (PI. X. fig. 35). 
The gut shows, almost before its closure, traces of the vascular 
sinus (PI. X. fig. 35, vs.) on each side, the blood in which had 
been rendered of a deep purplish-black hue by the action of 
haematoxylin ; and soon the ventral vessel appears, tlie lateral 
sinuses greatly increase in size, whilst ova are present between 
the ventral vessel and the b<idy-\vall, the nuclei in these being 



260 Piuf. M- In tosh's Notes from the 

deeply stained. The lateral sinuses leave onlj^ a small portion 
of the gut bare al)ove the ventral vessel in front of the fore- 
{joing sections, and the ova occupy the lateral regions, though 
their position is variable, for they by-and-by appear, as the 
body enlarges, belott' the alimentary canal and the vessels. 

Tiiefine san(l-tul)es of this form abound in such regions as 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and occasionally one end (the 
caudal) is terminated by a long tapering filament of the 
secretion covered with sand. 

The main feature in forms like the present is the partial 
differentiation of the nerve-tissue from the hypoderm with 
which it is in continuity at its centre. No sheath is evident 
anywhere, even in the more distinctly outlined nerve-cords 
posteriorly. Yet the position of the cephalic centre and its 
connection by two trunks with the ventral nerve-cord agree 
with the general type. The innervation of the alimentary 
canal seems to be carried out on a similar plan to that of the 
main system, viz., by contact with a sensitive layer rather 
than by special twigs, since thelattei" have not been met with 
in sections. The whole nervous apparatus, indeed, is in an 
elementary condition, and in marked contrast, for instance, 
with that of such highly differentiated types as Bispira and 
i?ra«c/yiow/»za, where a chordoid skeleton protects the central 
ganglia and the neuroglia is much developed, the whole 
central system being shielded by the tissues around it, and 
so in the brain of Glycera as described by Gravier*, in 
various ty[)es by Eisig, and in the ])rain o( Lapis as shown 
by Kilssou f. In Owenia and Myriochele the trunks from 
the central system are not oesophageal, bvit run externally 
in the hvpoderm to join the ventral cord. Both Owenia and 
Myriochele appear to have ceitain larval characters, as seen 
in the young of various polychaets, for instance, in Kleiuen- 
berg's X Lopadvrhynclius. in which, amongst other features, 
the nervous system of the gullet may approach that of the 
enigmatical pale layer in the vestibule of the present species. 
The structure of Saccocirru.-i, as given by Goodrich §, also 
presents certain analogous conditions. 

The alimentary canal of both Owenia and Myriochele 
shows certain valvular complexities, doubtless associated 
with the nature of their food — viz., mud or sandy mud con- 
taining organic particles of various kinds. Carried into the 

♦ Bull. Sc. Frauce et Belo-. t. xxxi. p. 159. 

t ' Beitrage der Keunt. des Nervensystenis der Polvchaeten,' Upsnla, 
]912. 

t ' Die Enstechnng des Aiinel. aus der Larva von Lopadorhynchuf,' 
1886. 

§ Op. cit. 



GaUij Marine Lahoratory, St. Andrews. 261 

vestibule by ciliary currents, it would in the first instance 
be subjected to the action of the oesophagus, then passed in. 
certain quantities into the stomach with its mobile glandular 
walls, and subsequently sent through the funnel-like muscular 
valve at the third septum into the intestine. The occurrence, 
moreover, of the valve-like folds towards the posterior end 
of the intestine in MyriocheJe , with the adjacent vascular 
apparatus, would seem to indicate sj)ecial functions there, 
both in regard to the contents of the gut and respiration. 

The central nervous system in Owenia and Mijriochele 
does not conform to the typical three regions of the able 
investigator Racovitza — viz., the paired " region palpaire " 
giving branches to the palpi, the unpaired "sincipital" 
giving branches to the eyes and tentacles, and the paired 
" nuchal " to the ciliated sensory grooves ; or to those 
of other authors of more recent date, the elementary con- 
dition, perhaps, being associated with the feebly developed 
and much modified prostomium, especially in Myriochele. 
Fui'ther, the contrast between the typical form with its 
circumoesophageal commissures is noteworthy, since the 
homologues of these are as much hypodermal as the central 
mass, for the nervous layer beneath the hypoderm of the 
vestibule essentially differs. 

Another feature of moment is the absence of distinct 
nephridia in both Owenia and Myriochele., the only repre- 
sentative of a tube communicating with the coelom and the 
exterior being Gilson's long hypodermic tube in the sixth 
segment, and which apparently is indicated in Delle Chiaje's* 
original figure as twozig-zag tubes bet ween two bristle-tufts; 
and the author was also acquainted with the long mucous 
glands and the general arrangement of the branchiae and 
their blood-supply. The addition of two eyes to one of the 
figures (2), with a pair of pinnate branchiae, is, however, 
more or less imaginary. 

Again, the general structure of Owenia and Myriochele, as 
representing thefamilyAmmocharid8e,gives small grounds for 
their association under the same suborder, as Prof. Benham 
in his earlier classifications f seemed to think, with the 
Spionidge and Chsetopteridae in his group Spionoformia, 
which really comprehends these only, since his Polvdoridse 
and Magelonidffi, of which separate families are made, can 
without undue laxity be placed under the Spionidae. Le- 
vinsen, indeed, had previously made a separate group for 

• Discriz. e Nat. degli Anim. Invert, pi. 175. figs. 1-5 (1841). 
t 'The Cambridge Natural History," vol. ii. p. '2h% (1896). 



•2G-2 Prof. M'liitosh's Notes from the 

his "Ammochariformia/' keeping under his " SyllicUformia 
Spioiiina'' the Spiouidie, Chietopteridce, Cirratulid*, Ari- 
ciidaj, Chlorocmidic (?), and OpheliidcC, an assemblage eveu 
more complex than that of Prof. 13enham. 

Explanation of the letters used in the figures. 

bi\ Blood-vessels. 
c. Central nervous system. 

cm. Circular muscular coat. 

c'ce, CoeloDi. 
cccl.c. Ccelomic corpuscles. 
dm. Dorsal longitudinal muscles. 

dv. Dorsal blood-vessel. 

ec. Special layer of gut and diaphragm. 
g. Gonads. 

hp. Ilypoderm. 

hpe. Thickened layer of hypoderm. 
int. Intestine. 

Ip. Lip-organ. 

m. ]\Ioulh. 
ing. Mucous glands. 
mp. Pore of mucous gland. 

7ic. Nerve-cord. 

oes. Oesophagus. 

ov. Ova. 
spt. Septum. 

St. Stomach. 
val.p. Valvular process of alimentary canal. 
vm. Ventral longitudinal muscles. 

vs. Vascular sinus. 

vr. Blood-vessels. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES *. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. ]. Transverse section of the anterior end of Oipewm/wszyb^v/u's, Delia 
Chiaje, to show the central nervous system (c). ??i., mouth, 
the lining of hypoderm also having a pale baud beneath it at 
me. The ventral gap in the body- wall is still open, x Zeiss 
oc. 2, obj. A. 

Fig. 2. More highly magnified view of the central nervous system, c, as 
part of the hypoderm, hp., cm. Circular muscular coat. 
X oc. 4, obj. D. 

Fig. 3. Transverse section after the completion of the body-wall in front 
and the appearance of the lip-organ Ip. nc, nerve-cord. 
X oc. 2, obj. A. 

Fig. 4. Section behind the foregoing. The vestibule is now contracting, 
and the lip-organ, Ip., is in full development, with its inner 
bifid region and more massive external part. x oc. 2, 
obj. A. 

* I am indebted to the Carnegie Trust for part of these figures. 



Gatty Marine Lahora'orij, St. Aivlreics. 2G3 

Fig. 5, The wall of the oesophagus, ces., as the sections proceed backward, 
is completed, aud various blood-vessels, vv., iucludiiig the 
dorsal trunk, dv., are prominent. The lip-oi'gan, Ip., presents 
a basal uiass with a central chink, and a regular arrangement 
of its tissue. X oc. 2, obj. A. 

Fif/. G. Vertical section of Oiwnmy«.sf/br»n5. «., the vestibule ; p., cen- 
tral nervous system ; Ip., lip-organ ; mg:, mucous gland ; S2)t., 
septum. The section is imperfect at x. X about 40 diam. 



Plate VIII. 

Fitj. 7. Transverse section behind the folds of the lip-organ and at the 
point where the tendinous transverse band, bt., and its lateral 
connections occur in the ventral region. X oc. 2, obj. A. 

Fig. 7 A. Transverse section indicating the condition of the parts of the 
luzenge-shaped tendinous region ventrally,. as its upper and 
outer edges differentiate into muscular fibres and strands 
pass into the fasciculi beneath. X oc. 2, obj. A. 

Fig. 8. Transverse section behind the foregoing, showing the diminishing, 
pale, elastic band, bt., and thecomplete condition of the ventral 
longitudinal muscles, inn. The stomachal region is surrounded 
by blood-vessels, bv. X oc. 2, obj. A. 

Fig. 9. Section in the line of the bristle-tuits with the opening of the 
mucous gland, mp. The stomacli is still surrounded by the 
various vessels and their mesenteries. A trace of the elastic 
system is seen in the muscular differentiation, inc., of the 
mid-ventral area. X oc. 2, obj. A. 

Fig. 10. The thickening of the dorsal and ventral walls of the stomach 
is conspicuous in this section (behind fig. 9). On the left is 
a bristle-tuft, bi: The median dorsal and ventral blood- 
vessels and their mesenteries, and the ducts of the mucous 
glands are seen on the way to the anterior. X oc. 2, obj. A. 

Fig. 18. Vertical section of the region of the collar, col., and the central 
nervous system, c, with the adjoining body-wall, X oc. 4, 
obj. L), with 2-inch draw-tube. 



Plate IX. 

Fig. 11. The body-wall has attained its general arrangement with the 
exception of the thickened lateral portions of hypoderm, hjje. 
The coilomic space is large, and the median dorsal mesen- 
tery is split inferiorly. The nerve-cords have now fused. 
X oc. 2, obj. A. 

Fig. 12. La this section, which is posterior to the preceding, the vertical 
elongation of the alimentary canal is noteworthy, and the 
accompanying vessels are still separate, though in some fusion 
is indicated. The ccelom has its corpuscles, and the mucous 
glands and their ducts are distinct, x oc. 2, obj. A. 

Fig. 13. Transverse section after a considerable interval backward from 
the foregoing, showing the great extent of the ventral longi- 
tudinal muscles, v)n., and the commencement of the male 
gonads, g., below the gut. The large area occupied by the 
intestine and its enveloping sinus is noteworthy. X oc. 2, 
obj. A. 



264 Prof. M'liitoali'.s 2\^otes from the 

Fig. 11. Section in front of the tail in a ripe male. The put is still 
enveloped in the spacioussinus, vs., with its dorsal and ventral 
mesenteries, and tlie coelomic cavity is loaded with sperms. 
Tlie jronads, f/., are large, as also is their hlood-snpply, hv., 
whilst the nerve-cord is smaller than in front. The arrange- 
ment of the muscles of the body-wall diverges from that in 
front, since tiie dorsal longitudinal muscles, dm., are thick- 
ened on eacli yide of the middle line, as are also the ventral 
above the ntu've-cord ; but in the figure the parts have been 
separated by the methods of technique. The iiooks, u., occur 
in numbers along the whole lateral region on each side, the 
bristle-tufts being shifted to the dorsal aspect, x oc. 2, 
obj. A. 

Fig. 15. Section through the characteristic arrangement of the caudal 
septa, spf., some distance behind tig. 14. The gonads, (/., in 
this region increase in size from before backward, and the 
free sperms lie in the cliamber above the upper septa. A 
transverse septum is seen below the gonads. The dorsal 
longitudinal muscles are thickest, whilst the ventral cover 
two-thirds of the body-wall. X oe. 2, obj. A. 

Fi^. 20. Peculiar pennate arrangement of the gelatinous tissue and 
glands of the hypoderm anteriorly. X oc. 4, obj. D, with 
full draw-tube. 

Fiff. 31. Transverse section of the posterior region in a female with well- 
developed ova, ov., which arise from the vascular ovigerous 
tissue ventrally, as in the male ; some are cut and others 
altered bj- compression. X 100 diani. 



Plate X. 

Fiff. 19. Longitudinal section showing the arrangement of the mucus in 
the mucous glands. X oc. 2, obj. 4. 

Fiff. 30. Section through the stomach after the blood-sinus, vs., around 
it is established. «?<7., mucous gland; Ay., blood-vessels. The 
median ventral furrow, niakin;r the organ bifid in section, has 
now disappeared. X lOU diam. 

Fiff. 32. Tip of the tail of Myrioi/iele protruding from a tube. Two 
dorsal papillae and a slightly more prominent ventral papilla 
occur posteriorly. The zig-zag condition of the gut in this 
region is indicated. X 60 diam. 

Fig. 33. Section of the tip of the tail of Myriuchele, showing the valvular 
apparatus, val.p., at the constriction of the body-wall, the 
septa, spt. The blood has been rendered opaque blackish 
b}' the haematoxylin u.'^ed in the teclinique, and apparently 
has accumulated at the septa. 

Fig. 34. Transverse section of Llie extreme tip of the tail of a female wit.h 
the modified areoLne of the hj^poderm, a larger area on each 
side being evident, x oc. 2, obj. D, with 1 inch of draw- 
tube. 

Fig. 35. Section of the tail a little in front of the foregoing, showing the 
large areolae of the hypoderm and the blood in the sinus, vs, 
around the gat. x oc. 2, obj. D, with 2-inch draw-tube. 



Gatty Marine Lahoratory, St. Andreios. 265 



Plate XI. 

Fiy. IG. Vertical section of one half of the anterior end of Oirenia fitsi- 
fonnis cutting the nerve-centre, c, across, and showing its 
relation to the sensory groove with its pigment-corpuscles 
on the anterior wall, in close relation t > the central nervous 
system. A fnid of the vestibule is seen at vt. x oc. 2, 
obj. A, with I -inch draw-tube. 

Fig. 22. Transverse section a little beliind the tip of the snout of ^fi/rio- 
chele on the appearance of the pale central nervous system, c, 
which becomes continuous with the nerve-cord on each side. 
The mottled condition of the h%-poderm anteriorly is charac- 
teristic of this form. X about 100 diani. 

Fig. 23. Horizontal section through the vestibule and three regions of 
the alimentary canal, viz., oes., oesophagus, st., .stomach, and 
ijit., intestine, spt., septa ; vol., valvular apparatus ; c, central 
nervous system ; bi\, blood-vessels, in some cases the dark 
blood (coloured by haematoxylin) has been pushed beyond 
the line of the vessel. X Zeiss oc. 4, obj. A, with l|-inch 
draw-tube. 

Fig. 25. In this section the cords are descending, being a little below the 
middle line, and the sides of the vestibule are now slightly 
imited. Dorsal and lateral blood-vessels are in a similar 
position to those in the foregoing figure. X 100 diam. 

Fig. 26. The body-wall is completed, as also is the vestibule. The 
nerve-cords, nc, are descending, and a section of the lip-organ, 
Ij); appears, x 100 diam. 



Plate XII. 

Fig. 17. Sagittal section of the anterior end, to illustrate the complex 
interlacing of the muscular fibres. The collar, col., and 
central nervous system, c, are seen on the left. X oc. 2, 
obj. A, with 1-inch draw-tube. 

Fig. 24. Transverse section before the completion of the body-waU. The 
nerve-centre, c, is well shown, and probably the lower ends 
represent the commencement of the nerve-cords. Blood- 
vessels, hv., occur both dorsalJy and laterally, x 100 diam. 

Fig. 27. In this section the outline of the body is slightly altered, the 
vertical exceeding the transverse diameter, oes., oesophagus 
with its cellular lining ; Ip., lip-organ and its radiate arrange- 
ment of cells ; bv., blood-vessels. The dorsal and ventral 
portions of the walls are much attenuated, partly from 
stretching. X 100 diam. 

Fig. 28. The diminution of the dorsal hypoderm and the increase of the 
ventral hypoderm are indicated in this figure, together with 
the great size of the oesophagus. The nerve-cords are 
approaching each other, x 100 diam. 

Fig. 29. Transverse section after the union of the nerve-cords, 7ic. The 
succeeding region of the canal is joining the oesophagus on 
the right, and two mucous glands, yng., are cut obliquely. 
X 100 diam. 

Ann. d) Maa. X. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 18 



26'5 IMi". C. G. Lamb on Exotic lleloniyzldtej cfcc. 



XX. — Sates on Exotic Heloinvzlclro, Sciomyzldfe, and 
Psilid^. By C. G. Lamb, Mi^A., B.Sc, Clare College, 
Cambridge. 

Helomyzidae. 

Helomyza, Fall. 

In the Wiener Ent. Zeit. for 1904 Czerny ciiticiilly 
examined all the species of this genus up to that date ; since 
then only about half a dozen species have been added, and 
hence the task of working out the specimens in the collections 
was much simplified. There was one well-known species 
and three new ones, one of the latter being very interesting 
as departing from the almost universal character of having 
extra costal bristles. 

Hdomyza 2ncta, Wied. 

S. EhODESIA : Chirinda Forest {G. A. K. Marshall, 
Camb. Coll.). 

There was a fair series of this handsome insect. It 
exhibits considerable sexual dimorphism. The sex described 
is the male, and it has the dorsum elegantly variegated in 
ochre and dark ochreous grey ; its femora are beautifully 
and regularly spindle-shaped, the mid pair less so, and they 
bear long dense hairs below. The female has a quite dark 
dull brown dorsum and scutellum, which exhibit oidy faint 
signs of the male marks ; the femora are normal, less haired, 
and the front ones have an anterior spine row — in fact, the 
sexual differences in the legs are like those of some Scato- 
jyhagaa. This type of Helomyzd is devoid of the upper 
patches carrying the orbital bristle.*, and also of the small 
ocellar triangle joined to these, which are usual in the Euro- 
pean forms; it has also pictured wings and swollen and hairy 
male femora ; this form seems to be typically African. 
(Speiser^ in his Kilimandjaro-Meru Expedition paper, describes 
two males of the same facies — //. acroleuca •Aud. 11. lacinata — 
and the next species also belongs to this section. 

Helomyza tngens, sp. n. 

A single male of the picla group was present ; it is larger 
and more stoutly built than that species. 

Head (top view) : — Frons and antennae entirely yellow to 
orange, in front a little darker, with microscopic hairs and 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Helom jzida.^, cCc. 2G7 

iireoular reddish patclies, but witli no sig-n of dark or black- 
ened spots except the usual hairy neck-spot, an excessively 
faint large spot behind the vibrissa, and the browiiisli-red 
ocellar spot; the antenna has a darkish flaj>ellum with very 
loiio- hairs, and the tliird joint has its absolute ridge red. 
Siiie-view : — Jowls, palpi, tongue (also the lace) all yellow ; 
hind head and lower side bristly as usual ; vibrissa very 
strong ; eyes rather rectangularly oval, with long axis 
vertical ; jowls about as deep as breadth of third joint of 
antenna. 

Thorax: dorsum dull dark coflfee-brown, except the much 
lighter callus and front of dorsum ; the light part quickly 
merges into the dark just as the true dorsum begins ; two 
dark lines start near the neck, and continue right over the 
dorsum, but are necessarily very faint on the dark part ; 
between them, and also along the d. c. lines, are two faint 
narrow lines showing up more ochreous than the rest. Scu- 
tellum flat, slightly shining, quite bare, with a few tiny ridge- 
hairs between end- and side-bristles. All the macrociisetes 
are long, but slender for the size of the insect ; side above the 
notopleural suture from the callus rather brown and shining, 
below the pleura is as dark as dorsum, though a little more 
shining ; mesopleura absolutely bare ; metanotura dull, more 
grey ; all bristles normah 

Wings daikened, the costal bristles stout and about fifteen 
in nuniber from end of vein 1, ceasing about level of hind 
cross-vein. The general colour o£ the wing is brown ; from 
the end of 1 to the tip a daiker brown covers the wing up to 
about the middle of the cubital cell ; the distal part of this 
extra darkening extends across the wing ; the basal parts of 
veins 3 and 4 are included in another darkened area, the 
small cross-vein and neighbouring parts of 3 and 4 iu 
another, and the hind cross-vein and near parts of 3 in yet 
another ; there are clear " windows " between the veins at 
the base, and the usual "window" just distal of the anal 
cell shows very brightly ; the absolute costa between ends of 
2 and 4 is pale ochreous, but otherwise all the veins are 
brown. Halteres clear white. 

Legs : feaiora all elegantly s])indled, mid less so than others, 
with long profuse blackish hairs at sides and below. Colour : 
all coxae and trochanters orange, more or less darkened, all 
femora shining black, all tibise orange, front with black tip, 
hind suffused; all with lojig hairs below, which are ex- 
cessively long on distal half of middle tibia; all tarsi orange, 
the last joints daik ami first joint of middle one with very 
long hairs. Bristles : — front femur a superior row of about 7, 

lb* 



2(38 Mr. 0. G. Lamb oii Exotic Heloniyzklse, &c. 

tibia with a distal anterior row of 3; mid tibia with crown 
of about 4, tlie inner very lono- ; hind femur with irregular 
rows anteriorly totallino- 10 to 12 bristles ; all tibise with usual 
preapicals, hind ones with small inner spur. 

Abdomen pitcliy black, except at the scutellar angles of 
the first segment ; hypopygium not Large, very hairy. 

Size 8^ mm. 

British E. Africa: Kenia Forest (7. /. Anderson, Imp. 
Bur. Ent.). 

The following species are of the normal European form, 
with well-marked upper vertical patches and ocellar triangle, 
and with simple legs. Ijoth belong to the section with long- 
liiiired arista and quite bare mesopleura. 

Helomyza balteata, sp. n. 

Head (top view) : — Frons dullishorange and hairy, brighter 
and bare in narrow lines on each side of the ocellar triangle 
and along a mid line to the front ; the upper vertical patches 
and the ocellar triangle sharply bounded, grey, the former 
with a pointed tip and only touching eyes just on vertex ; 
hind head orange, with well-marked trapezoidal spot from 
neck to vertex; all bristles normal. Face smooth, orange. 
Side view : — Eyes rather elongate-oval, with the long axis 
in the line joining outer vertical to the protuberant mouth- 
angle ; the latter is covered with a large dark patch, the rest 
of face &c. being orange ; antenna orange, arista black, with 
long and strong pectination, stout slightly orange basal joints ; 
long vibrissa with a small companion below; depth of jowl 
about equal to breadth of third joint ; hind head orange and 
bristly. Palpi orange, with slightly infuscate tip ; tongue 
orange. 

Thorax : dorsum almost uniformly dull ochreous brown, 
the tiny black bristles looking like a close regular pui)ctation ; 
a very faint pair of median lines between the d. c. bristles, 
which stand on browni spots ; callus grey ; scutellura as thorax, 
but a little paler centrally on disc and on the absolute tip, 
quite bare and flat, with a few tiny hairs between main 
bristles ; pleura orange above, merging to yellow below, 
dull; mesopleura quite bare; metanotum dark, somewhat 
shining orange. 

Wing with about nine stout spines from end of vein 1 to 
about level of hind cross-vein ; suffused, the darkening being 
more intense from costa to just over second vein ; both cross- 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic IlelonijziJsp, cCc. 269 

veins well and broadly suffused ; veins brown. Halteres 
orange. 

Legs : colour all orange, except that the hind knees and 
all the last tar.^al joints are brown, and the tibise have tips 
browned. Bristles : — front femur with usual upper row and 
inferior hairs ; mid femur with anterior row of 3 on distal 
third ; hind femur with 5 bristles, three form an anterior 
superior row, the last of these and two others, one above the 
other, form a triangle ; usual tibial preapicals. 

Abdomen orange, each segment witli a black band based 
on distal margin, narrow at side and broadening to middle, 
with rather indistinct boundary there, so that the appearance 
is like an indistinct mid-line with distinct side-teeth ; genital 
segment orange, except extreme tip, which is black. 

(Size 7 mm. 

S. Rhodesia: Chirinda Forest {G. A. K. Marshall, 
Camb. Coll.). 

Helomyza aspinosa, sp. n. 

This large species is quite aberrant, inasmuch as the 
characteristic costal spines are not to be seen ; they aie 
apparently so short as to merge in the general costal bristle- 
border, wliich is more strongly developed than usual. The 
venation is quite normal, as is the complete chsetofaxy in 
every respect. In broad facies the insect is not quite typical 
of the genus, but looks rather like a Dryomyzid. The 
absence of costal bristles is even more marked than is appa- 
rently the case in the aberrant genus Thyreophorella, if one 
may judge by the figure of the same. 

Head (top view) : — All dull orange, darkened a little in 
front, black-haired, especially in front; the usual short hind 
eye-borders and conjoined ocellar triangle are somewhat 
paler, as is the hind head; the neck-spot is more orange and 
a little silvery. Face orange, a little darker over lip. Side- 
view : — All orange, including theantennal third joint (which 
is, however, brown on its absolute edge), arista (with very 
long hairs), the hairy palpi, and the tongue; a long vibrissa, 
with a few short neighbours below. 

Thorax : dorsum dull reddish brown, a little darker in 
front and lighter on side from d. c. lines to pleura ; two 
indistinct blackened lines run along the d. c. rows, with a 
similar indistinct line outside from about the level of cross- 
suture. Scutellum similar on the disc, which is quite flat 
and bare, with a few tiny hairs between the main bristles 
along tiie edge. Pleura (including callus and notopleura) 



270 Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Helom^'z'ulffl, dye, 

briji^litisli orango, as are the sides of the sciitellum and the 
nietiiiiotuin ; a darkened stripe runs from tlie end of the 
calhis to tlie wing-base ; the mesoplenra is ab?oh\tely bare. 

\Vings quite normal, except as described above, somewhat 
suffused, especially costally ; veins brown, more orange at 
base. 

Legs normal. Colour : all yellow, except for tiny side- 
spots on the tij)S of middle and hind femora ; froiit and hind 
tarsi with all joints suffused, middle with last joint black, 
Bristles : front femur with dorsal row of 6 and hairy below, 
middle femur with anterior row of 3 or 4, shaggy below, 
tibia with a crown and shaggy below; hind femur with 
sn})erior row of 4 on distal half, rather haired below ; all 
tibial with usual preapical. 

Abdomen pitchy black, with basal segment more orange^ 
sides of all segments (exce))t the last) and the venter orange, 
genital segment black ; all segments with border-bristles, 
very long on the sides. 

Size 9y, wing 8^ mm. 

S. Rhodesia : Chirinda Forest {G, A. K. Marshall, Camb. 
Coll.). 

SciomyzidaB. 
Sepedon', Latr. 

In the Ann. Mus. Nat. Hong. vol. ix. (1911) p. 26G, 
Hendel published a paper on this genus, bringing tiie species 
from Asia and Africa up to date ; since then only one species 
I'as been added. The paper is conservative in treatment, and 
clears up the confusion existent in the species as well as may 
be. No references are given here, as the above paper is 
used in what follows. 



Seped»n violaceus^ Hend. 
India : Colmbatore. 

Sepedon lobiferus, Hend. 

A nice series of this interesting form was in the Cam. Coll. 
under the name j.avanicus^ R. 1). The insect was hitherto 
only known from Formosa, and its occurrence in the Hima- 
layan district is of interest. 

India : Showali, Kumaon. 



Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Helomyzlcl.ic, &c. 271 

There are two species in the Cam. Coll. from Africa. 
Speiser, in l)is paper on tlie Kilimandjaro-Meru Expedition 
(x. 5, pp. 168j 1G9), describes the species trichooscelis and 
argyrosteihus ;. Hendel considers that the former is a syno- 
nym of ornatifrons, Adams, the latter most probably of sene- 
galensis, Macq. ; the author had independently come to the 
same conclusion. Both of Speiser's species were founded on 
single damaged specimens, and in the case of this genus that 
procedure is especially hazardous. 

Sepedon ornatifrons, Adams. 

A fair series is in the Camb. Coll., showing quite perceptible 
degrees of variation. 

S. Ehodesia : Chirinda Forest {G. A. K. Marshall, Camb. 
Coll.). 

Sepedon senegalensiSf Macq. 
Natal : Durban (F. Muir, Camb. Coll.). 

PsilidaB. 
Chyliza, Fall. 

There are two specimens from Ceylon whicli do not agree 
with any of the known Oriental species ; in general appear- 
ance they are very like C. leptogaster. 

Chyliza palli'dipes, sp. n. 

Head (top view) : — The eye-borders black and somewhat 
shining, about ^ of total frontal width, extending from 
vertex nearly to front, but narrowing sharply in front ; the 
wider part of the frons lying between these anterior narrowed 
parts is bright but dull yellow, the rest is brown ochreous, 
but the long ocellar triangle is a little shining and its base 
and the absolute vertex are rather shining orange ; the whole 
head is covered with tiny golden pubescence ; the bristles as 
in C. leptogaster, but stouter in proportion. Face yellow, but 
the lower half of the antennal pit is shining black ; the 
narrow lower eye-margins slightly silvery. (Side view : — 
Antenna with deep black basal joints and orange third, 
wdiich is just perceptibly suffused on its edge ; arista pale 
brown, with widely bipectinate flagellum, the total breadth of 
the pectination being about equal to the breadth of third ; 
palpi deep black, tongue yellow. Hind head entirely shining 



272 Mr. C. G. Lamb on Exotic Helomyzid^e, ttr. 

black above, bliick below, but wi.lcly bordered witli yellow, so 
that liiiid jowls and niouth-margiu are all that colour; eyes 
like C. leptogaster, with sinuate hind mar<2,in. 

Thorax : dor.^um ?ubsliiiiing black, with uniform shallow 
minute shagreening ; entirely covered with elegant pale 
yellow hairs, except for two lines, confluent in front and 
abbreviated about halfwaj^, which are bare (these are best 
seen with oblique light); the dorsum is much like lepto- 
gaster. Pleura like the dorsum in front, but with silvery 
white hairs, longest below ; the sclerites over the hind leg 
are all smooth, hairless, and very shining; just over the 
callus is a rather bright orange narrow bar, and a dark orange 
one is just visible on the top of the sternopleura. Scutellum 
all rather shining orange, bristled as in leptogaster. 

Wings slightly smoky, especially broadly so at tip between 
costa and vein 4 ; the latter is parallel to 5 up to about its 
distal titth, when it makes a sudden slight bend upwards; 
veins brown, extreme base of wing orange. Haltere with 
snow-white head and slightly browni-h stalk. 

Legs all pale straw-coloured, a little whiter proximally on 
the femora, with no sign of any rings or darkening. 

Abdomen like the thorax in colour and punctation, but the 
liairs are brownish ; the shape is more wasp-like than in 
leptogciiter. 

Size 5 mm. 

Ceylon : Peradeniya {A. Rutherford, Lnp. Bur. Ent.). 

LOXOCERA, Mg. 

In the Kilimandjaro-Meru Expedition Reports (x. 5, p. 1 93) 
Speiser gives a table of the known African members of this 
geims. Of these, L. dispar, Bezzi, is apparently quite 
distinct, having a black triangle, sternopleura, and front 
femora. He separates the others on the presence or absence 
of thoracic stripes and their position: thus, L. rvfa, Loew, 
is given as stripeless, L. lateralis, Lw., and L. viacrogrammuy 
Speiser, are striped in different ways. 

In the Camb. Coll. are eleven specimens of a red Loxocera 
of the latter group. They are evidently closely related, and, 
apart from thoracic marks, differ only in the degree of undu- 
lation of the fourth vein between the cross-veins, and the angle 
between the last cross-vein and the fifth ; in such cases 
where the veins are wavy or bent (as is the cross-vein here 
concerned) the angle in question and the amount of curvature 
of the veins is always a little uncertain. Apart from this 
and the colour of the thorax, neither of which are correlated 



071 Hyule grenfelli, Chilton. 273 

witli one another nor witli the sex, no structural difference is 
apparent. Now tlie thoracic dorsum varies greatly ; of tlie 
seven males, one is clear red (typical rufa), one has side-lines 
just in front of the scutellum, one has side-lines complete but 
no middle one (tliis is typical macrogramma by comparison 
with Speiser's full description), one lias side-lines and a faint 
middle one in front, one has all these lines well marked, one 
has all the lines broad and even confluent at the middle of 
the disc, and anotiier has the lines reddisli but a little dark 
behind. Of tiie four females, one is quite immaculate, one 
has only the faintest trace of the lines in red, one has the 
lines all present but faint, the last has all present and very 
strong. The author is quite sure that Speiser's macro- 
graniina is a dark-lined form of rvfa. As regards the two 
species of Loevv (j-vfa and lateralis), some doubt may arise. 
Loevv evidently had single specimens only (i-ufa is described 
from a ? , lateralis from a ^ ; see B. E. Z. 1874, xliv. 
p. 194). The main difference appears to be dark flecks in 
the antennal pits in the latter species and (possibly) less 
hairy arista. It is impossible to be sure of the true distinct- 
ness of these three species, and hence the author considers all 
the red Loxoceras with entirely black third joint to be L. rufa^ 
Loew. 

8. Rhodesia: Salisbury and Chirinda Forest {G. A. K. 
Marshall, Camb. Coll.). Natal : Durban {F. J/u«V, Gamb. 
Coll.). 



XXI. — Further JSotes on the New Zealand Amphipod Hyale 
grenfelli, Chilton. 13y Chas. Chilton, M.A., D.Sc, 
M.B., CM., LL.D., e;.M.Z.S., Professor of Biology, 
Canterbury College, New Zealand. 

In May 1916 ^ I described a new species of Amphipod from 
New Zealand, naming it Hyale grenfelli. Tlie type-specimen, 
which was the only specimen at that time known, was a 
male, and was ciiaracterized by the peculiar shape of the 
second gnathopod and by the great dilatation and setose 
character of the terminal joints ot the maxillipeds. I pointed 
out that it was quite likely that this peculiar development of 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xvii, p. 362. 



274 



Prof. C. Cbilton on 



the maxillipeJs would be found in tlie male on\y, and was 
piobaMv to be looked upon as a secondaiy sexual character. 
On Dc^ccmber 12tli, lOlG, I received from Mr. C. R. Gow, 
of the Moko Hinou Lighthouse, a small collection of Crus- 
tacea which had been taken between tide-marks on Moko 
Hinou, a group of islands ofiE tiie east coast of Auckland, 
situated about 50 miles from Cuvier Island, where the type- 
specimen was obtained. Among these Crustacea there are 
lortunately a few sj)ecimens of IlyaJe grenfelH. Most of 
these are males, showing the peculiar characters in the 
maxillipeds and the second gnathopod as described. One 



Fig. 1. 




Hyale grenfelli, $ . Maxillipeds. 



specimen is a female, 5 mm. long, bearing five large eggs in 
the brood-pouch, and I am therefore now able to describe the 
characters of the female. In it the maxillipeds (fig. 1), 
though, perhaps, a little larger than in the majority of the 
species of Hyale, have the terminal joints oidy slightly 
enlarged, and not showing the special form nor the numerous 
long seta3 characteristic of the male ; the carpus bears one 
long seta at its outer distal angle and a few on the inner 
margin near the distal angle, but there are none on the 
surface of the joint itself ; in the propod the inner margin 



Hyale grenfcllij CJiiUon. 



275 



bears a vpsfular vow o£ Ions setre and tliere are two rows on 
the surface near the outer distal end, lying more or less 
parallel to the distal border, and proximal to these there is 
one short row of four or five setas and a single seta situated 
still more proxiinally ; tbe dactyl is small, very much nar- 
rower than the propod, and bears at the end a long, stout, 
curved seta which is proportionately much more prominent 
than the corresponding seta on the dactyl of the male. It 
will be seen that the maxilliped in the female presents the 
ordinary characters common to allied species of Hi/ale, and 
that its terminal joints show none of the numerous transverse 

Fi-. 2. 




Ilyale grenfelli, 5 • First gnathopod. 



rows of long fine setoe on the surface that are so charac- 
teiistic of the male. 

In the gnathopoda the first pair (fig. 2) are, on the whole, 
similar to those of the male, but more slender ; the side-plate 
is large, produced a little anteriorly, so that it is widest 
below ; the carpus bears a fringe of setge on its posterior 
margin, as in the male, the propod is much more slender 
than the corresponding joint in the male, only widening very 
slightly distally, and its posterior border bears only a small 
tuft or short row of setaj near the centre instead of having 
nearly the whole of the margin fringed with a row of setse as 



27G 



On Ilvale g-ronEcUi, CJi'tlton. 



in the male. The second gnathopod (fig. 3) is almost exactly 
the same as the first, but is very slightly lar<;er, and the 
side-plate differs in being reguhuly rectanguhir and not 
widening below ; the other joints of the appendage show no 
differences from the first worthy of notice. 

Jn other characters the female closely resembles the male. 

Nearly all the males are apparently fairly well developed, 
and show the characters of the second gtiathopod and the 
maxillipeds nearly as originally described. In one which is 

Fiff. 3. 




Hyale yrenfelli, 5 . Second guathopod. 



about 5 mm. in length the terminal joints of tlie maxilliped 
are rather less expanded and not quite so setose, and in the 
second gnathopod the propod is not so wide, the palm is more 
oblique and much less concave, being nearly straight or only 
slightly concave, and its outer and inner borders are less 
widely separated ; the dactyl, however, is short and fairly 
s^out, almost as in the typical male. Doubtless in still 
younger specimens of the male these appendages would show 
the characters of the male to a still less extent and be more 
like those of the female. 



On new Lizards of the Family Lacertldoe. 



277 



I 



XXII. — Descriptions of new Lizards of the Family Laceitidse. 
By G. A. Boulenger; F.R.S. 

(PuLlished by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Lacerta viridis, var. woosnami. 

Head comparatively short, its width If to 1\ times in its 
length. Occipital ^ to f the length of the interparietal, not 
or but slightly broader than the latter ; 2 to 8 granules 
between the supraoculars and the superciliaries ; temple with 
12 to 20 shields, with a large or very large masseteric, which 
may extend from the upper temporal to the upper labials, 

FiiT. 1. 





Upper and side views of head. 

the tympanic well developed and usually in contact with the 
upper temporal. Dorsal scales rhombic and strongly keeled, 
considerably larger than the laterals; 38 to 43 scales across 
the middle of the body. Ventral plates in (3 longitudinal and 
24 to 2^^ transverse series. 17 to 20 femoral pores ou each 

Fig. 2. 





Lepidosis of middle of body. 



278 3[r. G. A. Bouleuger on new 

side. 25 to 27 lamellar scales under the fourth toe. Green 
or olive-grey above, uniform or with small black spots, 
sparsely scattered on the back, more crowded on the sides, 
sometimes (in a single female) forming a regular vertebral 
series ; upper surface of head uniform green, olive, or brown ; 
lower parts yellow, greenisii, but not blue, on the throat and 
on the sides of the belly. Young brown or olive, with three 
Avhite longitudinal streaks on the back, traces of which may 
be preserved in the adult; black spots may be present 
between them ; a white streak on each side of the neck, 
from the tympanum, continued on each side of the body 
or breaking up into two series of round spots; another white 
line along each side of the belly. 

From snout to vent, ^ 102 mm., ? 95 ; tail, S 100, 
? 207. 

This form connects the vav. strigata with the typical 
L. viridis, and especially the oriental specimens on which 
the name var. vaillanti, Bedr., has been bestowed, agreeing 
with the latter in the temporal scutellation and the reduction 
in the number of superciliary granules, with the former in 
the presence of a light vertebral streak in the young ; it 
differs from both in the lepidosis of the body, in respect 
to which it approaches L. 2)nncepi. 

This variety is described from eight specimens obtained 
by the late Mr. R. B. Woosnam on the South Coast of the 
Caspian Sea, and from one young obtained by Mr. R. T. 
Giinther at Bash Nurashin, N.W. Persia, which I liad 
referred to the var. strigata (Jouru. Linn. Soc. xxvii. 1899, 
p. 378). 

Ichiiotropis tanganicana. 

Form and lepidosis as in /. capensis. Smith, but upper 
head-shields rather feebly striated and the four super- 
ciliaries in contact with the four supraoculars, oidy 3 or 4 
small granules intervening between the second and third 
superciliaries and the supraoculars, and lower nasal but 
narrowly in contact with the rostral. 3G scales and plates 
round the middle of the body ; ventral ])lates in 8 longi- 
tudinal and 25 transverse series. 11 or 12 femoral pores on 
each side. 19 lamellar scales under the fourth toe. Bronzy 
olive above, with a few small transverse blackish spots in 
three longitudinal series on the nape and two on the body; 
a black streak from the nostril to the eye, and another on 
the edge of the mouth ; a white, black-edged streak from 



Lizards of the Familij LacertiJfe. 270 

below tlie eye, through the ear, to above tlie axil; white, 
black-edged ocellar spots on the posterior part of the back, 
on the hind limbs, and on the tail ; lower parts white. 

From snout to vent 38 ram. 

This species, which I regard as the most primitive of the 
genus, as it is also the northernmost in its habitat, is based 
on a single male specimen, probably half-grown, from the 
East Coast of Lake Tanganyika, presented to the British 
Museum by Mr. W. H. Nutt in 1896. 

Eremias adramitana. 

Head and body strongly depressed, limbs very slender ; 
liead 1^ times as long as broad ; snout pointed, with the 
nasal sliields rather strongly swollen, as long as broad, as 
long as the postocular part o£ the head ; hind limb reaching 
between the collar and the ear in males, the shoulder or 
the collar in females ; foot Ig- to 1^ times as long as the 
head ; toes slender, feebly compressed ; tail 1| to 2^ times 
as long as head and body. Lower eyelid with a semi- 
transparent disk divided into 5 to 8 scales. Lepidosis as in 
E. guttulala, but occipital minute or absent, the parietals 
meeting in the middle, and ventral plates in 10 regular 
longitudinal series, mostly as long as broad or a little 
broader than long, the outer longer than broad. 31 to 40 
scales across the middle of the body. 11 to 15 femoral 
pores on each side. Subdigital lamellee tricarlnate, 20 to 23 
under the fourth toe. Fawn-coloured or pale grey above, 
with or without small brown spots, whicli may be irregular 
or disposed in two longitudinal series on the back, with or 
without small whitish spots ; a dark brown lateral band, 
often bearing white spots, from behind the eye to the tail, 
bordered below by a white or yellowish lateral streak passing 
tln'ough the tympanum ; upper surface of limbs marbled 
with brown, or with white spots ; lower parts white. 

From snout to vent 44 mm. 

This species has been confounded with E. brevi'rostrift, 
Blanf., of which the Syrian J^. hernoulli, iSchenkel, is a 
synonym, by Anderson, ' Herpetology of Arabi;i,' p. 43 
(189G). It diiiers in the more depressed head, longer in 
proportion to its width, the more slender limbs, and the ventral 
])lates constantly in ten longitudinal series. It is oidy known 
from the Hadramut, South Arabia, whilst E. hrevirostris is 
on record from Kalabagh in the Punjab, Bushire in Persia, 
Tumb Island in the Persian Gulf, and Syria. 



280 On a new Dat of the Genus Scotgecus. 



XXIII. — .4 nexo Bat of the Genus Scotaecus. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permissiou of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Among a series of well-prepared skins from Nyaaaland 
presented to the National Museum by Mr. Rodney C. Wood, 
tiiere occur examples of several rare bats, notably Myotis 
ivehvitschii and hocngei, Glaucomjcteris papih'o, Eptesicus 
viegalurus, and a Scotcecus which appears to be new. The 
last may be called 

Scotcecus woodif sp. n. 

Near S. albofuscus of the Gambia, but smaller. 

Size about the smallest of the genus. General colour 
above dark brown (near mummy-brown), the tips of the 
liairs paler brown ; under surface little paler, near Prout's 
brown. Wings coloured as in S. albofuscus^ the forearms, 
digits, hind limbs, and tail blackish, the membranes internal 
to a line from elbow to knee, and the interfemoral dark 
brown, those external to forearms dull whitish, rather darker 
terminally. Ears short, with large external basal lobe ; 
tragus short and broad, its inner margin slightly concave. 

Skull short and stumpy, of the characteristic broad shape 
usual in the genus, the hicrymal breadth even greater than 
in aS'. albofuscus. Nasal notch very deep. Median part of 
zygoma absent in type. 

Incisors slender, their bases not touching the canines. 
Canines broadened transversely, their basal area broader 
than long, and flattened behind, close and parallel to the 
front edge of the large premolar ; no small premolar or place 
for it present. 

Dimensions of the type (the italicized measurements taken 
in the fle.sh) : — 

Forearm 28'5 mm. 

Head and body 56 mm. ; tail 21 ; ear 12. 

Third finger, metacarpus 28, first phalanx 10, second 
phalanx 8 ; lower leg and hind foot (c. u.) 17*5. 

Skull: greatest length 13'2 ; median upper length 11; 
basi-sinual length 9"8 ; greatest breadth 10'3 ; lacrymal 
breadth 6*7 ; niastoid breadth 9'1 ; palato-sinual length 4*5; 
front of canine to back of m^ 4*9. 

Hah. Southern Nva?aland. Type from Chiromo ; alt. 
200'. 



On a new Species of Aconsemys. 281 

Ti/pe. Adult male. B.M. no. 17. 2. 1. 1. Original num- 
ber 173. Collected 2nd October, 1916, and presented by 
Rodney C. Wood, Esq. 

This species may be disfin^'ui^lied from ifs only close, 
tlioiii^h geographically very distant, ally S. alhofuscus hy its 
smaller size, proportionally even broader skull, and the 
different shape of tlie base of its canines. The other members 
of the genus ail have uniformly brown win2;-membranes. 

I may note that of twelve skulls of ScoUecus, including 
examples of all the described species, only two have com- 
plete zygomata, although all iiave been prepared by that 
most skilful skull-cleaner Mr. W. Sherrin. Imperfection or, 
at least, excessive tenuity of the zygoma would therefore 
appear to be an additional character of the p^enus Srotfucus. 
Of forty skulls o'i Scoteinuf similarly prepared by Mr. Sherrin, 
nearly all have perfect, although very slender, zygomata. 



XXIY. — A new Species of Acousdmys from Southern Chili. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The British Museum has recently received from IMr. J. A. 
WolfFsohn a specimen of the rare genus Aconcemys {Schizodon, 
Waterh.) which had been presented to him by the well-known 
naturalist Don (>arlos E. Porter. The species proving to 
be new, I propose to name it in honour of tlie latter, to whom 
the Museum has been indebted for help in various ways. 

Aconcemys porter i, sp. n. 

Fur more woolly than in A. fuscus; tail more completely 
bicolor; incisors stouter. 

Size about as in A. fuscus ox rather smaller. Fur soft, 
more woolly, less straight than in A. fuscus, the general 
texture and the colour both suggesting that of a European 
water-vole {Arvicola amphihius). General colour deep rich 
brown, near " auburn " of Ridgway, the subterminal rings on 
the hairs dull cinnamon. Under surface similar but vatlier 
warmer in tone, the etids of the hairs rich cinnamon. Hands 
and feet greyish white, the middle part of the metatarsus 
rather darker. Tail rather longer than in A. fuscus and 
completely bicolor, black above and creamy whitish below for 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hut. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 19 



282 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell — Descriptions and 

its whole length ; in A. fu.<fcnf< the terminal part of the 
under surface is brown. 

Skull apparently somewhat smaller than in A. fuscus, but 
the age of the type is not very certainly determinable. An- 
terior part narrower, the breadth between the outer corners 
of the anteorbital foramina and the interorbital breadth both 
distinctly less. 

Incisors very stout and heavy, decidedly thicker tlian in 
specimens of A. fuscus of apparently similar age. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Tail (vertebra in skin) 64; hind foot (dry) 28. 

Skull: tip of nasals to back of frontals 28'5 ; greatest 
breadth 23; nasals 15 x 6'3 ; interorbital breadth 7*5 ; breadth 
between outer corners of anteorbital foramina 17*6 ; palatilar 
length 16'2 ; front of incisors to back of m^ 21'5 ; upper 
tooth-row (crowns) 8*4 ; combined breadth of upper in- 
cisors 4* 7. 

Hab. Osorno, S. Chili. 

Type. Adult. BM. no. 16. 11. 14. 4. Presented by Don 
Carlos E. Porter to Mr. J. A. Wolffsohn. 

The British Museum contains eleven specimens of Aco- 
ncemys fuscus, received at different dates from Mr. T. Bridges, 
but whether all were from the '* Valle de Las Cuevas, on the 
east side of the Andes, near the Volcano of Peteroa, altitude 
6000'," where Mr. Bridges discovered the species, there is, 
unfortunately, no evidence to show. But all agree in tlie 
characters used above in separating the southern form, which 
is probably an inhabitant of the higli slopes on the Volcano 
of Osorno, some little distance from the town of the same 
name. 

Since the time of Mr. Bridges no examples of this genus 
have come to the British Museum, nor has our indefatigable 
correspondent Mr. Wolffsolm been able to see or hear of any. 
Consequently this additional specimen, representing a second 
and more southern species of the genus, is an extremely 
welcome accession. 



XXV. — Descriptions and Records of Bees. — LXXIV. 
By T. D. A. COCKKRELL, University of Colorado. 

All the bees recorded in the present part are in the U.S. 
National Museum. 

Audrena hir/uhrescens, n. n. 
Andrena Ivguhris, Lepeletier, 1841 (not Erichson, 1840). 
S .— Belvidcre, Tunis, May 10, 1899 (P. Magretii). 



BecorJs of Bees. 283 

This is like the male of .i. alhopuncfata, Rossi^ but has the 
abdomen sliining, iireo^ularly wrinkled, and with scattered 
minute piliferous punctures, so it is doubtless the male of 
A. luguhris, described by Lepeletier from the female only. 

Length about 12 mm. 

Process of labrum prominent, shining, truncate, slightly 
emargiuate ; first recurrent nervure joining second sub- 
marginal cell distinctly before the middle. 

The name higubris is preoccupied, so lugubrescens is pro- 
posed as a substitute. 

Andrena cussariensis, Morawitz. 

? .— Kohiit, N.W. Provinces, India, March 190G {FraiiJc 
Benton). 

Superficially this looks like A. morio, which Bingliam 
records from the Simla hills ; but it is certainly distinct from 
morio, and, as far as can be gathered from Morawitz's quite 
full description, agrees well with cussariensis. The abdomen 
has very fine punctures, and the process of labrum is much 
narrower than in morio. The species is more closely allied 
to A. ephippium. 

Andrena cussariensis kohatensis, var. nov. 

$ . — Length about 14*5 mm. 

Scutellum and broad bands at sides of mesothorax terra- 
cotta red. 

Ilah. Koliat, India, March 1906 {Frank Benton). 

This variety suggests comjjarison with A. ephippium, 
Spin., to which it is closely allied. It differs from ephippium 
by the narrower thorax, the scutellum much narrower, and 
less closely punctured on disc ; the flagellura only very 
obscurely reddish beneath, the shorter fourth antennal joint, 
the less strongly sculptured area of metathorax, and the 
broad hind margin of first abdominal segment excessively 
finely punctured, abruptly contrasting with the rest of the 
segment. The hair of hind legs is entirely black. 

Siiould comparison of specimens indicate that this species 
is to be separated from A. cussariensis, it may be known as 
A. kohatensis. 

Andrena chioriospila, sp. n. 

? . — Superficially exactly like A. alhopuncfata, Rossi 
(specimen from Ras-el-Ma, Algeria, compared), but differing 
thus : — Antennae shorter ; process of labrum, although very 

ID* 



284 ^Ir. T. D. A. Cockerell — Descrypt'ions and 

bioail, not so broad ; area of metathorax smaller, less ruG^ose; 
punctures of abdomen conspicuously more feeble and less 
dense; white liair-patclies at sides of abdomen larger. 

^ . — Very like the female, except in the usual sexual 
characters ; head very broad ; region of mouth, sides of face, 
and rt?gion of antennae with long black hair, but face otiierwisp, 
with long white hair, which is dull, not clear white as in ? ; 
cheeks broad, with black hair ; abdomen less distinctly 
punctured. 

Hah. Menserah, N.W. Provinces, India, March 1906 
(Frank Benton). 

Perhaps a subspecies of A. albopunctata. 



Andrena suhspinigera, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 11 mm. 

Head, thorax, and legs black ; abdomen with the first three 
segments clear ferruginous (the first with a broad transverse 
black band, the third with an interrupted suffused dark band 
beyond the middle), the others black, the third and fourth 
with heavy fringes of pure white hair, the second with a 
thin inconspicuous fringe, the caudal fimbria brownish black. 
Hair of head and thorax white, with a slight creamy tint on 
thorax above ; facial fovese rather narrow, seen from above 
shining white, with the upper end brown j facial quadrangle 
broader than long ; process of labrum broad and obtuse, with 
sloping sides ; clypeus dull except at sides, with sparse 
punctures ; flagellum bright ferruginous beneath except at 
base; third antennal joint almost as long as next three 
together; mesothorax and scutellum dull, wnthout well-defined 
punctures, the long hair not concealing the surface ; area of 
metathorax dull, minutely granular, scarcely defined j tegulaj 
pale yellowish testaceous. Wings strongly reddened, stigma 
and nervures rufo-fuscous ; b. n. meeting t.-m. ; second s.m. 
large, receiving first r. n. considerabl}^ beyond middle. Scopa 
of liind tibiae compact, fuscous behind (above), white in 
front ; basitarsi broad and flat. Abdomen dull, minutely 
granular, without any evident punctures. 

Hah. Menserah, N.W. Provinces, India, March 1906 
[Frank Benton). On some labels the locality is written 
" Manserah," on others " Menserah." 

This species is very like A. sp'nigera, Kirby, from Quetta, 
but differs by the flagellum red beneath, the dusky reddish 
wings, the dull abdomen, &c. 



Records of Bees. 285 

Andrena quettensis, sp. n. 

cJ . — Length about 9 mm. 

Black, the hind tarsi, apical half of middle tarsi, broad 
apical band on first abdominal segment, and second segment 
except a spot on each side and a dusky cloud in middle (or 
only the apical margin and a broad semilunar area on each 
side basally) all ferruginous red. Head broad, facial 
quadrangle much broader than long; mandibles rather short, 
red at end ; process of labrum broadly emarginate ; no lioht 
face-marks ; clypeus dull and granular ; face and front 
covered with long sooty hair, paler and reddish about middle 
of face, becoming black around margins ; occiput and lower 
part of cheeks with long pale fulvous hair ; cheeks broad, 
hut rounded behind ; antennas long, reaching metathorax ; 
flagellnm thick, crenulate, entirely dark ; n)esofhorax and 
scutellum dull ; area of metathorax triangular, coarsely 
wrinkled, poorly defined ; hair of thorax long and fulvous; 
tegulas fuscous, the outer margin paler. Wings long, 
reddish hyaline, stigma and nervures amber-colour; second 
s.tn. receiving first r. n. well beyond middle. Legs with 
pale hair, golden on inner side of tarsi. Abdomen shining, 
the dark segments beyond the middle with a very slight, 
hardly observable, greenish tint; segments with very thin 
bands of long pale hair ; apical plate broadly emarginate. 

Hub. Quetta, India, March 1906 [Frank Benton). 

This does not agree with ar)y of the species reported by 
!Nurse from Quetta ; the nearest is A. halucha, Nurse, which 
has more red on the abdomen and much paler hair on head. 
It is just possible that A. quettensis represents an extreme 
colour-variation of A. halucha, but it seems to be quite 
distinct. In Apidae Europefe A. quettensis runs to A. cinyu- 
lata and A. laticeps, but differs at once by the colour of hair 
on head. A. halucha, which I have examined in U.S. 
National Museum, has the area of metathorax of the Trach- 
andrena type. 

Andrena hentonij sp. n. 

? . — Length about 9 mm. 

Black, including legs and abdomen ; hair of head and 
thorax abundant, erect, but not hiding surface, very pale 
greyish ochreous, black on vertex ; facial quadrangle con- 
siderably broader than long ; clypeus shining, strongly and 
closely punctured, Vv'ithout any distinct smooth line; man- 
dibles red apically ; process of labrum broadly truncate ; 



286 Mr. T. D. A. Cockeiell — Descriptions and 

facial EovcfB leJdi.sli brown, separated from eye by a distinct 
punctured band; flagellum obscure brownish beneath except 
at baf^e ; tliird antennal joint about as long as next three 
together ; fourth and fit'th short and about equal, sixtli 
lon<ior ; niesothorax dull, closely and distinctly punctui-ed ; 
scutellum shining ; area of metathorax granular, minutely 
plicate at extreme base ; tegulse fuscous, posteriorly ferru- 
ginous. \\'ings strongly reddened, stigma and nervures 
ferruginous ; second s.m. receiving first r. n. in middle. Legs 
wiih pale hair, «copa of hind tibias dense, entirely pale golden 
fulvous. Abdomen broad and llatti^h, glistening, very finely 
and closely punctured, f-econd segment de|)ressed hardly o\\>^- 
fourth ; hind margins of segm nts 2 to 5 with rather weakly 
deviloped white hair-bands ; apical fimbria dark chocolate. 

Ilah. Menserah, N.W. Provinces, India, March 1906 
(Frank Bento7i). 

In Apidfe Europcje ^4. hentoni appears to fall nearest to 
A. propinqna and A. sepaixinda, but the hair of thorax is 
quite differently coloured. There is no close resemblance 
to any of the Indian species. 

Andrena prcccocella, sp. n. 

J . — Length 7'5-8'5 mm. 

Black, with long black and white hair. Very close to 
A. prcecox, Scop., but differing thus : — Hind margins of 
second and third abdominal segments more or less brown or 
redj mandibles with no basal tooth beneath; head equally 
broad, but longer; upper part of cheeks punctured; light 
Iiair of thorax above white (not yellowish) ; fourth and fifth 
abdominal segments with thin white hair-bands ; apical 
plate of abdomen eniarginate, shaped like a fish-tail. 

■ Con) pared with the Japanese ^4. prcecoc/fomiis, Ckll., it 
differs by the large amount of black hair at sides of face, the 
cheeks strongly angled behind, the black hair on meta- 
thorax, &c. 

f/ab. Quetta, India, March 1906, 5 c? {Frank Benton). 

The females of this group are very unlike the males, so I 
thought it possible that Nurse might have described the 
species from Quetta in the female sex. There is, however, no 
description which seems possibly applicable. In A. prceco- 
cella the fourth antennal joint is about 256 microns long, 
the fifth 320. The mandibles are long and falciform. 

Apis jlorea nasicana^ Cockerel!. 

Kohat, N.W. Provinces, India, March 1906 {Franh 
Benton). 



Records of Bees. 287 

Tetralonia pomona (Nmso). 
Both sexes; Qaetta, India^ Marcli 1906 {Frank Benton). 

Tetralonia kohatensis, sp. n. 

^ . — Length 8*5-10 mm, ; antenna about 6'5 mm. 

Black, with the small joints of tarsi ferruginous ; clvpeus, 
labrum, and basal half of mandibles clear sulphur-yellow; 
mandibles red in middle and black apicallj ; antenme long 
and slender, bright ferruginous beyond the third joint, the 
upper side dusky ; third antennal joint much longer than its 
apical width, dark fuscous, abruptly contrasting with fourth ; 
eyes green ; maxillary palpi rather short, but six-jointed ; 
head and thorax above, as well as front and upper part of 
face, with long pale fulvous hair, cheeks and underside of 
thorax with white hair ; disc of mesothorax shining ; tegulse 
light reddish fulvous. Wings clear, faintly brownish in 
apical field ; stigma and nervures reddish fuscous; first r. n. 
meeting second t.-c. or falling a little short of it ; marginal 
cell obliquely truncate. Outer side of tibite with dense white 
hair ; tarsi with ferruginous hair on inner side ; spurs 
creamy white. Abdomen shining, with piliferous punctures; 
u})ical margin of segments broadly pallid, covered with dense 
bands of pale ochreous tomentum, of equal width right across, 
the band on first segment narrow ; no definable basal bands ; 
lateral margins of sixth segment In-iefly dentate. 

Hah. Kohat, N.W.Provinces, India, 4 S, March 1906 
[Frank Benton). 

Related to T. erythrocei-a, Cam., but easily separated by 
the fulvous hair. Superficially the insect is exactly like 
Tetraloniella aliena, Ckll. 

Anihophora connexiformis, sp. n. 

c? . — Length about 14 mm. 

liobust ; black, including legs and antennaj (except a very 
small crtam-coloured line on scape), with a short liiuar 
creamy mark on each orbital margin below level of antenna^, 
and a large cream-coloured area on clypeus, broad below, 
narrowed to a band above (inverse goblet-shaped), but 
labrum and mandibles wholly black ; eyes bright ochieous; 
lacial quadrangle much longer than broad ; mandibles with 
a large lounded tooth on inner side ; malar space well deve- 
loped ; third antennal joint fully as long as next three 
united, the fourth very short ; clypeus, labrum, cheeks 
(except upper part anteriorly), and occiput densely covered 



288 ]\Ir. T. D. A. ('ockerell — Descriptions and 

with very long ]iure wliite hair ; front, vertex, sides of face, 
and iippt r part of cheeks anferi )ily ^Yith bhick hair ; thorax 
witii very h'li^- hair, mixed };rey and white, daik on scutcllum, 
shilling- w hite on nicsojilenra ; teguhc bhick, very hairy. 
AVings hyaline. Legs slender, with long bhick and white 
hair, daik chocolate on inner side of tarsi; apical joint of 
middle tarsi with no noticeable fringe ; hind basitarsns long 
and broadened. Abdomen not banded or spotted, but with a 
profusion of loiio- erect hair, which is mostly greyish white, 
but black on discs of fourth and following segments, though 
wliite and very long at sides. 

Hub. Quetta, India, March li)OG (Frank Benloii). 

Closely allied to A.connexa (Nurse), also from Quetta; 
but according to Nurse's description connexa has the clypeus 
all yellow, the apical tarsal joints more or less rufo-testaceous, 
the blackish hair of abdomen confined to the apical two 
seoments, and the front with white hair. It thus seems 
j)robuble that our insect is a distinct species, thougli it may 
be only a variet}'. There is a pencil of white hair on each 
side of front, a little above level of antennas. The general 
appearance of the insect is very like that of Teiralonia 
2)07nona. 

Anthophora (Micrantkophora) albopicta, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 11 mm., anterior wing 8 mm. 

Black, including the legs and antennas, but mandibles 
ferruginous with the lower basal corner broadly black ; 
labium black, with a very broad white band down the 
middle ; clypeus with a large apical white triangle, atteimated 
above, this on a light ferruginous field, w Inch extends as a 
band to upper margin, but the upper half of clypeus black 
exccjjt in middle; eyes greyish ochreous, converging below, 
the front very broad ; tlagelluin very obscurely reddish 
beneath ; third anteniial joint about G40 microns long, 
the next three together about 735 ; maxillary palpi with 
stout bristles, except on the last two joints ; third joint of 
labial palpi 560 microns from base to origin of fourth joint; 
pubescence very pale ochreous, nearly white, long on head 
and thorax ; on liead and thorax above with black hairs 
intermixed ; mesothorax extremel}' deiisel}' punctured ; 
legulaj piceous. Wings hyaline, wiih a very faint brownish 
tint. Legs with creamy white hair, rusty black on inner 
side ot hind libise and tarsi, anterior and middle tibiae with a 
small patch of ferruginous hair at apex. Abdomen broad, 



Records of Bees. 289 

liind margins of segments wliitish hyaline; whole surface of 
dorsal segnirnts rather tliinly covered with appressed pale 
hair, not forming bands ; apex witli a patcli of black hair ; 
apical plate verv long and narrow. 

Hub. Kotal Main!, S. Persia, Feb. 1906 {Frank Benton). 

A typical Micranthoplwra, looking- jii.-,t like the Californian 
A. anstrutheri, Ckll., though differing in the face-markings 
and many other details. It is also related to the Indian 
A. Candida, Sm., hut the pubescence of the abdomen in that 
species is much more dense, the face-markings are different, 
and the fla^ellum is red beneath. 



Anthophora cincta (Fabricius). 
Axim, Gold Coast, Africa (C. R. Metwel). 

Anthophora antimena, Saussure. 
Mahanoro, Madagascar, May 5, 181)5 ( TF. L. Abbott). 

Anthophora acraensis (Fabricius). 
Luebo, Congo {D. W. Snyder). 

Anthophora Jlavi'collis J Gerstaecker. 
Axim, Gold Coast, Africa (C. R. Mengel). 

Anthophora leucorhi'na, sp. n. 

(J (type). — Length about 15 mm. 

lilack, including flagelluni and legs, except the reddish 
apical joint of tarsi ; face-marks creamy white, including 
clypeus, labrum (except large black spot at each basal corner^ 
and black apical margin), elongate spot on base of mandibles, 
narrow strij^e along each anterior orbit (beginning at about 
level of antenna^ but not reaching lower corner of face), and 
anterior surface of scape ; clypeus prominent, convex ; third 
antennal joint about as long as next three combined ; face 
and cheeks with long pure white hair, occiput with yellowish, 
vertex and front with black hair, but some wdiite on each 
side of antennse, and some long black hairs at sides of face ; 
malar space well developed ; thorax with abundant long 
hair, pale greyish-yellow above and on upper part of sides^ 



290 Descriptions mid Records of Bees. 

l)lack on anterior |)art of sen tell um. and white on lower part 
of pleura; mesothorax dull, sliLihtly shining on disc ; tetrulse 
piceous. Wings hj;iliiie, very faintly brownish apically. 
Legs with long white hair; middle tarsi not modified, nor 
with any black fringe on last joint ; hind basitarsi not 
toothed. Abdomen shining, with piliferous punctures, the 
surface covered with long hair, pale greyish-yellow on first 
two segments, black on the others, but hind margins of 
segments 2 to -4 with loose bands of white hair ; venter with 
long white hair. 

^ . — Length about 16 mm. 

Tongue very long ; no pale face-marks, but a red tubercle 
on each side of base of labrum, and malar space red ; hair of 
front pale ; disc of mesothorax and anterior part of scutelluin 
with some dark hair, not conspicuous ; tegulse rufo-testa- 
ceous ; patches of fulvous hair at apices of anterior and 
middle tibiae and on liind knees; hair on inner side of hind 
tibipe (except base) black, on inner side of hind tarsi largely 
red, in some lights appearing rich fox-red with black margin ; 
abdomen with broad pale hair-bands on segments 2 to 4 ; 
apex with black hair ; apical plate long and nnrrow ; venter 
with white fringe on segments 2 to 4, but dense black hair 
on apex of 5. 

Flih. Kotal aialul, S. Persia, Feb. 1906 {Frank Benton), 

2 c?,l ?. 

Kesembles A. cinerea (Friese), from Sarepta, but is con- 
siderably larger. There is a general resemblance to A. cri- 
nipes, Sin,, but the middle tarsi are not modified as in that 
species, and crinipes has a linear malar space. By the white 
face-marks and prominent clypeus the male resembles 
A. dives, Dours, of which I have a specimen marked 
"cotype" from Grribodo, but the legs are entirely different. 
Friese makes dives a synonym of A. dufourii, Lep., but it is 
possibly se[)arable, the male (at least) having no metallic 
colour on abdomen, the middle tarsal joints of middle leg 
longer and slenderer than in Fiiese's figure, and tlie brusii 
on last joint wider. They agree, howeveV, in the remaikable 
hind basitarsi. 

Osmia [Ceratosmia) halucha^ Nurse. 

Quetta, India, March 1906 {Benton). 

The male has the middle femora strongly produced and 
angulate beneath, but tlie hind basitarsi are not dentate. 



Btbliograpki'cal Notice. — Geological Society. 291 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 

Catalogue of tlie Lepidoptera Phalcence. Supplement, Vol. I. 
London : the Trustees of the British Museum. 1914-15. 

Since the publication of the first two volumes of the ' Catalogue of 
Motlis ' a formidable niimber of species in the families therein 
included have since been described. Hence it became necessary 
to prepare a supplement in order that the subject-matter of these 
volumes might be brought up to date. The present volume, with a 
smaller containing the plates, represents the first instalment of 
that supplement. 

Some idea of the number of species which have been added to 
the lists may be gathered from Dr. Gahan's Preface to Sir George 
Hampson's work. Thus, the family Amatidae in vol. i. contained 
169 genera and 1181: species, to which are now added 16 genera 
and 945 species. The family Nolinge in vol. ii. had 13 genera and 
162 species, to which are added 1 genus and 116 species; while 
the Lithosianae in vol, ii, had 244 genera and 1055 species, to 
which are added in this Supplement 73 genera and 880 species ! 
A supplementary volume to vol. iii. is in progress. 

Whether all the species recognized in this Catalogue are really 
"good species" is evidently a matter for debate, since the author, 
in this Supplement, frequently admits of this or that new species 
that it is " very possibly " the male or female, or even a " variety," 
of some other specific form. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 
GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

December 6th, 1916.— Dr. Alfred Harker, F.R.S., President, 

in the Chair. 

Mr. G. C. Ceick, A.R.S.M., F.G.S., gave an account of some 
recent researches on the belemnite animal. He stated 
that it was not his intention to deal that evening with the 
homologies of the belemnite shell or with the phylogeny of the 
belemnite gronp, but to confine himself to the restoration of a 
typical belemnite animal and its shell, as shown particularly by 
examples in the British-Museum collection. 

He first demonstrated, by means of a rough model, the constinic- 
tion of the belemnite shell, including the guard or rostrum, the 
phragmocone with its ventrally-situated siphuncle, and its thin 
envelope the conotheca, with its forward prolongation and expan- 
sion (on the dorsal side) known as the pro-ostracum. He then 



292 Geological Society. 

exhibited photographic slides of examples in the British-Museum 
collection showing these various charactei"s, and noted the abrupt 
termination of the chambered cone on the lower jxirt of the pro- 
ostracum, of which the dorsal surface may have been partly or 
almost completely covered by a thin forward extension of the 
guard. To illustrate what was known of the complete body of 
the animal as found associated with the guard, he then showed 
photographic slides of two of the examples figured by Huxley 
in his ' Memoir on the Structure of the Belemnitidaj ' published in 
186-i. Each of these exhibited the guard associated with portions 
of the pro-ostracinn. the ink-bag, and the booklets of the arms. 
The fonu of the booklets with their thickened bases Avas discussed, 
this feature in a great measure justifying the attribution to the 
belemnite of certain cephalopod remains (found practically at 
about the same geological horizon) that included uncinated arms 
associated with an ink-bag, and frequently also with nacreous 
portions of (presumably) the pro-ostracum. 

Of the remains of uncinated armed cephalopods from the Lias, 
each exhibiting the same form of booklets as those figured by 
Huxley, he said that the British-Museum collection contained 
seventeen examples, all from the neighbourhood of Lyme Regis and 
of Charmouth, in Dorset. Each specimen exhibits a number of 
uncinated arms associated usually with an ink-bag, sometimes also 
with nacreous matter, and in two instances also with the guard or 
rostrum. These two examples were those to wdiich he had ah-eady 
referred as having been figured by Huxley, and unfortunately 
the arms are not well preserved in either of these specimens ; in 
one (5. bruguierianus, from the Lower Lias near Charmouth) 
there are only a few scattered booklets, Avhile the arms of the 
other {B. elongatus, from the Lower Lias of Charmouth) are 
represented only b}'' a confused mass of booklets. Of the other 
fifteen examples, in one there are a few solitary booklets ; in 
another the number of the arms is very indistinct ; in two the 
remains of only two arms are preserved ; in one there are traces 
of three aims ; in two there are indications of three, or possibly 
four, arms ; and in one there is a confused mass of possibly fom- 
arms ; and in one there are the remains of four, or possibly of five, 
arms. In each of the remaining six specimens six arms can 
be more or less clearly made out, while thei'e is net a single 
example in which more than six uncinated arms are displayed. 

Of the six examples that exhibit six uncinated arms four are 
stated to be from the Lias of L^'me Kegis ; one is from the Lias of 
Charmouth ; and one was obtained from the Lower Liassic shales 
between Charmouth and Lyme Eegis. From a consideration of 
these specimens, the speaker concluded that the cephalopod repre- 
sented by these uncinated ai-ms is the animal known as the 
belemnite, and that the six uncinated arms were arranged in three 
pairs of uneqiial length, of which the longest pair was lateral, the 
medium-sized pair probably dorsal, and the shortest pair probably 



I 



Geological Society. 293 

ventral. He considered the presence of tentacular arms to be 
doubtful. These observations were in accord with those of 
Huxley, who, in his ' Memoir ' already cited, stated that he had 
' not been able to make out more than six or seven amis in 
any specimen, nor has any exhibited traces of elongated tentacula, 
thout^h the shortness of the arms which have been preserved would 
have led one to suspect their existence.' 

The speaker regarded certain markings sometimes to be seen on 
the guard as indicating that during the life of the animal the 
guard was almost, if not entirely, covered by the mantle, in which 
case it was highly improbable that the guard was pushed into the 
soft mud of the sea-bottom in order to act as an anchor. 

He considered the animal to have been a free swimmer, swimming 
forward ordinaril}^ but when desirable, capable also of sudden and 
rapid propulsion backwards. 

A short discussion followed, and the thanks of the Fellows 
present were accorded to Mr. Crick for his lecture. 



December 20th, 1916.— Dr. Alfred Harker, F.R.S., President,' 
in the Chair. 

Marie C. Stopes, D.Sc, Ph.D., gave an account of some 
recent researches on Mesozoic 'Cycads' (Bennetti- 
tales), dealing particularly with recently-discovered petrified 
remains which reveal their cellular tissues in microscopic prepara- 
tions. To make the significance of the various fossil forms clear, 
Dr. Stopes first showed some lantern-slides of living Cycads, and 
then pointed out that it was in their external features and in their 
vegetative anatomy only that the fossil * Cycads ' were like the 
living forms ; the most important featui'es, the reproductive organs, 
differ profoundly in the two groups, and the fossils were funda- 
mentally distinct, not only from the living Cycads, but from all 
other living or fossil families. 

The fossils representing the group that are most frequently 
found are (a) trunks, generally more or less imperfect casts or 
partial petrifactions, and sometimes excellent petrifactions pre- 
serving anatomical details and cell-tissues; (i) impressions of the 
foliage. Not infrequent are the detached impressions of incomplete 
' flowers ' or cones, of one cohoi-t (the Williamsonese), while 
petrified fructifications are numerous in some of the well-petrified 
trunks of the Bennettiteae. The described species of the group 
run into himdreds, but probably many of these duplicate real 
species, because the foliage, tranks, pith-casts, various portions of 
the fructifications, etc., have often been separately found and 
named. In very few cases have the different parts been correlated. 
The species of the foliage are the most generally known, as they 
are the most readily recognized with the naked eye ; they have 
been described under a variety of generic names. 



294 



Guological Society. 



Fructifications. 
Benneitites spp. 
Williamsonia gigas. 

WilUaynsonia spectabilis. 
Williamsonia ivhitbietisis. 
Wielandiella angnstifolia, 

Williamsoniella coronata. 



The followinsj table gives the proved, or probable, associated 
jvirts of some members of the group : — 

Foliage. Trunk. 

Zamites spp. BennettHes spp. 

Zamitea gigas. Attached, no separate 

name. 

Otozamites sp. 

Ptilophyllum pectinoiden. 

Anomo zamites minor, (Only slender branches 

knowTi, no name.) 
r«n iopteris vitta ta. 

Dr. Stopes exhibited slides of microphotographs of the stem 
and It'af-hase anatomy of the group, including some unpublished de- 
tails of Benneitites maximns. The roots of the group have hitherto 
been entirely unknown, and a slide was exhibited for the finst time 
showing rootlets penetrating the leaf-bases of a petrilied specimen 
(represented by a section in the Geological Department of the 
British Museum — Natur.il History). These roots probably belong 
to JB. saxhyamts : they are covered with wonderfully petrified 
root-hairs, running uncoUapscd through the silica matrix. They 
raise intei'esting questions concerning the possible chemical con- 
ditions of the infiltration of the silica. Illustrations were also 
exhibited of the famous complex ' flower ' and cone-structures, and 
of Wieland's brilliant restorations of the same. Microphotographic 
slides were exhibited of the seed-cone of an interesting unpublished 
new species from the British Gault. This is beautifully petrified, 
and adds to our knowledge of the finer anatomy of the seeds and 
associated structures. It is also the largest cone of the Bennettitales 
yet known, though it occurs in the Gault, by which time the group 
appears to have begun rajiidly to die out. 

The following table indicates the distribution of a few of 
the most interesting representatives of the Bennetti- 
tales ( including the cohorts Bennettitea? and William- 
soneae) : — 



Upper Cretaceous. 



Very fragmentary iand uncertain recorda ; apparently 
the group is nearly or quite extinct. 

Middle Cretaceous ; The new large-sized seed-cone. 

Gault. B. morierei $ (P described originally from the Jurassic). 

Lower Cretaceous ; Well-petrified trunks with fructifications. 

Lower Greensand. B. gibsonianus (type-species of the Bennettitese). 



Potton Sands. 
Wealden. 



Jurassic; Purbeck. 



B. maximus, 

Tjunks, e.g. Colymbetes edwardsi. 

Trunks (casts and petrifactions), 

foliage. 
B. saxbyamis. 

Trunks (casts and semi-petrifac- 
tions), i. 

Buckland's original Cycadeoidea 
spp. 

('. gigantea. 



Throughout 
these periods 
in America, 
trunk-remains 
very abun- 
dant, often 
petrified and 
with fructifica- 
tions, parti- 
cularly from the 

Black Hills, 
South Dakota, 



Oeolo(]ical Society. 295 

Oolites. Trunks, pith-casts, etc. Much I ^nd Maryland, 

folia^o of various typos. Wil- I C. jenneyana, 
liamsonia gigds and other fruit- I ^' '^ngens, 
impressions. J <^- ^nelandi, etc. 

W. scotica. 

WiUiamsoniella coronata. 1 Rich impressions in 
• I Mexico of William- 
Li a.H. Foliage and Williamsonia f g„,^if^ a^j m^ny 

fruits (India). J fyii^gg genera. 

R life tic. Wielandiella angustifolia and foliage. 

The group is by far the most characteristic of all the plants of 
the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, during which periods its 
distribution was almost world-wide. It was locally, if not univer- 
sally, dominant, and was the most highly evolved plant-group of 
the epoch of which we are cognizant. 

Three chief points of interest are to be noted in the geological 
distribution of these plants : (a) that the most numerous highly- 
specialized trunks reach their maximum in the Jurassic and Lower 
Cretaceous Periods, when their distribution was practicall}^ world- 
wide ; (b) that the oldest and therefore presmnably the most 
primitive type, WieJaiidlella, is externally less like the living cycads 
than the commoner later forms, while these latter are utterly unlike 
the living genera in their fructifications ; (c) that the geologically 
youngest cone is the largest yet discovered, occurring in the Grault 
when the extinction of the group appears already to have set in. 

Contrar}'' to what might have been anticipated from their 
external likeness to the living Cycads, coupled with their great 
geological age, the fossil ' Cycads ' are much more complex and on 
a higher level of evolution than the living grovip. It seems to the 
Author to be extremely unlikely that the fossil and the living forms 
have any direct phylogenetic connexion nearer than a remote, 
unknown, common ancestor. The mooted connexion between the 
fossil ' Cycads ' and the Angiosperms is highly suggestive, but lacks 
data for its establishment. 

A short discussion followed, and the thanks of the Fellows 
present were accorded to Dr. Stopes for her lecture. 



January lOfh, 1917.— Dr. Alfred Harker, F.R.8., Tresident, 
in the Chair. 

The following communication was read: — 

' Balston Expedition to Peru : Report on Graptolites collected 
])V Capt. J. A. Douglas, K.E., F.G.S.' By Ciiarles Lapworth, 
LL.D., M.Sc, F.K.S., F.G.S. 

The specimens of graptolites were collected from the rocks of 
\\\e Inambari district in Peru by Capt. Douglas, under whose name 



296 Geoloyical Society, 

the collection has been placed in the Geological Department of 
the University ^Museum, Oxford. These fossils were forwai'ded 
by Prof. W. J. Sollas to Prof. C. Lapworth, who embodied the 
results of his study in a Report, of which the following is a brief 
abstract. 

The specimens are -recorded as all occurring in the same lo(!ality, 
but it is not known whether they were obtained from a single zone. 
The majority of the rock-specimens in which the graptolites occur 
are black and somewhat pyritous carbonaceous shales, usuall}'' well 
bedded and uncleaved, and the graptolites are in general well 
preserved. The lithology of the containing rocks and the mode of 
preservation of the graptolites are similar to those obtaining in 
the richest gi*aptolite-bearing strata of Britain, Europe, and North 
America. 

The forms apparently represented in the collection are Lorjano- 
graptus logani Hall, a new species of Goniograptus (.''), DiJgmo- 
graptus stabilia EUes & Wood and D. hifidus Hall, Fhyllograptus 
angusf/foh'usHaW, Glossograptiis a ca 71 f Jii'S ^Ihi^ & 'Wood, Crgpto- 
graptus tricornis Hall, var., Amplexograptus confertus Lapworth, 
and A. coelatus Lapworth. 

Taken as a whole, this graptolite fauna may best be compared 
with that of the Upper Arenig formation of Britain and its North- 
American equivalents, answering to the Lower Llanvirnian of 
Hicks & Marr and the Didijmograp)fus-hrfidus Zone of EUes & 
Wood and H.M. Geological Survey. 

The assemblage of graptolites discovered in Bolivia a few 3'ears 
ago b}' Dr. J. W. Evans con-esponds very closely with this Peruvian 
fauna, and was probably derived from the southward continuation 
of the same Andean graptolite-band. The Peruvian forms in the 
Douglas collection, like those from Bolivia, admit almost as close a 
parallelism with those of the Arenig-Llandeilo graptolite-beds of 
Australia and New Zealand as with their representatives in the 
Northern Hemisphere. 

Not only is the Douglas Collection of Peruvian graptolites 
instructive and valuable from the palseontological point of view, 
owing to the number and the good state of preservation of the 
species represented, but it is of especial interest from the palaeo- 
graphical aspect, as affording additional proof of the identity 
(in general facies) of the graptolite fauna of the sea-waters of 
Lower Ordovician times in those regions of the globe Avhich are 
now occupied by some of the dry lands of Britain, Eastern North 
America, Peru, Bolivia, Victoria, and New Zealand. Thus it greatly 
strengthens the inference that in Arenig-Llandeilo times there 
was open-sea communication admitting of the circulation of sea- 
currents along some as yet undetennined line or lines, connecting 
the above-mentioned regions, which must have extended across the 
Equator and apparently throughout a length nearly equal to that 
of half the circumference of the globe. 



•fT 



THE ANXALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[EIGHTH SERIES.] 
No. 112. APRIL 1917. 



XXYI. — A Revision of the Chipeoid Fishes of the Genera 
Poinolobiis, Brevoortia and Dorosoina, and their Allies. 
By 0. Tate Regan, M.A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British ^Euseuui.) 

The genera dealt with in this revision are the Clupeinse with 
a distinct notch in the middle of the upper jaw ; these have 
usually been .placed in two distinct groups — those with 
terminal mouth and the last dorsal ray not prolonged being 
associated witii Clupea, and the others, with inferior mouth 
or last dorsal ray prolonged, forming a group apart (Chato- 
essinse of Giinther, Dorosomatidse of modern authors) ; in 
my judgment this is quite an artificial arrangement. AH 
these tishes appear either to be migratory, entering rivers to 
spawn in fresh or brackish water *, or are permanently 
tluviatile (e. g., Gudusia, Signalosa) . 

Synopsis of the Genera, 

I. Gill-rakers of epibranchial of first arch foklin<r downwards, tliose 
near the ano^le overlapping the gill-rakers of the ceratobranchinl. 
A. Scales with edges entire or feebly serrated ; normal scales from 
occiput to dorsal fin ; pelvic fins 9-rayed ; operculum with 
radiating grooves. 
Teeth on vomer and palatines (rarely deciduous 

iu adults) 1 . Ca$pialo$a. 

* The breeding-habits of Ethmidium and Ethmalosa are unknown 
to me. 

Ann. d: Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol, xix. 20 



298 ^Ii". C. T. Regan on the Chipeoid Fishes 

Palnte toothless ; lower jaw not prominent, its 

tip ii\clucled ". 2. Alosa. 

Palate tootliless; lower jaw projecting 3. Pomolobus. 

B. Scales with edges sen-ated in young, pectinated in adults ; pelvic 
tins 7-rayed. 
A well-detined series of pectinated scales on each 

side of middle line from occiput tn dorsal 

tin ; operculum striated or nearly smooth . . 4. Brevoortia. 
A median series of scutes from occiput to dorsal 

tin; operculum smooth or very feebly striated. 5. Ethmidium. 

ir. Gill-rakers of ejnbranchial of first arch not folding downwards over 
those of ceratobrauchial ; pelvic tins 8-rayed ; opcnculum smooth. 

A. Edge of dentary not reflected outwards in front of maxillary. 

1 . Last dorsal ray not prolonged. 

Upper gill-rakers of first and second arches and 
all of succeeding arches bent or expanded, 
T-shaped or triangular in section 6. Ethmalosa. 

Gill-rakers normal : scales large, 40-50/13-20 . . 7. Hilsa. 

Gill-rakers normal ; scales small, 75-100/27-34 . 8. Gudusia. 

2. Last dorsal ray prolonged into a filament. 
Mouth terminal or subterminal; maxillary nor- 
mal, with one supramaxillary 9. Clupanodon. 

Mouth terminal ; maxillarj^ normal, with two 

supramaxilkries 10. Signalosa. 

Mouth subterminal or inferior; maxillary slender, 

with one supramaxillary 11 . Dorosoma, 

B. Edge of dentary reflected outwards in front of extremity of 

maxillary ; mouth toothless, subterminal or inferior, transverse, 
its cleft forming an angle: one supramaxillary. 

Maxillary slender, distally slightly expanded and 
curved downwards ; last dorsal ray produced 
into a filament 12. Nematalosa. 

Maxillary slender, distally slightly expanded and 
curved downwards ; last dorsal ray not pro- 
duced 13. Gonialosa. 

Maxillary a straight, thin, transversely expanded 
lamina, tapering distally ; last dorsal ray not 
produced 14. Anodontostoma. 

1. Caspialosa, Ber^, 1915. 

Clupeonella (non Kessler), Berg, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xi. 1913, 

p. 472. 
Casjnalosa, Berg, Poiss. de I'eau douce dela Russie, p. 22 (1916). 

Differs from Alosa in having three patclies of teeth on the 
paLite, borne by the vomer and palatine bones; bnt in large 
examples of C. caspia I Hnd that the palate is toothless. 

Black and Caspian Seas. 

Berg recognizes tiiirteen species of this genus. 



oj the Qenera Pomolobus, Bre^roortia, c^c. 299 

2. Alosa, Cliv. 1829. 

Regne Animal, ed. 2, ii. p. 319 ; Regan, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 
xviii. 1916, p. 6. ° 

North Atlantic and ^lediterranean. 

In mj revision five species and six subspecies were 
recognized. 

3. POMOLOBUS, Rafin. 1820. 

Ichth. Ohiensis, p. 33 ; Jord. & Everni. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. xlvii. 
1896, p. 424. 

Distinguished from Alosa by the prominent lower jaw, 
with its tip not include i. 
Western North Atlantic. 

Si/nopsis of the Species. 

I. Lower jaw strongly projecting; 20 to 25 gill-rakers on lower part 

of anterior arch. 

Anterior teetli persistent; maxillary extending to 
below posterior part of eve ; caudal peduncle 
longer than deep ... 1. chri/sochloris. 

Jaws toothless ; maxillary extending to below 

middle of eye ; caudal peduncle as long as deep. 2. medioeris. 

II. Lower jaw a little projecting ; 40 to oO gill-rakers on lower part of 

anterior arch. 

Depth 3 1, head 4§ in the length; eye 4| to 5 in 

head (in specimens of 220-260 mm.) 3. cestivalis. 

Depth 3, head 4 to 4^ in the length ; eye Sg to 4 in 

head (in specimens of 220-260 mm.) 4. pseudoharengus. 

1. Pomolohus ehri/sochloris. 

Pomolobns chn/snchloris (Rafin. 1820), .lord. & Everm. Bull. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. xlvii. 1896, p. 425, and 1900, fig. 187. 

Depth of body 3f in the length, length of head 4. Snout 
longer than diameter of eye, which is 6 in lengtji of head; 
maxillary extending to below posterior part of eye; lower 
jaw strongly projecting; small conical teeth persistent in 
prsemaxillaries and anterior part of lower jaw; 23 gill-rakers 
on lower part of anterior arch. 56 scales in a longitudinal 
series, 17 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 21-1-15. 
Dorsal 18. Anal 18. Pelvics a little in advance of middle 
of dorsal. Caudal peduncle longer than deep. Silvery; 
back darker. 

Mississippi and southern coast of U.S.A 
A single specimen, 280 ram, long, from Pensacola. 

20* 



300 Jilr. C. T. Rpgan on the Chipeoil Fishes 



2. Pomolohus mediocris. 

Pomolohus mediocris (^Mitchill, l"*lo), Jord. & Evenn. Bull. U.S. Nat. 
Miis. xlvii. 18U6, p. 425, and 1900, fig'. 188. 

Depth of body 3.\ to 3| in the leno-th, lenotli of lioad 4 to 
4|. Snout lonoer than diameter of eye, which is 5 in length 
of head ; niaxillaiy extending to below middle of eye or a 
little beyond ; lower jaw strongly projecting- ; jaws toothles.s; 
21 or 22 gill-raker.s on lower part of anterior arch. 56 scales 
in a longitudinal serie.*, 17 in a transverse series ; ventral 
scutes 21-22 + 16. Dorsal 16-18. Anal 20-22. Pelvics 
in advance of middle of dorsal. Caudal peduncle as long- 
as deep. Silvery; back darker; each scale on sides with a 
dark spot. 

Atlantic coast of U.S.A. 

Three specimens, 280 to 300 mm. long, from the Potomac 
and Woods Hole. 

3. Pomolohus a'stivaUs. 

Pumolobiis (sstivalis (MitchiW, ]81o), Jord. & Everm. Bull. U.S. Nat. 
Mu3. xlvii. 1896, p. 42G, and 1900, fig. 190. 

Depth of body 3^ in the length, length of head 4§. Snout 
a little longer than diameter of eye, which is 4^ to 5 in the 
leJigth of head ; maxillary extending to below anterior part 
or middle of eye; lower jaw a little projecting ; jaws tooth- 
less; 44 to 47 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 52 
to 55 scales in a longitudinal series, 15 or 16 in a transverse 
series ; ventral scutes 20+ 14. Dor.sal 17-18. Anal 18-20. 
Pelvics below anterior half of dorsal. Caudal peduncle 
longer than deep. Silvery ; back darker. 

Atlantic coast of U.S.A. 

Two specimens, 220 and 260 mm. in total length. 

4. Pomolohus pseudoharengus. 

Pomololms pseudoharengus ("Wilson, c. 1811), Jord. & Everm. Bull. 
U.S. Nat. Mus. xlvii. 1896, p. 426, and 1900, fig. 189. 

Depth of body 3 in the length, length of head 4 to 4^. 
Snout as long as or shorter than diameter of eye, which is 3^ 
to 4 in the length of head ; maxillary extending to below 
middle of eye or a little beyond ; lower jaw a little pro- 
jecting ; jaws toothless ; 40 to 42 gill-rakers on lower part of 
anterior arch. 52 to 56 scales in a longitudinal series, 15 
to 17 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 20-21 + 12-14. 



of ihe Genera Pomolulnis, Bievoortia, tOc. 301 

Doisul 16-1<S. Anal 18-22. Pel vies below anterior half 
o£ dorsal. Caudal peduncle as long as deep, or deeper than 
loii<?. Silvery ; back darker. 

Atlantic coast of U.S.A. 

Seven specimens, 220 to 260 mm. in total length. 

4. Brevoortia, Gill, 18G1. 

Proc. Ac. Pliiladelphia, p. 37 ; Jorel. & Everui. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mua. 
xlvii. 189(3, p. 433. 

I'his genus is distinguished from Alosa by the pectinated 
scales. The gill-rakers are very numerous,' long and slender. 

1. Brevoortia tyrannus. 

Clupea tyrannus, Latrobe, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. v. 1872, p. 77, pi. i. 
Cliq)anijdu)i aureus, Agassiz, Spix, Pise. Brasil. p. o2, pi. xxi. (1828). 
Clupea menhaden (Mitchill, l8loj, Guutli. Cat. ilsli. vii. p. 43b (1878). 
Clupea aurea, Giinth. t. c. p. 437. 

lirevoortia tyrannus, Goode, Kep. U.S. Fish. Cornm. 1877, p, 19, 
pis. i., ii. (i879j; Jord, & Everm. Bull. U.S. Xat. Mas. xlvii. 1896, 

p. •i(Jt>. 

Hrevoortia patronus, Goode, t. c. p. 2G, pi. v. 

Depth of body 2^ to '6\ in the length, length of head 2i to 
31. About 70 gill-iakers (in the adult) on ceratobranchial 
oi first arch. About 50 scales in a longitudinal and 25 in a 
tiansverse series ; in adults scales very deep, two often 
nieetin;i,- across one of the intermediate longitudinal series, 
thus increasing the number of transverse rows ; ventral scutes 
18-20 + 11-12. Dorsal 18-21. Anal 19-24. Pelvics 
below or in advance of anterior rays of dorsal. Vertebra 48. 

Nova Scotia to Gulf of Mexico and Brazil. 

Several examjdes up to 350 mm. in total length ; one of 
these, from Alabama, and therefore B. patronus, is exactly 
similar to the specimen 8 inches long, from Woods Hole, 
figured by Goode. Giinther's example named Clupea aurea 
is without locality, and may be Xurth American ; tlie di.'stri- 
bution ot this species on the coast of South America has yet 
to be made out. 

2. Brevoortia pectinata. 

Alosa pectinata, Jenyns, Zool. ' Beagle,' Fish. p. 135, pi. xxv. (1842), 
Clupea pectinata, Giiutli. Cat. Fish. \ii. p. 437 (1868). 
Brevoortia pectinata, Goode, Pep. U.S. lish. Cumui. 1877, p. 30, pi. vi. 
(1679). 

Depth of body 21 to 2| in the length, length of head 3 to 
3^. Gill-rakers more numerous than in B. tijrannus, about 



302 Mr. C. T. Regan on the Clupeoid Fishes 

90 on ceratobrancliial o£ first arcli. Scales more reornlarly 
arraiif^ed and not so deep as in B. tyrannus ; about 48 in a 
lonoitndinal series, 20 to 25 in a transverse series ; ventral 
scutes 18-20 + 10-12. Dorsal 1 7-19. Anal 18-22. Pelvics 
below or in advance of origin of dorsal. Vertebras 44. 

Korthern Patagonia to Southern Brazil. 

Here described from the types, skins, 180 and 260 mm. 
in length (the larger kindly sent to me for exauiination by 
C. Forster Coojier, Esq.), and from four examples of 220 mm. 
from Rio Grande do Sul. 

5. Ethmidium, Thompson, 1916. 
Troc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1. p. 458. 

Closely related to Brevoorda, but with a median series of 
scutes from occiput to dorsal tin. 

Eth m idi u m mac u latum. 

Alausa macnlata, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx. p. 430 (1847). 

Alausa ccerulen, Cuv. & N al. t. c. p. 432. 

Lliipea notacanthm, Giintli. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 443 (1868). 

Cltipea macuUda, Giiuth. /. c. 

Clupea {Alosa) notaccmihuides, Steiud. Sitzuug&b. Akad. Wien, Ix. 

1869, p. 309, pi. vii. 
Ethmidium notacanthoides, Thompson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1. 1916, 

p. 458. 
Ethmidium ccerulea, Thompson, t. c. p. 460. 

Depth of body in the adult equal to length of head, 3 in 
length offish ; in the young head relatively shorter and body 
deeper. Diameter of eye 4 to 7 in length of head ; maxillary 
extending to below posterior part of eye or beyond. 80 (young) 
to 160 (adult) gill-iakers on lower part of anterior arch. 24 
to 28 scutes from occiput to dorsal lin ; about 50 scales in a 
longitudinal, 17 to 20 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 
18-20 + 15-17. Dorsal 19-22. Anal 14-18. Pelvics 
below anterior \ of dorsal. Vertebise 50. Silvery ; back 
bluish ; sometimes a lateral series of dark spots. 

Peru and Chile. 

Four specimens, 100-280 mm. long, from Callao, Val- 
paraiso, and Helladura Bay. 

6. Ethmalosa, gen. nov. 

Form rather deep and strongly compressed. Upper jaw 
■with median notch ; lower jaw included ; teeth minute or 
absent, Adipose eyelid well developed ; cheek moderately 
deep, with a naked area below the suborbitals, Operculuni 



of the Genera Pomolobus, Brevoortia, Sfo. 303 

smooth except for a groove parallel to its anterior edge ; sub- 
operculum tapering- upwards ; opercular margin rounded ; 
6 branchiostegals. Lower gill-rakers of first and second 
afches long, slender, and numerous, those of ceratobranchial 
folding over those of epibranchial, which are curiously 
(xpanded, T-shaped or triangular in section, appearing angu- 
larly bent on the lower side, but not on the upper; gill-rakers 
of third and fourth arches similarly expanded or recurved, 
the series fitting closely to form a sieve. About 45 scales in 
a longitudinal and 16 to 19 in a transverse series ; edges of 
scales crenulated in the young, pectinated in the adult ; 
transverse grooves paired, not meeting in the middle of the 
scale, only the most posterior groove extending right across ; 
a well-defined mid-dorsal double row of scales, comnieucino- 
with a large postoccipital pair, extends backwards to the 
dorsal fin ; ventral scutes with sharp-pointed keels. Dorsal 
fin of 16 to 19 rays ; a very low basal sheath. Anal of 20 
to 23 rays. Pelvics 8-rayed, inserted below anterior ^ of 
dorsal. Caudal with alar scales. 



Etiimalosa dorsalis. 

Meletta senegalensis, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Xat. Poiss. xx. p. 370 (1847). 

Alausa dorsalis, Cuv. & Val. t. c. p. 418. 

Alosa pUitycephalus, Bleek. Yerh. Hell, Maatsch. Haarlem, 1862, 

Guinee, p. 123, pi. xxvi. tig. 2. 
Clupea dorsalis, Gunth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 438 (1868). 
Clupta setusci, Steiiid. iSitzuiigsb. Akad. Wien, Ix. 1869, p. 311, pi. vi. 

Depth of body 2^ to 3 in the length, length of head 3 to 3? . 
Diameter of eye 4^ to 6 in length of head. Maxillary ex- 
tending to below middle or posterior part of eye. About 45 
scales in a longitudinal, 16 to 19 in a transverse series ; 
ventral scutes 16-19 + 11-13. Dorsal 16-19. Anal 20-23. 
Pelvics below anterior ^ of dorsal. Silveiy ; back darker ; 
tip of dorsal Hn blackish. 

West Africa. 

Numerous examples up to 30Q mm. in total length. 

7. HiLSA, gen. no v. 
ParaJosa (non Bleek.), Eegan, Ann. Diu-ban Mus. i. 1916, p. 167. 

Distinguished from Alosa by the smooth operculum and 
the different arrangement of the gill-rakers of the anterior 
arch, from Etiimalosa by the normal structure of the gill- 
rakers, and from both by the absence of alar scales on the 
caudal tin. 



304 



l\Ir. C T, Regan on the Clupeoid Fishes 



Coasts and rivers from Natal to Cliiiin. 

In the yoniig the body is deeper and the head smaller tlian 
in the adults, the greater lenjitli of the head in the latter 
being mainly due to the size ot tiie operculum. 

/Sj/iiopsis of the Species. 

I. Parietal ridges expanded and striated. 

A. Depth -Ji to 3 in the leuglh. 

Head 3 to 3? in the length 1. kaiinf/urta. 

Head 3| to 3j in tlie length 2. diabuneiisis, 

B. Depth 2j in the length 3. brachrjsoma. 

II. Pai-ietal ridges narrow, covered by smooth skin. 

A. Maxillary extending to below middle of eye (young) or beyond. 

1. Caudal lobes as long as head. 

Operculum ^ to ^ as broad as deep ; scales 45-48/17-20. 4. ilisha. 
Operculum § to f as broad as deep ; scales 42-4;"), lG-17. 5. reevesi, 

2. Caudal lobes longer than head. 

Operculum ^ to § as broad as deep ; scales 40/14-15 . . 6. toli. 

B. Maxilhn-y not reaching middle of eye; caudal lobes much longer 

than head ; scales 4o/14-15. 7. macyuia. 



1. IlUsa hanacjiirta. 

Alosa kana</urf(i, Bleek. Verb. Bat. Gen. xxiv. 1852, Ilaringacht. 

p. 34 ; Atl. Ichth. vi. p. 114, Chip. pi. vii. fig. 5 (1872). 
Alosa maUnjaHa, Bleek. Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk. iii. 186G, p. 294 ; Atl. 

Ichth. vi. p. 114, Chip. pi. vii. tig. 4. 
Clupea ilisha, Gunth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 445 (18G8). 
Cliqx'a Ji-a7in(jurta, Dav, Fish. India, p. 640, pi. clxii. fig. 4 ; Weber & 

Beaufort, Fish. ludo-Austral. Arch. ii. p. 67 (1913). 

De|)th of body 2i to 3 in the length, length of head 3 to 
3?. Parietal ridges expanded and striated. Snout nearly as 
lung as or a little longer than diameter of eye, which is 3'| 
to 4^ in length of head ; maxillary extending to below middle 
or posterior part of eye ; width ot operculum ^ or less than ^ 
its depth ; 100 to 150 gill-rakers on lower j)ait of anterior 
arch. 42 to 45 scales in a longitudinal series, 13 or 14 in a 
transverse series; ventral scutes 16-18+11-13. Dorsal 
17-20. Anal 19-22. Pelvics below anterior half of dorsal. 
Caudal about as long as head. A dark liumeial spot, in the 
young followed by a series. 

Zanzibar to Malay Archipelago. 

Fifteen examples, up to 220 mm. in total length. 



of the Genera Pomolubii?, Bievoortia, &c. 305 

2. llilsa durhanensis. 

C'lupea durbanen.v's, "Regan, Ann. Natal Govt, Miis. i. 190G, p. 4, 
pi. iv. ; Gilchrist, S. Afr. Mar. Biol. Rep. i. 1913, p. 59. 

Depth of boily 2^ to 3 in the length, length of head 3| to 
3f . Parietal riuges expanded and striated. Snout as long 
as or sliglitly longer than diameter of eye, which is 4 to 4^ 
in length of iiead ; maxillary extending to below middle or 
])osterior part of eye; wiilth of opercukun f its deptli ; 150 
gill-rakers on lower part of aiiterior arch. 42 to 44 scales in 
a longitudinal, 13 or ]4 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 
16-17 + 12-13. Dorsal 17-1«. Anal 19-21. Pelvics 
below anterior half of dorsal. Caudal irin about as lonjj as 
head. A dark hunieial spot. Upper edge of dorsal and 
posterior edge of caudal bluckisli. 

Natal. 

Three specimens from Durban, 140 to 200 mm. in total 
length. 

Gilchrist has examined a large example, 240 mm. long to 
base of caudal fin ; in this the head is 3? in the length, and 
there are 200 gill-rakers on the lower part of the anterior 
arch. 

3. llilsa hrachysoma. 

? Alosa brevis, Bleek. J. Ind. Arcli. ii. no. 9, 1848, p. 638 ; Atl. Ichtli. 

vi. p. 116 (1872). 
Alosa bruchysoma, Bleek. Nat. Tijdsclir. Ned. Ind. v. 1853, p. 527 ; 

Atl. Ichtii. vi. p. llo, Ckip. pi. iv. tig. 5 (1872). 
Clupea platij(iaster, Giiuth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 448 (18G8) ; Weber & 

Beaufort, i'ish. ludo-Austral. Arch. ii. p. 66, tig. 24 (1913). 

Depth of body 2\ in the length, length of head 3?. 
Parietal ridges expanded and striated. Snout as long as 
diameter of eye, which is 4 in length of head; maxillary 
extending beyond middle of eye ; width of operculum 'i its 
dejttli ; 100 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 42 
se;.les in a longitudinal, 15 in a transverse series; ventral 
scutes 17 + 12. Dorsal 17-18. Anal 20-21. Pelvics below 
middle of dorsal. Caudal about as long as head. A dark 
humeral spot ; dorsal and caudal dark-edged. 

Sumatra. 

Here described from Blccker's tyi)e and only specimen, 
which has the luad ami body deeper and the lower jaw longer 
elc. than in A. hanagurta of this size (120 mm.) ; also the 
first mid-dorsal post-cephalic scale is a striated bony plate. 

Weber and Beaufort^s figure is of a fish that agrees with 
Blet ker's in the appearance of the head, but is more elongate 
in form, the depth about 2§ in the length. 



306 Mr. C. T. Regan on the Clnpeoid Fislief 

A. IJiJsa ilishd. 

Chipanodon ilisha, Ham. Bach. Fish. Gamres, p. 243, pi. xix. fig. 75, 
Alusa palaanh, Ciiv. & Val. Hist. ISat. Poiss. ;cx. p. 432 (1847). 
Clupea palosoh, Giinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 44.5 (1S68). 
Clupea ilisha, Bay, Fish. ludia, p. 640, ]>1. clxxii. fig. 3 (1878). 

Depth of body 2^ to 3 in the length, lengtli of liead 3^ to 
3J. l\irietal litloes nairow, covered with smooth skin in the 
iuliilt tisli. Snout as long as or longer than dinnieter of eye, 
which is 4| to 7 in the length of head ; niaxilhiry extending 
to below posterior part of eye or beyond ; width of operculum 
from a little more than -^ to § of its depth ; 120 (young) to 
220 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 45 to 48 
scales in a longitudinal and 17 to 20 in a transverse series ; 
ventral scutes 17-19 + 13-14. Dorsal 18-20. Anal 18-21. 
Pelvic fins below anterior ))art of dorsal. Caudal fin about 
as long as the" head. Vertebrte 47. 

Persian Gulf to Burma. 

Several specimens, 130 to 350 mm. in total length. 

5. II lis I reevrsii. 

Alosa reevesii, Richards, Ichth. China, p. 305 (1846), 

Alosa palamh, Kichards, t. c. p. 30(>. 

Clupea reevesii, Giiiith. Cat, Fish, vii, p, 446 (1868). 

De|)th of body 3 to 3j in the length, length of head 3 to 
3^. Up|)er surface of head covered with skin ; no striated 
bones exposed, except in the young. Snout longer than 
diameter of eye, which is 5 to 9 in length of head ; maxillary 
extending to below posterior part or edge of eye, or a little 
beyond ; width of operculum f or more than | of its depth ; 
gill-rakers long and slender. 150 (young) to 250 on lower 
]»art of anterior arch. 42 to 45 scales in a longitudinal, 16 or 
17 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 18 + 13-14. Dorsal 
17-18. Anal 18-10. Pelvics below anterior half of dorsal. 
Caudal tin about as long as the head. 

China. 

Seveti examples, 150 to 500 mm. long, from Slianghai and 
Kiu Kiang. 

6. Hilsa toll. 

Alusa toll, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss, xx, p. 435 (1847) ; Bleek. 

Atl. Ichth, vi. p, 113, Clup. pi. viii, tig. 4 (1872). 
Alosa ctenolepis, Bleek. Verh. Bat. Gen. xxiv. 1852, Haringacht, p. 32, 
Clupea toll, Gunth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 447 (1868); Day, Fish. India, 

p. 641, pi. clxii, tig, 2 (1878); Weber & Beaufort, Fish, ludo- 

Austral. Arch. ii. p. 64 (1913). 
Cbipea chapra, Giinlh. /. c. 



oj the Genera Pomolobu?, Brevoortin, dr. 307 

Depth of body 2| to 'S{ in tlie length, length of head 3^ to 
4. Parietal ridges narrow, covered with smooth skin in the 
adult fish. Snout as long as or longer than diameter o£ eye, 
which is 4^ to 7^ in the length of head ; maxillary extending 
to below po.sterior part of eye or beyond ; width of operculum 
from ^ to nearly § of its depth ; 70 to 95 gill-rakers on lower 
part of anterior arch. About 40 scales in a longitudinal and 
14 or 15 iu a transverse series ; ventral scutes 17-18 + 11—13. 
Dorsall7-19. Anal 18-21. Pelvics below middle of dorsal. 
Caudal lobes, in the adult fish, nearly 1^ as long as head. 

India, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

Several examples, 120 to 450 mm. in total length. 

7. Ililsa macrura. 

Alosa viacrurns, Bleek. Verli. Bat. Gen. xxiv. 1852, Haringaclit. p. 31 ; 
Atl. Ichth. vi. p. 113, Clup. pi. vi, fig. 4 (1872). 

Clupea macrura, Giintli. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 448 (1868) ; Weber & Beau- 
fort, Fish. Indo-Austral. Arch. ii. p. Go (1913). 

Depth of body 2| to 3j in the length, length of head 4 to 
4f . Parietal ridges narrow, covered with smooth .'^kin in the 
adult fish. Snout not longer than diameter of eye, which is 
4 to 5 in the length of head; maxillary extending to below 
anterior ^- of eye ; width of operculum ^ its deptli ; 60 to 80 
giU-rakcrs on lower part of anterior arch. About 45 scales 
in a longitudinal and 14 or 15 in a transverse series ; ventral 
scutes 16-18 + 11-15. Dorsal 17-20. Anal 18-21. Pelvics 
below middle or anterior part of dorsal. Caudal lobes, in the 
adult fish, nearly twice as lung as head. 

Sunda Islands. 

Three examples, 160 to 350 mm. in total length. 

8. GUDUSIA, Fowler, 1911. 

Froc. Acad. Philadelphia, Ixiii. p. 207. 

Distinguished from Hiha by the smaller scales. 
Two species from the rivers of India and Burma. 

1. Gudusla chapra. 

Clupanodon chapra.. Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, p. 248. 

Cluvea indica, Gray, 111. lud. Zool. j Glinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 444 

(16G8). 
Alau.sa inicrolejjs, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx. p. 439 (1847). 
Clujyea cluipra, \h\y, F'ish. India, p. 639, pi. clxi. fig. 1 (lS78), 
Chipea suhia, Chaudhuri, Kec. Ind. Mas. vii. 1912, p. 439, pi. xxxviii 

fig.l. 

• Dej)th of body 2| to 31 in the length, length of head 3^ to 
3|. Snout shorter than diameter of eye, which is 4 in length 



308 Uv. C. T. rvcgan on the Chipeoid Fishes 

of Iieatl ; maxillary cxtondiiifr to below anterior part or 
niiiKlle of eye; 200 or more gill-rakers on lower part of ante- 
rior areli. 75 to 100 scales in a lonojifudinal ami 27 to H-i in 
n transverse scries; ventral scutes 18-20 + 8-10. Dorsal 
1-1-lG. Anal 20-24. Pectoral 13-14. Pelvics nearly 
liolow orij^in of dorsal. Usually a darlc humeral spot, soine- 
tin)es followed by a scries. 

Nortliern India, fioni Sind to Assam. 

fcSeveral examples, 120 to 140 mm. long. 

2. Gudus'a variegata. 

Clupea variegata, Dav, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 263 ; Fish. India, 
p. 639, pi. clxi. fig. 4. 

Depth of body 2^ in the length, length of head 3|. 
Snout a little sliorter than diameter of eye, which is 4^ la 
length of head ; maxill.iry extending to below mitldle of eye; 
more than 200 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 
i>0 scales in a longitudinal and 32 in a transverse series; 
ventral scutes 19 + 10. Dorsal IG. Anal 23. Pectoral 14. 
Pelvics nearly below origin of dorsal. Back with several 
verlically exjjanded dark sj)Ots. 

Burtna. 

A single specimen, IGG nmi. in total length. 

According to Day, this species ditlcrs From G. chapra in 
the deeper body, the coloration, and 24 to 29 instead of 21 
to 24 anal rays. 

9. Clupaxodon, Lacep. 1803 *. 

Hist. Xat. Poiss. v. p. 408; Bleek. Atl. Ichth. vi. p. 112 (1872). 
Konosirus, Jord. & Suyder, Proc. U.S. IS at. Mas. xxiii. 1900, p. 349. 

Mouth toothless, terminal or subterminal, with lateral 

* Of the six species placed by Lacepede in Chipanodon, Jordan (in 
collaboration) has iit difft-rent times regarded as the genotype : l.jussinui 
(bv designation), 2. pi/c/iardus (by elimination), and 3. thn'ssa (the first 
species). But before this, in 1872, Bleeker (Atl. Ichth. vi. p. 11 2) stated 
tliat Clupanodon thrma was tlie type of Lacepede's genus. Iteference to 
Lacepede's work leaves no doubt that his species was tlie true Clupea 
t/irissa of Linnaus, who took the name and the diagnosis resjiectively 
from Osbeck and from Langerstroni. Lacei^ede took the specific name 
from Linnaeus, and gave China as tlie first locality ; his description of 
the pointed lower jaw and the notched upper jaw, and his statement 
that the fish spawns in fresh water, apply quite well to the Chinese 
species, but not to the Antillean .species (^Opisthoiiema oylinum), which 
so many of the older writers believed to be the same fish. Consequently 
I regard the Clupea thrixsa of Osbeck, Linnajus, and l^acepede, and not 
the Clupea thrissa of Bloch and of Giinther, as tbe type of Clupanodon. 



of the Genera Poinolobn?, Brcvoortin, tC'C. 309 

cleft ; iiiaxillarv nonnally fonned, exteiidin;:; to holow ant(v 
lior part or middle of eye ; anterior sii|iramaxillary al)3eiit. 
Gill-raki'rs slender, very iiuiiieiou?. Dor.sal 15-18 ; last ray 
produced into a filament. Anal 20-28. Pelvics S-r.iyed, 
below anterior part of dorsal. 48 to 58 scales in a l)nui- 
tudinal series, 20-23 in a transverse series. Vertebrte 51 
(in C. puncfatus) . 

Coasts and rivers of Ciiina and Japan. 

1. Cliipanodon thrissa. 

Clupcn thrism, Osbeck, Iter Chinensis, p. 257 (1~57) ; Linn. Svst. Nat. 

ed. 10, p. 318(1758). 
Clupanodon t/iriasn, Lacep. Hist. Xat. Poiss. t. p. 408 (1803). 
C'/uifnessus maculatus, Richard*, Iclith. China, p. 308 (1840) ; Giiiith. 

Cat. Fish. vii. p. 409 (1808). 
Chatuessus osbecki, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xxi. p. lOG (1848). 

Depth of body 2^ to 3 in the lenojth, leno;tli of head ?>\. 
Diameter of eye 4^ to 5 in len<2;th of head. Mouth terminal ; 
maxilhuy extending to below anterior part or middle o£ eye. 
48 scales in a lonjiitudinal, 20 in a transverse series ; ventral 
scutes 18-20 + 10-12. D>rsal 15-16. Anal 22-27. Pelvics 
below anterior ^ of dorsal. A dark humeral spot, sometimes 
followed by a series of spots. 

Cliina; Formosa. 

Three specimens of 150-200 mm. from Formosa ; two from 
China, 60 and 90 mm., are not included except for counts of 
tin-rays etc. 

2. Clupanodon punctatus. 

Chatoessus punctafus, Schlegel, Faun. Japon., Poiss. p. 240, pi. cix. 

fig. 1 (1846) ; Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss, xxi, p, 107 (1848) ; 

Giinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 408 (1868). 
Chatuessus aquosus, Piichards, Ichth. China, p. 30*7 (1846) ; Cuv. & Val, 

Hist. Nat. Poiss. xxi. p. 109 (1848). 
Konotu-us punctatus, Jord. «& Ilerre, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxxi, 1906, 

p. 624. 

Dejttli of body 3 to 3^ in the lengtli, length of head 3f to 
4^. Diameter of eye 4^ to 5 in length of head. Mouth 
subterminal ; maxillary extending to below anterior part or 
nearly to middle of eye. 53 to 58 scales in a longitudinal, 
20 to 23 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 18-21 + 14-17. 
Dorsal 1(3-18. Anal 20-25. Pelvics below anterior ^ of 
dorsal. A dark Lumeial spot ; a dark spot on each scale of 
upper half of body. Vertebra; 51. 

China ; Japan. 

Eleven specimens, 150-200 mm. in total length. 



310 Mr. C. T. Regan on the Clupeoid Fishes 

10. SiGXALOSA, Everm. & Kendall, 1898. 
Bull. U.S. Fish. Coram. 1897, p. 127. 

Month toothless, terminal, with lateral cleft; maxillary 
iiormally formel, extending to below anterior edge of eye or 
a little beyond ; two supramaxillaries. Gill-rakers slender, 
very numerons. Dorsal 13-16; last ray produced into a 
filament. Anal 21-27. Pelvics 8-rayed, below or a little in 
advance of oriu,in of dorsal. About 40 scales in a longitudinal 
series. Vertebra? 41. 

Rivers from Southern U.S.A. to Central America. 

1. Stgnalosa mexicana. 

ChatoessHS mexicanus, Giintli. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 409 (1863). 
Dorosoma mexicanum, Jord, & Everiu. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. xlvii. 

1896, p. 416. 
Sif/nalosa atchafalayce, Jord. & Everm. t. e. 1898, p. 2809, fig. 184, 
Siynalosa mexicana, Meek, Zool. Publ. Columbian Mus. v. 1904, p. 94. 

Depth of body 2f to 3 in the length, length of head 3 to 
3|. Diameter of eye 3| to 4 in length of head ; maxillary 
extending to below anterior edge or \ of eye. 200 gill-rakeis 
on lower part of anterior arch. About 40 scales in a longi- 
tudinal series ; ventral scutes 16-18 + 8-10. Dorsal 13-15; 
origin equidistant from end of snout and base of caudal, or 
nearer former. Anal 23-27. Pelvics inserted a little in 
advance of origin of dorsal. A dark humeral spot. 

Louisiania to Central America, in rivers emptying into the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

Nine specimens, 70 to 100 mm. in total length, 

2. Stgnalosa pefenensls. 

Meletta peteneyisis, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1806, p. 603. 
Chatoessus petenensis, Giiuih. Oat. Fish. vii. p. 408 (1868). 

Depth of body 3 in the length, length of head 31 to 3|. m 

Diameter of eye 3^ to 4 in length of head; maxillary ex- 9 

tending to below anterior ^ or edge of eye. 160 gill-rakers ~ 

on lower part of anterior arcli. About 40 scales in a longi- 
tudinal series ; ventral scutes 14-16 + 10-12. Dorsal 15-16 ; 
orio-in nearer to end of snout than to base of caudal. Anal 
21-24. Pelvics inserted below origin of dorsal. A dark 
humeral spot. 

Lake Peten. 

Four specimens, 70 to 90 mm. in total length. 



of the Genera Pomolobus, Brevoortia, ctr. 311 

11. DOROSOMA, Rafin. 1820. 

Ichth. Oliiensis, p. 3V). 

Chatoexma (part.), Cuv. Reirne Anira. ed. 2, ii. p. 320 (1829); Giintb. 

Cat. Fish. vii. p. 4()(5(1S0S). 
Chatoessus, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Xat. Poiss. xxi. p. 94 (1848). 

IMouth subtermiiial oi' inferior ; maxillary narrowed dis- 
tally ; anterior supramaxillary absent. Gill-rakers .slender, 
ve) y numerous. Dorsal 12-15 ; last ray produced into a 
filament. Anal 26—38. Pelvics 8-rayed, in advance of 
dorsal. 55 to 80 scales in a longitudinal series. Vertebrae 50. 

Atlantic coast and rivers of North and Central America. 

1. Dorosoma cepedianum. 

Meqalops cepediana, Le Sueur, Journ. Acad. Philadelphia, i. 1818, 

p. 361 . 
Clupea heteriira, Eafiiiesque, Amer. Monthly Mag". 1818, p. 354. 
Dorosoma notafn, Ratinesque, Ichth. Ohiensis, p. 39 (1820). 
Chatoessus ellijjiicus, Kirtlaud, Rep. Zool. Ohio, p. 109 (1839). 
Dorosoma wsoctabilis, Abbott, Proc. Acad. Philadelphia, 1860, p. 365. 
Chatoessus cepedianus, Giinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 409 (1868). 
DorosoDia cepediatium, Jord. & Everm, Bull, U.S. Xat. Mus. xlvii. 

1896, p. 416, and 1900, fio-. 183. 
Dorosoma cepfdianum exile, Joid. & Everm. I. c. 
Dorosoma exile, Meek, Zool. Publ. Columbian Mus. v. 1904, p. 94. 

Month small, subterminal or inferior; maxillary extendin*^ 
to below anterior ed<^e of eye.- Depth of body 2 to 3 in the 
lenf^ti), length of head 3| to 4^. Diameter of eye 4 to 5 in 
length of head. 55 to 65 f^cales in a longitudinal serie.«, 21 to 
29 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 17-19 + 10—13. 
l)or&al 13-15. Anal 30-34. Pelvics inserted in advance of 
origin of dorsal. A dark humeral spotj most prominent in 
the young. 

Cape Cod to Mexico, entering- rivers. 

Here described from five specimens, 180 to 260 ram. lono-, 
from Virginia, Illinois, and Texas. In these the body is 
deeper (depth 2 to 2\ in the length) in the examples from 
Virginia than in those from Illinois and Texas (depth 2f to 
3 in the length); but in young specimens this ditference is 
isot apparent, the depth being about ^ of the length in both 
forms. 

2. Dorosoma anale. 
Dorosoma atiale, Meek, Zool. Publ. Columbian Mus. v. 1904, p. 93 fio-. 
Depth of body 2§ to 3 in the length. About 70 scales in 



312 My. 0. T. Ui^.^i^u on the Clnpeoid Fishes 

a longitudinnl series. Dorsal 13-14. Anal 35-38. In 
other rc'S|)('Ct3 like D. cepedlanum. 

Atlantic coast streams of Mexico south of Vera Cniz. 

Two examples, 120 to 160 mm. long, from Perez (Jiee/i-). 

3. Dorosoma chavesi. 
Dorosoma chavesi, Meek, Zool. Publ. Columbian Mus. vii. 1907, p. 112. 

Mouth rather large, with the jaws nearly equal anteriorly, 
the mandible nearly ^ the length o£ head and the slender 
maxillary extemlino- to below the middle of the eye. Deptli 
of body 24 in tlie length, length of iiead 2| to 3. Diameter 
of eye 3 to 3^^ in length of head. 74 to 78 scales in a longi- 
tudinal series ; ventral scutes 17-19 + 9-10. Dorsal 12-15. 
Anal 20-30. A dark humeral spot. 

Total length 47 to 210 mm. 

Lakes Managua and Nicaragua. 

12. Nematalosa, gen. nov. 

Mouth toothless, subterminal or inferior, transverse, its 
cleft forming an angle, maxillary slender, distally slightly 
expanded and curved downwards ; edge of dentary reflected 
outwards in front of extremity of maxillary; one supra- 
maxillary. Gill-rakers slender, very numerous. Dorsal 
13-18 ; last ray prolonged into a filament ; a scaly sheath at 
base. Anal 18-24. Pelvics 8-rayed, below or a little in 
advance of dorsal. Scales 44-50 in a longitudinal series, 
14-21 in a transverse series. Veitebi?e 43 (in iV. erehi). 

Coasts and rivers of Asia and Australia from Arabia to 
Japan and New South Wales. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Second suborbital covering cheek, its anterior edge vertical and its 

lower edge borizontal and in contact with lower limb of prje- 
operculum 1. nasus. 

II. Second suborbital with oblique antero-inferi or edge; a naked area 

above lower limb of praeoperculum. 

A. Dorsal 16-18 ; pelvics below anterior part or middle of dorsal. 

Anal 21-23 ; depth 3 in length 2. japom'ca. 

Anal 19 ; depth 2f in length 3. arabica. 

Anal 20-22 ; depth 2 to 2^ in length 4. come. 

B. Dorsal rays 13-16. Anal 18-22. 

Depth 2 to 2\ in length : eye 3^ (young) to 5 (very large 
fish) in length of head ; pelvics below or immeliiately 
in advance of origin of dorsal 5, ei'ehi. 

Deptb 2| to 2| in length ; eye 4 (youog) to 5 {adult) in 

length of bead ; pelvics below anterior | of dorsal . . 6. horni. 



of the Genera Pomolobas, Brevoortla, &c. 313 

1. Nematnlosa nasns. 

Clupea nnsHs, Blodi, Ausl. Fisohe,iy. p. 116, pi. ccccxxix. fig. 1(1795). 
C'hatoessus oitus, Grav, III. Iiid. Zool.pl. xci. ii^. 2 (1835). 
Chrttocs'ius misuH, Cuv. &: Val. Hist. Nat. P^iss. xxi. p. lOi (18-48); 

Day, Fish. India, p. 6-34, pi. clx. fig-. 4 (1S78). 
Chatuessus chanpole, Gliuth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 410 (1888). 

Depth of body 2f to 21 in the lengtli, lengtli of Iieal S| to 
4. Snout as long- as or shorter than diametsr of eye, which 
is 3j to 4 in length o£ iiead ; maxillary extending to below 
anterior ^ of eye ; second suborbital covering cheek, witli 
vertical anterior edge and liorizont d inferior edge attached 
to lower limb- oE prieoperculuni. 4.5 to 50 scales in a longi- 
tudinal seri(;3, 1,5 to 19 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 
16-19+10-12. Dorsal 15-17. Anal 21-24. Pelvics 
below origin or anterior ^ of dorsal. Dark longitudinal 
streaks along upper series of scales ; often a dark iiumeral 
spot. 

India. 

Several examples, 100 to 200 mm. long, from Sind, 
Bombay, Canara, Madras, Calicut, and Burma. 

2. Nematalosa japonica^ sp. n. 

Depth of body 3 in the length, lengtli o£ head 4^. Snout 
as long as diameter of eye, which is 41 in length of head ; 
maxillary extending to below anterior i- of eye ; second sub- 
orbital with oblique lower edge. 48 to 50 scales in a longi- 
tudinal series, 19 or 20 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 
19-20 + 12-14. Dorsal 16-18. Anal 21-23. Pel vies 
below middle or anterior part of dorsal. A dark humeral 
spot. 

Inland Sea of Japan. 

Three specimens^ 200 mm. in total length. 

3. NemataJosa arabica, sp. n. 

Depth of body 25 in the length, length of head 3|. Snout 
as long as diameter of eye, which is 4^ in length of head ; 
maxillary extending to below anterior -| of eye ; second sub- 
orbital with oblique lower edge. 50 scales in a longitudinal 
series, 19 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 18 + 13. 
Dorsal 17. Anal 19. Pelvics a little in advance of middle 
of dorsal. Dark longitudinal streaks along series of scales on 
upper part of body. 

Muscat. 

A single specimen, 150 mm. in total length. 
Ann, <k Mag. N,. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix, 21 



314 Mr. C. T. Regan on (he Clupeoid Fishes 

4. Nematalosa come. 

CJiafopssus come, Ilichavds, 'Erebus' aud 'Terror' Fish. p. 62, 

pi. xxxviii. tip:s. 7-10 (1846). 
Cfiotoessus nnsHS, rjiinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 407 (18G8). 
Doroxo7na 7wsiis, Bleelc. Atl. Ichtb. vi. p. 142, Chip. pi. ii. fig. 4 (1872) ; 

Weber & Baaufort, Fish. ludo-Aiistral. Arch. ii. p. 24 (1913). 

Depth o£ body 2 to 2^ in the length, length of head 3^ to 
4. Snout neai'ly as long as or shorter than diameter of" eye, 
which is 3 to 4 in the length of head; maxillary extending 
to below anterior ^ of eye ; lower edge of second suborbital 
oblique. 46 to 50 scales in a longitudinal series, 17 to 20 in 
a transverse series; ventral scutes 18-20 + 10-12. Dorsal 
16-18. Anal 20-22. Pel vies below anterior part or middle 
o£ dorsal. Dark longitudinal streaks along upper series of 
scales ; a blackish humeral spot. 

Indo- Australian Archii)elago. 

Several examples up to 200 mm. in total lengtli, including 
one that I believe to be the type of the species {G. nasus, 
specimen k of Giinther). 

5. Nematalosa erebi. 
Chatoessus erebi, Guuth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 407 (1868). 

Depth of body 2 to 2^ in the lengtli, length of head 3^ to 
4^. Snout as long as or shorter than diameter of eye, wliich 
is 33- to 5 in length of head ; maxillary extending to below 
anterior \ of eye ; second suborbital with oblique lower edge. 
46 to 50 scales in a longitudinal series, 17 to 21 in a trans- 
verse series ; ventral scutes 18-19 + 10-12. Dorsal 13-16 ; 
origin above or immediately behind base of pelvics. Anal 
18-22. 

East coast of Australia. 

Several examples, 100 to 350 mm. in total length, from 
Cape York, Burnett R., Mary R., and New South Wales. 

6. Nematalosa horni. 

Chatoessus horni, Zietz, Rep. Horn. Exped. ii. p. 180, pi. xvi. fig. 6 
(1896). 

Depth of body 2}^ to 2f in the lengtli, length of head 3^- to 
4. Snout as long as or shorter than diameter of eye, which 
is 4 to 5 in the length of head ; maxillary extending to below 
anterior ^ of eye ; lower edge of second suborbital oblique. 
44 to 46 scales in a longitudinal series, 15 to 18 in a trans- 
verse series ; ventral scutes 16-18 + 9-11. Dorsal 13-16. 
Anal 18-22. Pelvics below anterior ^ of dorsal. 



of the Genera Pomolobus, Brevoortia, dbo. 315 

Australia. 

I'ive of the types, 100-170 mm. long, from Re:l Bank 
Creek, McDonnell Range ; numerous exim[)le3 from the 
Bulloo Creek, interior of Queensland ('Challenger') and 
some from the Borwau R., interior of New South Wales 
(^Stead). 

13. GoxiALOSA, gen. nov. 

Mouth formed as in NemataJosa. Dorsal 14-17 ; a scaly 
sheatii at base ; last ray not prolonged. Anal 22-28. Pelvics 
8-rayed, below or in advance of origin of dorsal. Scales 
45-75 in a longitudinal series, l(i-25 in a transverse series. 
Vertebrae 44-46. 

Rivers of India and Burma. 



1. Gonial osa modes ta. 

Chatoessus modestus, Dav, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 622, and Fish, 
ludia, p. 633, pi. clx. tig-. 1 (1878). 

Depth of body 2 to 2| in the length, length of head 3| to 
4. Snout shorter than diameter of eye, which is 3 to 3^^ in 
the length of head ; maxillary extending to below anterior 
edge of eye. 45 to 47 scales in a longitudinal series, 16 to 18 
in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 17-19 + 9—12. Dorsal 
14-17. Anal 24r-28. Pelvics below or in advance of origin 
of dorsal. Vertebrae 44. Usually a dark humeral spot. 

Burma. 

Seven specimens up to 100 ram. in total length. 

2. Gonialosa manmina. 

Cl'tpanodon manmina, Ham. Buch. Fish. Ganges, p. 247 (1822). 

? Clupanodon cort'tus, Ham. Buch. t. c. p. 249. 

Chatoessus manmiiia, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xxi. p. 114 (1848) ; 

Day, Fish. India, p. 633, pi. clx. fijr. 2 (1878), 
Chatoessus cortius, Gtinth, Cat. Fish. vii. p. 410 (18G8). 

Depth of body 2| to 31- in the length, length of head 3| to 
4^. Snout shorter than diameter of eye, which is 3 to 3^- in 
length of head ; maxillary not or barely reaching eye. 55 to 
65 scales in a longitiidnial series, 21 to 25 in a transverse 
series. Ventral scutes 16-19 + 10-13. Dorsal 14-17. 
Anal 22-26. Pelvics below or in advance of dorsal. Ver- 
tebrae 46. Sometimes a dark humeral spot. 

Northern India and Assam. 

Several specimens, to 130 mm. in length. 

21* 



316 On the Genera Pomolobas, Brevoortla, dec. 

U. Anodoxtostoma, Bleek. 1849. 
Verb. Batav. Genootsch, xxii., Madura, p. 15. 

Differs from Gonialosa in that the maxillary is a straiohtj 
tliin, transversely expanded lamina, tapering distally, whilst 
the supramaxillary is very slender. Dorsal 17-19, with a 
well- developed sealy sheath extending to tip o£ last ray. 
Anal 18-21, depressible in a scaly sheath. Pel vies 8-rayed, 
below middle or anterior half of dorsal. Scales 40-42 in a 
longitudinal series^ 12-17 in a transverse series. Ver- 
tebrae 42. 

Coasts and rivers of India and Indo- Australian Archipelago. 

1. Anodontostoma chaeunda. 

Clnpayiodon chacun<Ja, Ham. Bach. Fish. Gang'es, p. 246 (1822). 
Chatoessus chaeunda, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xxi. p. Ill (1848) ; 

Giinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 411 (1868); Day, Fish. India, p. 632, 

pi. clx. fi^r. 3 (1878). 
Anodontostoma husseltit, Bleek. Yerh. Batav. Genootsch. xxii. 1849, 

Madura, p. 15. 
Chatoessus sehtnghat, Bleek. Verh. Batav. Genootsch. xxiv. 1853, 

Hariugacht. p. 47. 
Dorosoma chaeunda, Bleek. Atl. Ichth. vi. p. 143, Chip. pi. iii. figs. 5, 6 

(1872) ; Weber & Beaufort, Fish. Indo-Austral. Arch. ii. p. 25, 

fig. 14 (1913). 

Depth of body 2 to 2| in the length, length of head 3^ to 4. 
Snout shorter than diameter of eye, which is 3 to 3| in the 
length of head ; maxillary extending to below anterior ^ of 
eye. 40 to 42 scales in a longitudinal series, 12 to 1.5 in a 
transverse series; ventral scutes 16—18-1-10-11. Dorsal 
17-19. Anal 18-21. Pelvics below middle or anterior part 
of dorsal. Dark longitudinal streaks along upper series of 
scales ; a dark humeral spot. 

India and Indo-Australian Archipelago. 

Numerous examples, up to 160 mm. in total length. 

2. Anodontostoma hreviceps. 
Chatoessus breviceps, Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1876, p. 848. 

Depth of body 2f in the length, length of head nearly 4. 
Snout I as long as eye; maxillary extending to below middle 
of eye. 42 scales in a longitudinal series, 17 in a transverse 
series. Dorsal 19. Anal 19. Pelvics below middle of 
dorsal. Longitudinal dark stripes along upper series of 
scales. 

Total length 230 mm. 

New Hanover. 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymetioptera. 317 



XXVII. — Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera. — XXYII. On 
new Species in the British Museum. By ROWLAND E. 
Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

Family ScoliidsB. 
Subfamily Eliding. 
Elis bodkini, sp. n. 

$ . iNigra ; clypeo lateribus, orbitis interiiis externisque anguste, 
fascia transversa inter antennas, pronoto margine posteriore et 
margins anterioro late interrupto, mesonoto macula qundrata 
postice maculaque parva utrinque angulis posticis, postscutello 
fascia, scgmento mediano fascia longitudinali utrinque, meso- 
pleuris fascia verticali sub alia, segmento dorsali primo macula 
magna utrinque fasciaque angusta interrupta mediana, segmentis 
tertio, quarto quintoque fascia basali, sexto macula transversa 
basali, segmentis ventralibus 2-4 fascia Jata emarginata, quinto 
fascia mediana, angusta, interrupta, femoribusque intermediis 
anticisque macula apicali flavis ; alis subh valinis, area radiali 
late inluscata, venis fuscis ; mandibulis ferrugineis. 
Long. 13 mm. 

? . Clypeus finely punctured, subcarinate longitudinally in 
the middle ; front and vertex coarsely punctured, with sparse 
pale fulvous hairs ; frontal prominence subtuberculate on each 
side on the inner side of the scape. Thorax closely and 
rather coarsely punctured, more finely and closely on the 
pronotum than elsewhere ; median segment subcarinate ia 
the middle at the base, a triangular space at the base much 
more finely punctured than tiie rest ot the dorsal surface, the 
sides of the segment sliallowly obliquely striated. Abdomen 
shining, tinelj and closely punctured, more strongly and 
sparsely on the ventral surl'ace ; sixth dorsal segment closely 
and finely longitudinally striattd. kSecond cubital cell very 
long, the second abscissa of the radius nearly half as long 
again as the third; first recurrent nervure received at three- 
fiftiis from the base of the second cubital cell, second at two- 
fifths from the base of the third cubital cell. 

J Jab. River Mazaruui, British Guiana ((r. E, Bodkin) ; 
November 191G. 

This is a smaller species than Jlavopicta, Sm., and has the 
vertex much more closely pitnctured; the puncturation of the 
thorax is much closer and finer, the markings are somewhat 
different, there is no blue gloss on the abdomen, and the 



318 Mr. E. E. Turner on Fossorial Eymenoptera. 

second abscissa of the radius is ninch longer. In the latter 
characU'r it rcsembli'S the Central-American E. puhhrina, 
Cam., and E. hicim-ta, Sm., but differs from both in markings 
and iu the finer and closer puncturation. 

Family Sapygidae. 
Sapygafartlva, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; antennis ferrugineis, apice infuscatis ; clypeo lateribua, 
fascia arcuata inter antennas, orbit is iuternis anguste, orbitis 
externis supra, pronoto margine antico late interrupto, meso- 
plcuris macula sub alis, postscutello fascia transversa inferrupta, 
segmcnto mediano macula magna apicali ulrinque, segmentis 
abdoiiiinalibus 2-5 fascia lata transversa, sextoque dorsali 
macula magna ante apicem flavis ; feraoribus subtus, tibiis, tarsis, 
Bcgmento dorsali prirao fascia mediana, ventralique secundo basi 
ferrugineis ; alis byalinis, venis nigris, area racliali iufumata. 

Long. 11 mm. 

? . Mandibles very broad, tiydentate at the apex ; clypeus 
subrectangnlar, broader than long, the apical angles pro- 
duced, longitudinally rugose. Head closely punctured- 
moose ; antenna? thickened towards the apex, much stouter 
at the base than in clavicornis ; posterior ocelli at least half 
as far again from the eyes as from each other. Tiiorax very 
closely punctured ; abdomen shining, minutely and closely 
punctured. Second abscissa of the radius half as long as the 
third, more than twice as long as the first. 

JIah. Simla Hills, 6300 ft. 

Nearly allied to clavicornis, but differs in colouring, in the 
larger second cubital cell, and in the stouter basal joints of 
the flageilum. 

Family CrabroaidaB. 

Subfamily Larsinjs. 

Dimorpha rvjlcaudaia, sp. n. 

$. Nigra; flagello fusco; 'scape, mandibulis, pedibusque ferru- 
gineis ; tegulis fuscis, apice testaceis ; segmentis abdominalibus 
4-6 rufis ; alis byalinis, veuis fuscis. 
Long. 8 mm. 

? . Head sparsely punctured, the clypeus and front clothed 
•with long cinereous hairs, clypeus very short, transverse at 
the apex, finely punctured and subcarinate in the middle ; 
second joint of the flageilum distinctly longer than the third; 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hr/menopiera. 319 

posterior ocelli twice as far from each other as from the eyes. 
Mcsonotum shininj^, with scattered punctures, the anterior 
third closely punctured and clothed wiLli cinereous hairs, 
which extend on to the pronoturn, and more sparsely ou to 
the mesopleurfe. Scntellnm smooth and shining. ]\[edian 
segment strongly longitudinally striated, the space between 
the striae more tinely transversely striat:id, forming reticu- 
lations. Abdomen shining, microscopically punctured. 
Itadial cell very short, on the costal margin about twice as 
long as the third abscissa of the radius, and not more tiian 
lialf as long again as the apical margin of the cell; third 
abscissa of the radius half as long again as the second, but 
only one-thiid of the length of the second transverse cubital 
nervure. 

Hah. Nyasaland, Zomba {H. S. Stann\is). 

The colouring of the abdomen is unusual in the genus. 
I use Jurine's name Dimorpha for tiie genus instead of 
Astatus, Latr., as to which there is some confusion. 

Notogonia nigricans, AValk. 

Notogonia nigricans, Walk. List of Hymen, in Egypt, p. 21 (1871). $ . 
Notoqonia sculpturata, Kohl, Ann. Naturh. Hofmus. "\^'ien, vii. p. 12\ 
(lb92). d. 

There is a co-type of Walker's species in the British 
Museum. 

Hah. Egypt ; Port Soudan ; Albania; Gibraltar ; St. Vin- 
cent, Cape Verde Islands. 

Isotogonia palumhuJa^ Kohl. 

Notogonia pahimhula, Kolil, Auu. Naturh. Hofmus. Wien, ix. p. 304 

(1894). 
Notogonia pnnctipleura, Cam., Sjostedt, Kilimandjaro-Meru Exp. ii. 

p. 285 (1910). d- 

This is merely the tropical subspecies of nigricans ; the 
pygidial area of the female is narrower. 

IJah. Cameroons ; Kilimandjaro ; Lake Nyasa ; N.E. 
Rhodesia. 

Isotogonia reticulata, Cam. 
Leptolarra reticulata, Cam. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) v. p. 31 (1900). 

This is the Indian subspecies of nigricans, differing from 
the typical form in the rather finer punctures of the raeso- 
notum. 



320 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Uymenoptera. 

Uih. "RnrracKpore, N.E. India; Mathcran, W. India; 
Ciiapra, Bengal. 

Vorv closel}' allied to these three forms of yiif/ricans is the 
Austialiari JS\ rctiuria, Turn., in which the punetur£S o£ the 
nicsonotum are almost obsolete and the eyes n(>arer to each 
other on the vertex. I do not consider that small differences 
in the comparative length of the abscissa3 of the radius are to 
be relied on in this genus; there seems to be a slight indi- 
vidual variation in this respect. iV. maliensh, Cam., from 
the Si'VclRlh's, differs from reticulata in the longer aud rather 
narrower radial cell. 

Kotogonia irrorata, Sm. 

Larrada irrorata. Sin. Cat. Ilym. B.M. iv. p. 284 (18^j6). $ . _ 
Larra (Nofoqonia) fraudulenta,K.o\i\, A.uu. Xatiuh. ilol'mus. Wien, ix. 
p. a03 (1894). §. 

Hah. Senegal ; Sierra Leone ; Ashanti ; Uganda. 

Notogonia croesii.t, Sm. 

Larrada crcesus, Sm. Cat. Ilym. B.M. iv. p. 284 (1856). $. 
Nutof/onia crcesus, Kohl, Ann. Naturli. Uofmus. Wien, ix. p. 300 

(li94). 2 6. 
Mutes lirioidcs, Turn. Trans. Eut. Soc. London, p. 753 (1912). $ . 

Although the tarsal ungues are toothed in this species in 
the I'emale, the very different form of the pygidial area bhows 
that it is not closely related to Motes. 

Hah. Ea^it Africa from JMashoualand to Witu ; West 
Atrica,'Gambia and Gold Coast. 

Doubtless this species ranges through the whole of tropical 
Africa. 

Kotogonia deceptor, Turn. 
Ilotes deceptor, Tm-n. Ann. & Mag. Isat. Hist. (8) xvii. p. 253 (1916). 

This is closely related to JS. crcesus, and is not a Motes. 
It may possibly prove to be a colour-variety of crcesus, the 
structural differences being very slight. 

Tachysphex excelsus, sp. n. 

5. Nigra; segmentis abdominalibus ]jrimo secundoque, tertioque 

dimidio basali rufis; alis subhyaliuis, leviter infuscatis. 
Long. 12 mm. 

? . Clypeus broadly triangularly deflexed towards the 



Mr. R. E. Turner o?i Fossorial Hymenopiera. 321 

apex, the triangular surface shining, witli large scaftererl 
punctures, the a[jical margin transverse. Eyes separated on 
the vertex by a distance equal to twice t!ie length of the 
second joint of tiie flagellani ; the third joijit of the flugellum 
about as lono- as the liist and second combined. Head and 
thorax very finely and closely punctured; median segment 
opaque, very finely granulate, the sides not striated; the 
posterior slope transversely &ti iolate towards the apex, with a 
deep depression at the base. Abdomen highly polished; 
pvgidial area elongate, rather sparsely and finely punctured. 
The long spur of the hind tibiai distinctly shorter than the 
basal joint of the hind tarsus; spines of the fore tarsus 
forming a comb, slender and fairly long. Radial cell longer 
and narrower than in T. pectimpes ; the second abscissa of 
the radius scarcely shorter than the third. 

Hah. Tibet, Gyangtse, 13,000 ft. {11. J. Walton)] June. 

The sculpture of the median segment resembles T. lati- 
frons, Kohl, from which it differs in other details. The eyes 
are further a| art on the vertex than in T. pectinipes^ to 
which it is allied in the form of the pygidiul area. 

Tachyspltex Jilicornis^ Kohl. 
Tachysphex Jilicornis, Kohl, Deutscli. Ent. Zeitsch. xxvii. p. 169. 

This Mediterianean species occurs at Harar {G. Krif^ten- 
seu). A subspecies occurs at Salisbury, Maslionaland 
(tr. A. K. Marshall), in which the sculpture of the median 
segment is much coarser, there being very distinct divergent 
strioe at the base, whereas tlie strife, as far as they are deve- 
loped in Ji<icornis, are parallel. For this I suggest tlie name 
Tacliyspliex Jilicornis excerptus, subsp. n. 

I do not regard the sculpture of tiie median segmeiit as a 
very reliable character in this genus, considering that it is 
liable to considerable variation in some species. 

Tachysphex auropilosus, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; callis humeralibus, tegulis, abdomine, pedibusque rufo- 
testaceis; segruentis ventralibus nigro iutaminatis ; clvpeo, 
fronte, thorace, segmento mediario, segmentisque dorsalibus mar-^ 
gino apicali praecipue aureo-sericeo-pubescentibus ; alls pallide 
fiavo-hyalinis, apice pallidissime iufuscatis, venis testaceis. 

Loug. 14 mm. 

$. Clypeus broadly rounded at the apex; eyes separated 
on the vertex by a distance not quite equal to the length of 



322 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fosaorial Hymenoptera. 

the second joint of the fl;if^ellum. Thorax and median seg- 
ment very closely and minutely punctured, rather thinly 
covered with very short, delicate, golden pubescence ; the 
posterior slope ot" the median seoaient iinely transversely 
striated, with a deep median sulcus. Pygidial area elongate- 
triangular, shining, sparsely and rather strongly punctured, 
very narrowly truncate at the apex. Comb of tlie fore tarsi 
long ; tibia3 with short golden pubescence. Radial cell 
rounded at the apex, not truncate, third abscissa of the radius 
longer than the second, which is equal to the space between 
the recurrent nervures on the cubitus. Tarsal ungues very 
lono;, as in the genus Notogonia. 

Hah. British East Africa, Simba, 3350 ft. {S. A. Neave), 
April ; Makindu, 3300 ft. [S. A. Neace), April. 

This seems to belong to the group of T. quadricolory 
Gerst., but is a smaller and less robust species, and the eyes 
are nearer together on the vertex; the colour of the wings is 
also dilFerent. The elongate ungues are very remarkable. 

TachyspJiex depilosellus, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; mandibulis basi, clypeo dimidio apicali, scapo, flagello 
articulo primo, articuloque secundo basi, callis huraeralibus, 
abdomiue, pedibu.^que rufo-ferrugiueis ; alls auticis fuscis, posticis 
pallide fusco-hyalinis ; veuis nigris. 

Long. 12 mm. 

? . Clypeus very broadly rounded at the apex, somewhat 
deflexed from the middle, the apical half shining, with a few 
large scattered punctures ; the base of the clypeus and the 
front clothed with very short, sericeous, silver pubescence. 
Thorax closely microscopicall}'' punctured, the mesonotuni 
and scutellnm bare ; dorsal surface of the median segment 
opaque, very closely and microscopically punctured, the sides 
of the segment obliquely, the aj)ex transversely striated. 
Abdomen slender ; pygidial area elongate-triangular, sparsely 
I)unctured. No pubescent fascise on the dorsal segments. 
Tarsal comb long, the basal joint of the fore tarsus with eight 
spines. Radial cell broadly rounded at the apex ; second 
abscissa of the radius longer than the third, which is longer 
than the space between the recurrent nervures on the cubitus. 

Hub. N. Rhodesia, Pakasa (0. Silvtrlock) ; January. 

A very slender species, easily distinguished by tlie fuscous 
wings from any other Ethiopian species with the abdomen red. 



Mr, R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 323 

Tachyfphex hrinckerce, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra ; mandibulis basi, tibiis anticis basi et subtus, tarsis 
anticis, tarsisquc intermediis posticisque apice fusco-ferrugineia ; 
segmontis abdomiiialibus primo secuudoque rufo-ferrugincis ; 
tegulis testaceis ; alls flavo-hyalinis, apice pallidis ; venis testaceis. 

Long. 13 mm. 

? . Cijpens broadly truncate at the apex, finely and closely 
punctured on the basal half; the apical lialt deflexed, shining, 
with large scattered ])unctures. Vertex very closely micro- 
scopically punctured ; the eyes separated on the vertex by 
a distance slightly exceeding the length of the second joint 
of the flagellum ; front and the base of the clypeus clothed 
with very short silvery pubescence, which is only visible in 
certain lights. Thorax minutely and closely punctured ; 
median segment granulate, as long as the mesonotum, the 
Sides and ajjcx ot the segment striated. Second and third 
dorsal segments with a little short silver pubescence at the 
apical angles ; pjgidial area elongate-triangular, sparsely 
punctured. Comb of fore tarsus long, basal joint of the fore 
tarsi with eight spines. Itadial cell broadly rounded at the 
apex ; second abscissa of the radius longer than the third, 
nearly twice as long as the space between the recurrent ner- 
vures on the cubitus. 

Hub. Transvaal, Pretoria {Miss J. Brinckei-). 

Tachysphex ininctatctj Sm. 

Larrada punctata, Sm. Cat. Hym. B.M. iv. p. 282 (1856). S (fvs $ ). 
Larr a punctata, KoLl, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wiea, xxxiv. p. 2^7 (1884). 

The type is a male, not a female, and is a true Tachysphex. 
The wings are of a darker fuscous than in any other small 
black Ethiopian species of the genus known to me. Eyes 
separated on the vertex by a distance equal to about twice 
the length of the second joint of the fiagellum. 

Tachysphex sulfuscatus, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; segmentis abdominalibus duobus basalibus fusco-rufis ; 
tarsis fusco-ferrugineis ; alls subbyalinis, venis fuscis ; clypeo, 
fronte, segmentisque dorsalibus tribus basahbus fascia apicali 
argenteo-pubescentibus ; thorace rugose puuctato ; segmento 
mediauo lougitudinaliter striato-reticulato. 
Long, y mm. 

$ . Clypeus broadly truncate at the apex, the apical 



324 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 

margin armed with a number of ill-defined teeth. Head 
closely and rather finely fiunctured ^ antennae short and stout; 
eyes separated on the vertex by a distance slightly exceeding 
the length of the two basal joints o£ the flagelluni. Thorax 
coarsely punctured-rugose; scutellum punctured; median 
segment irregularly longitudinally striate, with finer trans- 
verse strice, giving a reticulate appearance, which is more 
strongly developed on the more coarsely sculptured sides of 
the segment. Pygidial area smooth, rather broadly trian- 
gular. Legs slender ; comb of the fore tarsi long ; spur o£ 
the hind tibia much shorter than the basal joint of the hind 
tarsi. Radial cell broadly o!)liquely truncate at the apex ; 
second and third abscissae of the radius subequal. 

Hah. Nyasaland, Mlanje, 2300 ft. {S. A. Neave) ; October. 

TacIifjspJiex strigatus, sp. n. 

$ . Xigra ; tarsis articulis apicalibus bruuneo-ferrngineis ; froute 
clvpeoque argenteo-pubescentibus ; mesonoto crasse punctato, 
citiereo-piloso ; segmentis dorsalibus tribus basalibus fascia 
interrupta apicali argenteo-pubescente ; segmento mediano 
fortitcr lougitndinaliter striato ; alls hyalinis, venis brunueo- 
ferrugineis ; tegulis testaceis. 

Long. 9-11 mm. 

? . Clypeusbroadl}^ subtruncate at the apex, the apical mar- 
gin somewhat reflexed and with two blunt teeth on each side, 
closely and not very finely punctured. Front opaque, finely 
punctured-rugulose, thevertex closely and not very finely punc- 
tured. Eves separated on the vertex by a distance half as great 
again as tiie length of the second joint of the fiagellum. Mesc- 
notum and mesopleurge coarsely punctured-rugose; scutellum 
strongly but not very closely punctured. Median segment 
coarsely longitudinally striated, with finer, irregular, transverse 
striaj between ; the sides of the segment coarsely rugose-reti- 
culate. Abdomen shining; pygidial area triangular, shining, 
with a few small scattered punctures. Radial cell rather broadly 
obliquely truncate at the apex ; second abscis:-a of the radius 
a little longer than the third, equal to the distance between 
the recurrent nervures on the cubitus. 

Hah. N.E.Rhodesia, between Fort Jameson and Lundazi, 
40U0 ft. {S. A. Neave), June ; Central Angoniland, Lilongwe 
District, 4000-5000 ft. (-S'. A. i\Wue), "May ; Nyasaland, 
Mombera District, 4000 ft. (*S. A. Neave), June; Nyasaland, 
Kotakota (Dr. J. E. S. Old). 

Easily distinguished by the coarse sculpture of the thorax 
and median segment. 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 325 

Tachyaphex vulneratus, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; manrlibiilis basi, tegulis, tibiis tarsisque anticis, femori- 
bus apice, tibiis intermediis et posticis subtus, tarsisque inter- 
mediis et posticis basi nigro iutaminatis, brunneo-testaceis ; 
segmentis abdorainalibus quinto scxtoque omiiino, quartoquo 
apice rufis ; alis hyalinis, venis f iiscis ; fronte, clypeo, segmentis- 
que dorsalibus tribus basalibus fascia apicali interrupta argenteo- 
pubescentibus ; segineiito mediano longitudinaliter striate. 

cj . Feraiiia3 similis, tibiis tarsisque intermediis et posticis brunneo- 
-testaceis ; segmentis dorsalibus sexto septiraoque orauino, quiuto- 
que apice rutis ; fronte clypeoque aureo-pubesceutibus. 

Long., 2 10-11, (S 8-9 mm. 

? . Clypeus truncate at tlie apex, vatlier broadly depressed 
on the apical mar^'in, with two minute teeth on each side. 
Head finely and closely punctured ; eyes separated on the 
vertex by a distance not quite equal to the length of the 
second joint of the flagellum ; antennae slender and rather 
long. Thorax closely and not very finely punctured ; 
median segment strongly longitudinally striated, the sides of 
the segment more finely obliquely striated, the surface of tlio 
posterior truncation finely transversely striated. Py;tiidial 
area triangular, not elongate, shining, with a few scattered 
punctures. Comb of the fore tarsus long and slender ; the 
long spur of the hind tibia almost as long as the basal joint 
of the hind tarsus. Radial cell long, rather narrowly rounded 
at the apex ; third cubital cell about as long as the second, 
both on the cubitus and on the radius. 

(^ . Seventh dorsal segment broadly rounded at the apex ; 
eighth ventral segment shallowly emarginate, the angles 
produced into distinct teeth. 

IJab. N.E. Rhodesia, Niamadzi River, near Nawalia, 
2000 ft. (S. A. N<ave), August; Mid Luangwa Valley, 
2000 ft. {8. A. Neave)y July ; Upper Luangwa Valley 
{S. A. JSeave), August. 

This differs from strigatus in colour, in the much finer 
sculpture of the tliorax, in tiie lesser distance between the 
eyes, and in the long and slender antennas. 

Prosopigastra neavei, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; mandibulis in medio, abdomine segmentis tribus basali- 
bus, calcaribus, tarsisque articulis apicalibus ferrugineis ; tegulis 
testaceis ; alis hyalinis, iridescentibus, venis nigris. 

<S . Feminae similis ; segmentis abdominalibus 5 apicalibus nigris ; 

tarsis ferrugineis ; tibiis basi albido-maculatis. 
Long., $ 7-8, 6 6 mm. 



326 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 

? . Cljpeu3 very widely arcuately deflexed towards tlie 
apex, the deflexed portion sraootli and shining, the apical 
margin subtruncate. Eyes separated on the vertex by a 
distance equal to about four times the length of the second 
joint of the flagelluni ; head very distinctly but not very 
closely punctured ; a smooth convex area between the ante- 
rior ocellus and the base of the antennse. Thorax rather 
more strongly punctured than tlie head, the individual punc- 
tures large and clearly separated. Median segment scarcely 
more than hal£ as long as the niesDnotnm ; the d n-sal surface 
margined by carinre at the sides and apex, irregularly and 
coarsely striate-reticulate ; the sides of the segment longitu- 
dinally striated, the posterior slope rugose. Abdomen closely 
and finely punctured ; pygidial area shining, sparsely punc- 
tured, very narrowly truncate at the apex. Comb of the 
fore tarsi long and slender. Radial cell short, very broadly 
obliquely truncate at the apex ; second and third abscissas 
of the radius subequal, each at least half as long again as the 
fourth. 

S . Seventh dorsal segment broadly rounded at the apex ; 
eighth ventral segment emarginate, testaceous, tlie apical 
angles produced into short spines. Eyes separated on the 
vertex by a distance not exceeding half the length of the 
second joint of the flagellura. 

Hdh. N.E. Rhodesia, Mid Luangwa Valley, about 
2000 ft. [S. A. Neave), July and August; Nyasaland, be- 
tween Ft. Jameson and Dowa, 4000 ft. [S. A. ^eam), 
October. 

The sexual divergence in the distance between the eyes 
on the vertex is greater than in any Mediterranean species 
of the genus. 

Subfamily Trytoxyloni:!^m. 

Pison papuaninn, Schulz. 

P'lson paimamnn, Scliuiz, Berlin. Ent. Zeit. xiix. p. 217 (19^)4), 

Pison moroius, Sm. Jouru. Linn. Soc, Zool. viii. p. 85 (186-i). 2 {^^^ 

Sm. 1856). 
Pison constrictum, Turn. Ann. & Mag. Xat. Hist. (8) ix. p, 201 (19 J 2), 

Pison constriction, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 627 (1916). 

I had overlooked the name papuanum in my recent paper 
on Pison. 



On a nexo Terrestrial Isopod from New Zealand. 327 



XXVIII. — A neiv Tuherculate Terrestrial Isopod from New 
Zealand. By Chas. Chilton, M.A., D.Sc, M.B., CJL, 
LL.D., C.M.Z.S., Piot'essoi- of Biologj, Canterbury 
College, New Zealand. 

[Plate XIII.] 

In 1915* I described a tuberculate species of Cuharis from 
New Zealand under the name C. suteri. Of this species I 
had only the one specimen, and I stated that of a second 
tuberculate species, C. h/nniltoni, only a single specimen was 
known, these facts showing that our knowledge of tlie 
terrestrial Isopoda of New Zealand was still very incomplete. 
I suggested also that a careful survey, especially in the 
forests of the North Island, might bring to light otlier inter- 
esting species. This has already proved to be the case, and 
I have recently received from Mr. David Miller, of the New 
Zealand Agricultural Department, several specimens of 
another tuberculate Cuharis found under the bark of fallen 
logs in the bush at Levin, Wellington. Of this species 
Mr. Miller was fortunate enough to find eight specimens. 
In general appearance, colour, markings, etc., they are very 
similar to Cuharis suteri, and I at first thought that they 
might perhaps be specimens of this species with the tubercles 
on the dorsal surface better developed than in the type- 
specimen. This, however, proves not to be the case, as the 
tubercles, or, rather, ridges, are arranged differently, and I 
am therefore describing the specimens as a new species, which 
I have much pleasure in naming after their discoverer. 

Cuharis milleri, sp. n. (PI. XIII. figs. 1-6.) 

Specific description. — Oblong-oval, breadth about half the 
length. Epimeral portions fairly well developed, especially 
in the first segment of the pergeon ; central portion of eacli 
segment very convex and marked off from the lateral portions 
by a longitudinal ridge or flange on each segment (Hgs. 1 & 2). 
Head with the anterior margin produced upwards into a well- 
detined ridge projecting slightly above the dorsal surface and 
having the ui)per margin regularly convex and without any 
notch : the posterior surface of the head is produced dorsaliy 
into a distinct transverse flange rising high above the general 
surface and showing in front view much higher than the 

* Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xxxii. p. 425, pi. xxxvii. figs. 24-28, 



328 



Prof. C. Chilton on a new Tuherculate 



anterior mar2;in ; tlic flan<^e lias a slight depression in tliG 
centre, so tliat its npper margin is concave (fig. 3). E icli 
segment of the pera2>n bears a pair of longituiinal tiibercles 
or ridge?!, wiiich are low anteriorly but become higher towards 
tlie posterior part o£ the segment ; tiiese ridges increase in 
size and distinctness on the posterior segments until, in the 
seventh segment, tlie ridge is much higher than the segment 
itself and projects backwards over the pleon. In dorsal view 
i\\(tAe ridges form an almost continuous row, sej)aratiiig the 
central part of the body from the lateral portions. In each 
segment tiiere are a few small tubercles or irregularities both 
on the lateral portions below the ridge and also on the central 
part between the ridges. Inferior margin of first segment of 
perseon deeply cleft posteriorly, the cleft extending nearly 
halfway along tlie whole margin ; inferior margin of the 
second segment with a distinct tubercle on its inner surface 
enclosing a wide notch for the reception of the succeeding 
segment when the animal is rolled up into a ball (tig. 4). 
The pleon bears no ridges and shows the usual characters ; 
the posterior segment has the hind margin either straight or 
very slightly concave (tig. 5). 

Antennai (fig. 3) of normal sliai)e, the second and third 
segments of peduncle subequal, the fourth a little longer and 
the fifth nearly twice as long as the fourth; flagellum a little 
shorter than the fifth joint of peduncle, its first joint ab^ut 
one-third the length of the terminal joint. 

The mouth-parts show the usual structure common to the 
genus, and do not appear to present any distinctive characters. 
The legs are all short and of the usual form. In the single 
male dissected the anterior pairs do not show any special 
modification; but as the specimen is small and the legs 
imperfect the evidence on this point is not quite conclusive. 

The pleopoda of the male do not appear to differ in any 
important points from those of other species of the genus. 

Tlie uropoda (figs. 5 & 6) have the endopod very short, 
almost knob-shaped, extending only a short distance from the 
base ; its extremity bears two or three minute setse. Tiie 
exopod is also very small, reaching only about halfway from 
its attachment to the posterior end of the peduncle ; it bears a 
rather long seta, which reaches nearly as far posteriorly as 
the peduncle. 

Under a high power the whole integument shows minute 
Bcale-like markings. 

Colour. Pale reddish brown, with marblings of a darker 
brown. 



Terrestrial Isopod from New Zealand. 329 

Length of largest specimen about 7 mm. 
Loc. Under the bark of fallen logs in the bush, Levin, 
Wellington, X.Z. 

This species appears to be closely related to Cubaris suteri, 
(/liiiton, the structure of the lateral margin of the tirst and 
second segments of the peraBon and of the uropoda being 
closely similar in the two species. In G. suteri, however, 
the ridges are transverse and mainly confined to the posterior 
border of tiie peraion segments, wliile in the present species 
the ridges are longitudinal, extending along nearly the whole 
of the length of each segment, and they are much better 
developed and consequently more prominent. Another 
tuberculate species, C.hnvnltoni ((Miilton)*, probably also 
comes near to these two species ; but the dorsal surface is much 
more profusely supplied with flanges or ridges and with 
pointed tubercles. C. hamiltoni is known only from the 
single type-specimen which was obtained in the neighbourhood 
of Petane, near Napier, in New Zealand, and this specimen is 
unfortunately somewhat imperfect, so that our knowledge of 
the species is far from complete. The only other tuberculate 
species known from New Z^-aland is C. maonahoni (Chilton), 
originally described from Kenepuru in ^larlborough, though 
I have since had specimens sent to me from one or two 
localities in the North Island. C. spinosus (Dana) is a spiny 
species, '• the body bristled throughout with subacute spines ^^; 
but it is only known from Dana's brief description and tigures, 
no specimen having been since collected. It was found by 
Dana near the Bay of Islands. 

I am much indebted to my assistant, Miss E. M. Herriott,^ 
M.A., for preparing the drawings to illustrate this paper, 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIIL 

(All tlie figures refer to Cuharis milleri, sp, n.) 

Fig. 1. Dorsal view of wliole animal. 

Fig. 2. Side view of animal (antennte and legs not sliown). 

Fig. 3. Front view of head with antennfe etc., the flange arising from 

the posterior border of the head showing behind the anterior 

margin. 
Fig. 4. Lateral margins of person segments 1, 2, and 3, from below. 
Fig. 5. Terminal portion of pleon, from above. 
Fig. 6. Uropoda and terminal segment, from below, 

* See Trans. Linn. Soc, Zool. vol. viii, pp. 99-152, pis. xi.-xvi., and 
Trans. N.Z. lust. vol. xlii. pp. 286-29L 

Ann. <& Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 22 



33U On South- African TalitiiJee. 



XXlX.—Sonfh-Africa7i Talitridfv. 
By the Rev. Thomas R. R* Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S. 

On Christmas Eve in lOlG Mr. II. W. Bell-Mailey, of Durban, 
Nntal, obtained some specimens of Talitridse at Eshowe Bush, 
ISOO feet above sea-level. OE those which he has kindly 
forwarded to me mo-^t are females, but one or two males 
among them, thongh less in size than many of the other sex, 
will, I think, settle a question which has long been obscure. 
The species is clearly that which Spence Bate in 1862 named 
Talorchestia? africnna. Clearly, also, it may now be referred 
to the genus named Talitriator by Methuen in 1913, and more 
fully defined by Barnard in 1916. 

Genus Talitriator, Methuen. 

1913. Talitriator, Matthews, P. Z. S. Lond. p. 109. 

1916. Talitriator, Barnard, Ann. S. African Mus. vol. xv. pt. 3, p. 222. 

Related to Tah'trus by feeble minutely chelate second 
gnathopods in both sexes ; distinguished from it by the first 
antennae nearly as long as the peduncle of the second ; 
maxillipeds with small fourth joint to the palp; first gnatho- 
]jod shorter than second; fifth side-plates of peraeon more 
unequally bilobed ; telson longer than broad. 

Of these characters, the last two seem to be scarcely of 
generic importance. Spence Bate considers the fifth side- 
plate to be equally bilobed in Talitrus; but neither his own 
figures nor the facts .support this statement. 

TaUtriator africanus (Bate) . 

1802. Tnlm-chestia ? africana, Bate, Amphipodous Crust. Brit. Mus. 

p. 15, pi. ii. figs. 6, G?', 6^. 
1906. Talorcliestia ? africana, Stebbing, ' Das Tierreich,' Lief. 21, 

p. 554. 
1910. Talorchestia ? africana, Stebbing, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. vi. 

pt. 4, p. 459. 

1912. Talitrus ? africanus (Bate), Caiman, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 8, vol. x. p. 135 (1912). 

1913. Talitriator castwoodce, Methuen, P. Z. S. Lond. p. 110, pis. x., xi. 
1916. Talitriator eastivooda, Barnard, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. xv. pt. 3, 

p. 223 (and Talorchestia .^ africana, p. 215). 

In the male specimen the flagellum of the first antenna3 has 
ten joints, in the female eleven, in both sexes the third joint 
of the peduncle is the longest, in the second antennse the 
flagellum of the male has 22, the larger female 23 joints. 
The palp of the first maxilla is minute. Of the customary 



k 



On new Species of Indo-Malayan Lepidoptera. 331 

tltree teetli on the inner plate of the maxillipeds two are very 
con?picuous, but tlie innermost small, as sliown by Methuen. 
For the second gnathopod Methuen gives " coxal plate 
excavate beliii\d with conical projection." Barnard mentions 
this as having- specific value in the genus and as excluding 
the tvi)ical species from T'llitrus. It is, however, found ia 
T. alluaudi, Chevreux, 1896. Methuen states that the first 
peifeopod is not quite as long as the second. This, surely, is 
an accidental reversing of the true relation. For the gre it 
size of the anterior lobe of the fifth side-plate there is a 
parallel in T. albiandi. Our specimens show four pairs of 
setules on the telson, while Methuen's figure shows only two 
pairs ; but Barnard suppf)se3 that Methuen^s specimens were 
prohnbly not quite mature. A fine red colour was retained 
by Mr. Bell-Marley's specimens as received nearly two 
months after capture. As this is probably a terrestrial 
species, it is desirable to point nut that in Methuen's notes on 
distribution the word " depths " has by some mischance' been 
substituted for "heights" in the quotation from 'Das 
Tierreich.' 



XXX. — New Species of Indo-Malayan Lepidoptera. 
By Colonel C. SwiNHOE, M.A., F.L.S. 

Danainm. 
Salatura plexippus adnana, nov. 

(^ ?. A local race of pZ^.r?/>/??/5, uniformly smaller ; all the 
black vein-markings narrower ; the black apical portion of 
the fore wing broader, consequently the bronzy-red interspace 
between veins 2 and 3 much shorter; no indication of the 
small similarly coloured space always present in plexippus in 
the next upper interspace, just outside the cell-end, and the 
series of subapical bars all much shorter. 

Expanse of wings, ^ ^\q, ? 3 inches. 

Hab. Luzon. 

IStaudinger refers to this local race in ' Iris,' 1889, p. 28. 

EUFLCEIN^. 

Isamia eclecia, nov. 

(J . Upperside dark blackish brown : fore wing paler on 
the outer third, the inner two-thirds with a slight blue-black 

22* 



332 Colonel C Swinhoe on new 

glos3 ; a minute blue-grey spot at tlie lower end of tlie cell, 
another outside it in the interspace above vein 4, and anotlier 
above the upper end of the cell close to the costal niar,<;ii) : 
hind wing with the costal space whitish, descending a little 
into the cell; a very faint series of blue-grey dots close to 
the outer margin ; no other markings on either wing. Under- 
side fairly uniform blackish brown, paler than it is above ; 
fore wing \Yith the hinder marginal space whitish ; spots 
larger and more prominent, one at the lower end of the cell, 
another beyond it ; a rather lone: oval spot in the intersj^ace 
above vein 2, a small spot outside it, and three small spots 
close to the margin above the hinder angle, and two small 
spots at the base of tiie wing: hind wing with three basal 
small spots, one at the end of the cell, five in a line in the 
interspaces 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, a snbmarginal spot in inter- 
space 2, two close together in interspace 3, and one in inter- 
space 4 ; a series of somewhat larger spots close to the 
margin in the interspaces up to interspace 4 ; cilia with white 
dots in the interspaces both above and below. Head with 
three white spots on each side ; thorax above with a white 
central line; below, palpi with a white spot between them 
and one on each side, thorax covered with white spots, and 
the abdomen with a central row of larger spots. 

Expanse of wings, ^ , 4 inches. 

Hub. Palone, Burma, Jime 1887. 

Hehomoia solomonensisj nov. 

(J. Fore wings with the orange apical portion occupying 
more than onc-tliird of the wing, extending well into the cell, 
filling uj) very nearly the whole of interspace 3 and tlie outer 
and upper half o£ cell 2 ; the costal band very narrow, blackish 
grey powdered with ochreous, thickens a little at the apex, 
runs down the outer margin very narrowly, and ends in a 
blackish suflcu.sed small patch just above the hinder angle; 
the interior blackish band which usually limits the orange 
portion entirely absent ; the submargir.al blackish spots in 
the orange patch spear-shaped and very pale: hind wings 
without any marginal band. Head and body powdered with 
oclneou-. 

Expanse of wings, J, 3jy inches. 

JJab. Solomons. 

Madais vi. 

Teracolus vi, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 437, pi. xxxix. tigs. 6, 7. 
I'trucolus iiitmaculata, Kober, Seitz. Macro. Lep. i. p. 66. 



Species of Indo'Malayan Lepidoptera. ?)33 

Sly type came frem the vicinity of Aden in Arabia, Robei-'s 
type from Syria ; I have both in my museum, and there can 
be no doubt tliey are identical, Teracolus uiisnot mentioned 
in kseitz. 

Family Aganaidae. 

Asota lara. 

Hypsa Inrn, Swinhoe, Ann. & Ma^. N.it. Hist. (6) xii. p. 215 (1893). 
Agannis intacta, var., Snellen, Tijd. voor Eut. xxxi. p. 138, pi. ii. fijjf. 4 
(1888). 

Hah, Java, 

It i.s a good species, quite different to intacta, Walker, 
having a broad, central, longitudinal stripe on the fore wing ; 
it is apparently quite common in Java ; I have received 
several examples from Mt. Ged^ and Buitenzorg. 

Family Drepanidae. 

Sewa orhiferata. 

Abraxas orhiferata, Walker, xxiv. 1126 (1862). 
Aryyris insiynata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 64.5. 
Platypteryx cilicoides, Snellen, I. c. xxxii. p. 9, pi, i. fig. 3 (1889). 

N<ib. Sarawak, Borneo (type in B. M,). 

The type o£ insignata in the B. ^[. is marked " Bengal." 
Snellen's type is from Java. I have it from Mone, Siian 
States {Maiiders^, and from Kina Balu, Borneo (^Everett). 
'I'iiey are all very similar. 

Ticilia argeniilinea. 

Ticilia aryentilinea, Walker, xxxii. 394 (1865) ; Swinhoe, Cat. Het. 

Mus. Oxon. i. p. 244, pi. vii. tig. 13, S (1892). 
Platyptcryx aryentilinea, Snellen, /. c. p. 8, pi. i. fig. 2, $ (1889). 

Hah. Singapore (type ? in Mus. Oxon). 
It is also Iron) Sula in Mus. Uxon. (a (J). Snellen also 
described his type from Java as argentiUnea. 

Family LasiocampidsB. 

hitina cini/va, nov, 

$ . Palpi black, with some white hairs on its upperside ; 
head and thorax covered with lung ochreous-whiie (nearly 
pure wiiite) hairs ; abdomen black ; anal tutt white : lore 
wiiig black, irrorated with very minute white atoms ; a large 
round black spot with a white line through it at the end of 



334 



Colonel C. Swlnlioe on neia 



tlie Cell; an aniouiedial, sinnon.«, trnnsverse white line; a 
postniedial dift'iise white band, narrowino- hinduards^ and 
througli it a black dentate line^ curved outwards below the 
costa, its points outwards; a series of black lunules with 
Avhite outer edges close to the margin ; cilia with some white 
spots : hind wing ])aler, unit'orin in colour, without irrorations, 
a white waved band across its middle IVom the middle of the 
costa to the abdominal margin near tlie anal angle; cilia 
white, with pale blackish spots. Underside unifornily 
coloured like the iipperside of the hind wing ; a rather broad 
white band across both wings, evenly outwardly curved, 
postniedial on fore wing, medial on hind wing; the marginal 
maiks on both Mings as on the npperside. Body and legs 
hiack, with white hairs ; abdomen with wiiite lateral bands. 

Expanse of wings 1^ inch. 

IJab. N. Gippsland, Victoria {H. W. Davey). 

It is unnamed in the B. M. 



Sidna epipasta, nov. 

$ . Palpi ochreous brown ; liead and shoulders covered 
with white hairs; thorax black, with ochreous-grey hairs; 
abdomen black, with some ochreous-grey hairs on I lie tirst 
two segments, small tufts of white haiis on the middle of the 
last two segments and on each segment at the sides ; anal 
tuft white : i'ore wing gre}', darkest on the middle of the 
costa, bhicki.sh on the basal half of the hinder margin, the 
wing covered with minute white irrorations, dense at the 
base and on the lower half of the middle; below the cell a 
white, sinuous, transverse, antemedial line ; a small whi'e 
luiiular mark at the end of the cell; a postniedial band of 
grey lunules outwardly edged with white; a subniarginal 
row of black luimles, outwardly edged with white ; veins 
brown, finely maiked with white: hind wing uniformly 
grey, with a nearly straight white band from the n)iddle of 
the costa to the abdominal margin above the anal angle ; 
cilia of both wings grey. Underside coloured uniforndy 
grey as on the upperside of the hind wing; a transveivse 
medial white band on both wings, nearly straight on fore 
wing, outwardly and evenly curved on liind wing. Body 
concolorous with the wings ; abdomen with the lateral white 
si)ots continued into segmental bands, its anal segment white ; 
legs with white hairs. 

Expanse of wings 1-j^q inch. 

IJab. Yackandandali, Victoria (//. TT". Davey). 



Species of T)uIo-Ma^a>/an Lepidoplera. 335 

Fa mil J Deilemereidae. 

Deilemera luzonica, nov. 

? . Belongs to the evergista group, nearest to cerea^ Boisrl., 
and gerra, Swinhoe (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1903, p. G3, pl.iv. fig.l); 
fore wing of the same blackish-brovvii colour ; a longitudinal 
white streak near the base, shorter than in gerra ^ with a small 
white s))ot below it near the base; a very large white patch 
with waved outer side, commencing at the upper end of the 
cell in a narrow rounded form, broadening hindwards to the 
internal vein ; its inner side is slightly excavated at the lower 
margin of the cell, and then runs inwards below the outer end 
of the basal streak, occupying a large portion of the central 
space of the wing ; two large while, rounded, submarginal 
spots as in gerra, but much larger : hind wing with a narrow 
costal blackish-brown band and an even outer marginal band, 
as in gerra^ with a submarginal white spot in it, a little 
below the apex. Head and body yellow ; collar with two 
black spots ; thorax covered with short green scales ; abdo- 
men with broad black segmental bands. 

Expanse of wings l^^^j- inch. 

llab. Luzon, Philippines. 

Deilemera purata, nov. 

? . Milk-white ; palpi white, the last joint black; top of 
liead with a black spot, two on the collar; thorax with a 
black medial line, and another thinner line on each side of it; 
abdomen with a dorsal row of pale blackish spots; legs white, 
without markings : fore wings with the veins grey, a darker 
grey blotch or patch at the lower end of the ceil : hind wing 
with dark grey streaks at the vein-ends, decreasing in size 
liindwards. Underside with all the vein-ends grey and a 
large space on the fore wing blackish from the base to the 
end of the cell, extending upwards to the costa, the veins 
through this black space white. 

Expanse of wings lyo inch. 

Uab. Luzon, Philippines. 

Figured by tSemper as a female aberration * of Deilemera 
sonticum, Swinhoe, also from the Philippines ; but I have in 
my museum both sexes of sonticum from JMindanao and 
Luzon. The sexes of that species are alike and are widely 
diti'erent from this form, though the palpi, head, and body 
are similarly marked. 

**Pbil. Schmett. pi. Iviii. fig. 7 (1899). 



336 Colonel C. Svvinhoe on new 

Family LymantriidaB. 

Kvproct'is serviUs. 

Fuproctis serrilh, Wallier, xxxii. 350 (1865), J . 

Darala jn-ima, Walker, xxxv. 1017 (18G6). S ■ 

Uiiprocfis incompta, Snellen, Tijd. voor Ent. xx. p. 9, pi. i. fig. 2 

(1879). J. 
Euproct{sf:ivipe7jnis, Snellen, /. c. xxii. p. 107, pi. ix. fic'. 1 (1879). ? . 
Evprodis cinerea, Heylearts, Ann. Soc. Ent. l^elg. xxxvi. p. 10(1892), 
Euproctis nunna, Dnice, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) iii. p. 469 (1899), 

Type (?, Celebes, in Mus. Oxon. 

Type S pi'inut, Celebes, in Mu«!. Oxon. 

Types (^ t'ncompta, Java, in coll. Snellen. 

Type ? flavipennis, Makasiar, Celebes, in coll. Snellen. 

Type cinerea^ Java. 

Type nurma, Timor, in coll. Jnicey. 

As stated in my monograph of this family in Trans. Ent. 
Soc. 1903, p, 420, the colour of the fore wings varies much, 
from pale yellow to olive-brown, and the hind wings from 
yellow to white, I have the two extremes from the same 
locality ; I have received it from Celebes, Java, Talaut, and 
Kina 13alu, Borneo : the markings are all identical. 

Family Hadenidae, 

Cirphis p)1iilippensisy no v. 

(J ?. Palpi, head, body, and fore wings brownish ochreous, 
much as in the common C loreyi, Dup. : fore wing witli a 
narrow white streak along the median vein to the end of the 
cell, with some blackish scales below its basal half ; narrower 
white streaks on all the other veins, and still narrower (very 
fine) streaks in all the interspaces ; some blackish scaling on 
the basal half of the hinder margin ; a small black mark at 
the loM'er end of the cell, at the end of the white streak first 
mentioned, a black dot in the interspace below the middle of 
the cell, and another in the same interspace more than half the 
distance between it and the outer margin, some black points 
on the outer margin ; cilia brownish ochreous, variegated by 
the white streaks running into it: hind wings pure wliite, 
without any markings. Underside with the fore wing paler, 
with the wliite streaks less distinct and a black spot one-sixth 
before the apex, close to the costa. 

Expanse of wings, ^ ? , 1^^^^ inch. 

Hah, Luzon, Philippines, 



Species of Iriflo' Malayan Lepidoptera. 



337 



Family CatocalidaB. 
Attatha flavata, nov. 

$ . Head and body yellow ; collar black ; a bi-oad black 
batid across tlie middle of tlie thorax ; a square black patch 
at the base of the abdomen : fore wings bright yellow ; a short 
black streak from tlie base ; a lung bhick streak on the 
liinder margin, not reaching tlie base nor the hinder angle; a 
black band from the middle of the costa, narrowins: hindwards 
to near the hinder angle, and a triangular black patch from 
the costa near tiie apex, much as in A. ref/alis, Moore, from 
India ; four black sj)ots on the lower portion of the outer 
margin : hind wing paler yellow, with a marginal series of 
small black spots. Underside dull yellow, quite unitbrm in 
colour ; a rather large, quadrate, blackish patch at the end of 
the c>'dl ; small black marginal spots on the hind wniig. 

Expanse of wings, ? , Ij^^- inch. 

JJah. i\ranilla ; two examples received from Herr Semper 
as A\JIavata, Semper ined., but has never been published. 

Altatlia coccinea, nov. 

? . A larger insect than _y7afa^a ; head and thorax yellow ; 
frons black ; collar, middle band across thorax, and patch at 
base of abdomen black as in flavata ; abdomen scarlet : fore 
wing bright yellow, the bands and streaks as in flavata; the 
apical patch not excavated on its outer side as in regnlis^ the 
central band narrower : hind wing scarlet, marginal spots 
small and black. Underside : both wings and body and 
legs uniform scarlet ; fore wiiig with a dark black patch at 
end of cell as \\\ flavata, but bhicker, no black patch in the 
middle of the outer maigin as in regali-f, one black spot at 
the end of vein 3, and a series of black spots on the outer 
margin of the hind wing ; the subterminal large black spot 
in ri-gulis near the anal angle on the uppeiside not present. 

Expanse of wings, $ , Ij-^^ inch. 

Ilab. Luzon {Semper). 

Family Stictopteridae. 
Stidoptera poliafa, nov. 

? . Head, body, and fore wings dark grey, covered with 
blackish irrorations,whichareuniformly distributed throughout 
the fore wings except in the middle of the wing, through which 
there is a prominent black thick line, uniform, and evenly 
outwardly curved, marginal points black : hind wings with 



3iJ8 Colonel ('. Swinlioc on new 

broad and even black border, which occupies nearly half of 
the outer portion of tiie wing ; a black cell-s})Ot and black 
veins ; cilia giej. Underside paler grey, with very broad 
black borders to both wings: fore wings with a black dis- 
coidal spot and another above it close to the costa : hind wings 
with a large black discoidal spot. 

Expanse of wings 1^ inch. 

Ilah. Singapore. 

Received with several examples of S. plagifera, Walker, 
Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. p. 187 (18G4), and described bv Walker 
as a Thrmesia; type in Mus. Oxon., and apparently over- 
looked and omitted in Phal. xi. 

Stictoptera wetter ensis, no v. 

^. Fore wing narrow and long, the outer margin very- 
oblique and but slightly convex ; head, body, and fore wing 
dark pinkish grey, thickly irrorated with black atoms : fore 
wing with a short black linear mark below tlie cell-end, a 
sliorter one at the end, a transverse similar mark near the 
hinder angle, a longer similar mark parallel with the costa at 
the apex, and an obscure blackish mark near the hinder 
margin one-third from the base: hind wing dull white, the 
veins black ; a fairly broad even black baud on the outer 
margin. Underside dirty white, all the veins black: fore 
wing nearly all blackish, tire whitish part confined to the 
space below the cell: hind wing with a discoidal black line 
and blackish borders as on the upperside. 

Expanse of wings 1^ inch. 

iJab. Wetter Islandj South-west Islands, Amboina. 

The Amboina examples are almost identical with that from 
Wetter ; when more material comes to hand the genitalia 
must be examined to determine its exact position. 

Stictoptera tongloana, nov. 

cJ. Head, body, and fore wings greyish brown with a 
slight pinkish tinge : fore wings with a number of indistinct, 
transverse, blackish, waved lines ; a black spot inwardly 
white-edged at the end of the cell, a small black mark below 
the cell beyond its middle, another rather larger beyond it, 
with a small one above it continutd upward in a waved linear 
form to near the costa, a similar submarginal disjointed row 
of black marks, and two black round spots at the apex; all 
the other marks more or less lunular and encircled by a paler 
ground than that of the rest of the wing ; a row of pale 
blackish lunules, inwardly pale-edged, close to the outer 



I 



Species of Indo-2Ialayan Lepidoptera. 339 

mnrgin, and small dark black luniiles, inwardly pale-edg'ed, 
on the margin : hind wings smoky white, veins black ; a very 
broad, even, black marginal band, occupying- one-tliird of the 
wing-space ; cilia white. Underside much as in wetterensis. 

Expanse o£ wings 1^ inch, 

Uab. Tonglo, iSolomon Islands. 

Stictoptera cUspar, nov. 

cJ ? . Palpi, head, body, and fore wings dark chocolate- 
brown, nearly black ; palpi grey in tiont : fore wing with the 
base and outer portions sligiitly paler, markings very in- 
distinct ; a transverse, somewhat oblique, and very indistinct 
band, postmedial, parallel with the outer margin, and beyond 
the reniforni, a paler band adjoining its outer side somewhat 
reddish-tinged, with some obscure black spots in it, and black 
luiiular maiks on the margin : iiind wings smoky white, the 
veins black ; outer margin broadly and evenly black, occu- 
pying more than one-third of the wing. Underside of die 
usual pattern, but the fore wing has four rather prominent 
white spots on the costa before the apex, and the hind wing a 
prominent discal lunular bar which runs up to the costa. 

Expanse of wings 1^^^ inch. 

Hab. Mi. Kebea, lint. N. Guinea, GOOO'. 

I have four examples which 1 received as S. macrormnay 
Snellen (fiom Celebes), but they do not correspond witli 
Snellen's figure or description, or with Hampsou's description 
in Piial. xi. p. 162. 

Stictoptera commutata^ nov. 

? . Fore wings much as in dispar, but there is a very 
large round M-hite spot below the cell at the base of vein 3, 
Avhich sligiitly enteis the cell and also slightly crosses vein 2 ; 
at the base of the wing there are some dull ochreous scales 
and dull ochreous hairs covering the upper sides of the thorax, 
two spots behind, and some on the first two segments of the 
abdomen : hind wings and underside as in dispar. 

Expanse of wings Ij^^ inch. 

Hab. Mf. Kebea, But. X, Guinea, 6000'. 

Two examples. 

Family EpiplemidsB. 
JEpiplema rhacina, nov. 

S . Upperside of a uniform olive-brown colour : fore wing 
.with the basal half of the costa irrorated with dark brown; a 



340 Colonel C. Svviulioe on new 

double ring-sliaped mark somewliat like a figure of 8 in tlie 
cell, anotiier at its end, and a tiiird below the end, the last 
two more or less connected ; tlie basal half of the fore wing 
is finely striated with brown thin striations ; there are indica- 
tions of an outwardly carved brown antemedial line on the 
fore winp", and a sinuous outwardly curved middle line con- 
nocted witli the two outer riui>--marks ; both wings with a 
postmedial line, sinuous in the fore wing-, its upper half very 
deeply outwardly curved, double on the hind wing, waved 
and very slightly outwardly curved ; a row of subniarginal 
brown spots on both wings; outer margin of (he fore wing 
somewhat excavated below the apex as in E. moza, Butler*, 
but not so deeplj', and the two tails of the iiind wing blunt 
and very short. Underside pale pinkish grey, both wings 
with discoidal marks, double brown transverse lines rather 
close together, and minute submarginal spots. 

Expanse of wings 1 ^^ inch. 

Hub. Khasia Hills. 

Family PyralidaB. 

Crithote Iwrridipes. 

Crithote horridipes, Wallcer, Journ. Linn, Soc, Zool. vii. p. IPS (lSt34). 
&elcnis crinipes, Snellen, Tijd. voor Eiit. xxiii. p. ]09, pi. viii. tigs. 4, 4 a 
(1880). 

Type, Saraw;d\, Borneo, in Mus. Oxon. 

T\))e crinipes, Bonthaiu, (JeleLes, in coll. Snellen. 

Apparently a very widely distrihuted si)ecies. I have it 
from Gilolo, the Khasia Hills, and from N. Kanara, S. India; 
there is no appreciable difference in any of them. 

Avitta siihsignans. 

Aritta snlsi<jnans, Walker, xv. 1675 (1858). 

Oroha siirriijen^, "Walker, Joum. Linn. Soc, Zool. vii. p. 81 (1864). 

EpizeiLiis iiiductalis, Snellen, Tijd. Yoor Ent. xxiii. p. 130 (IttSO), and 

xxiv. p. 68, pi. vi. tig. 8 (1881j. 
Avitta fusciosa, Moore, Descr. lud. Lep. Atk. p. 194, pi. vi. fig. 26 (1882). 

Type, Kanara, S. India, in B. J\J. 

Type surrigenSj Sarawak, Borneo, in Mus. Oxon. 

'I'ype ijiductalis, Makas.sar, Celebes, in coll. Snellen. 

Type faticioba^ Khasia Hills, in coll. Staudinger. 

Another widely-spread species. Snellen records it from 
Java, and I have received it from Sumba Island, Java, 
Goping, Peridc, Coomoo (Queensland), the Andaman Islands, 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) i. p. 402 (1878), 



I 



Species of Indo-Malayan Lepidoptera. 341 

Bombay, Nilsjiri Hill.^, and the Kliasia PTills — all apparently 
identical ; whether the examination of: the genitalia will bear 
this out remains to be proved. 

Oseincana aJbistella. 

Osericana alhistella, Walker, xxxiv. 1214 (1865). 

Pinncia /mpillalis, Snellen, Tijd. voor Eut. xxviii. p. 7, pi. i. fig. 7 
(188-5). 

Hah. Sumatra. 

Both types are from Sumatra. I have also a pair from 
Nias. The fore wing of the male is much paler tlian that of 
the female, the hind wing of both sexes very pale in colour. 

Osericana alhistella tnjpherojya, nov.i 

^ $ . Both wings of a uniform purplish grey, tlie hind 
wing- perhaps a shade lighter in colour than the fore wing, 
the pectinations of the long antennae more robust than in 
alhistella, the markings siuiilar. 

Expanse of wina.'', ^ ? , lyu inch. 

JJab. Palawan, Piiilippines ; 1 (J , 3 ? . 

Osericana alhistella sijntypistisy nov. 

(5' ? • Uniformly smaller than either of the foregoing 
forms ; the colour of the hind wing about the same as in 
tryjjJieropa, the colour of the fore wing very much darker; 
the abdomen with more greyish suffusion, the yellow anal 
tuft entirely black on the u[jperside ; in the other two forma 
there are only a few blackish hairs. 

p]xpanse of wings, S 1tV» ? 1t^o-1tV inch. 

Hub. Lawaug, E. Java ; 1 c? , 4 ? . 

SimpUcia sclialdusalis . 

Bocana schulflnsalh , Walker, xvi. 180 (1858). 

Cidicu/a himaryinata, Walker, .Jouin. Linn. Soc. vii. p. 178 (ISfio). 
SimpUcia infmtsta, Felder, Reise Nov., Lep. pl. cxx. fifj-. 45 (1873). 
Kabartha mar(jinata, Moore, Lep. Cevlon, iii. p. 234, pl. clxxvii. fig. 2 

(1885). 
SimpUcia griseoUmhaUs, Snellen, Tijd. voor Ent. xxix. p. 47, pl. ii. fig. 4 

(1886;. 

Hah. Walker's and Feider's types are from Sarawak, 
Borneo, Moore's from Ceylon, and Snellen's from Sumatra. 
It appears to be a very widely spread form ; I have it also 
from the Solomons and from Obi Island in the Moluccas, 
and without examining the genitalia I can find no difference 
between them. 



342 On neic Species of I ndo- Malay an Lepidoptera. 
Family PyraustidsB. 

Margaronia alhoscapulalis, nov. 
GlijphofJes alboscapulalis, Kenrick, MS. 

cJ ? . U|)|)ei-si(le : head and shoulders black : a white spot 
on the collar; body black, a short tiil't of white hairs on each 
side from the base of the thorax : fore wino;s black ; a white 
spot below the costa a little before its middle ; a lar2;e, oval, 
discal white patch as in M. doleschali, Lederer : hind win<^.s 
white, with a broad black band, narrowest on the costa, very 
broad at the apex, narrowins^ somewdiat hindwards to the 
anal alible. Underside : palpi atid body white ; a])domen of 
the male with some black marks, anal tnft black, of the 
female with the lower half black : leors white. 

Expanse of winj^s, <^ ? , Ij'^^j-lj*^ inch. 

Ilah. Ekeiki, Mt. Kebea, Brit. Cent. N. Guinea. 

A fine series of both sexes, allied to M. doleschalt, Lederer, 
but is easily distinguishable by its white hind wings, doh- 
schali having black hind wings, with a very large, almost 
round, white spot. 

Stleptinje. 

Sylepta zarialis, nov. 

(J. Cream-coloured, almost pure white, but not shining; 
palpi chocolate-brown above: fore wing with the costa pale 
chocolate, outer marginal fine line, and a little apical suffusion 
of the same colour very pale: hind wing with the outer 
marginal line very faintly touched with the same tint of 
colour ; otherwise the head, body, wings above and below, 
and the legs without any markings. 

Expanse of wings, ^ , 1 inch. 

Hub. Dinawa, 4000', Brit. N. Guinea. 

Pteaustin^. 
Aphytoceros subjlavalis, nov. 

cJ . Pale yellow ; head and body without markings ; abdo- 
men with the anal tuft black ; a small brush of yellow hairs 
in its middle. Wings above uniform pale yellow, markings 
pale chocolate-brown : fore wing with two outwardly oblique 
sinuous lines, two more antemedial, more close together ; a dot 
in the cell, two short lines from the costa across the end of the 
cell, curved towards each other, with a darker line between 



On the Lemurs of the Hapalemiir Group. 343 

them ; two more or less sinuons lines from the inner end of 
the above, straight to the hinder niaro-in, sliglitly more sepa- 
rated hindvvards ; two postmedial lines from the costa to a 
little below vein 2, somewhat separated from each other at 
the costa, connected near its end by a thin sinuous litie with 
the lower end of the discoidal lines, and four small rings 
attached to the outer half of these two lines ; some marginal 
spots and a little suffusion below the middle of the space 
between: hind wing with a dark lunular line at the end of 
the cell ; two lines from the middle of the costa extending 
hindwards towards the anal angle, the lines anastomosing 
halfway down ; a sinuous line from the costa near the apex 
to the anal angle, where it somewhat thickens ; some sutFusion 
at the apex of the wing ; both wings with dark marginal line 
and yellow cilia, interlined by a pale brown line. Underside 
pale glistening yellowish white, the markings of theupperside 
more or less indicated. Body ai\d legs yellow without any 
markings. 

Expanse of wings, (J, lyV inch. 

Hah. Arfak Mts., 6000', N. New Guinea. 

Not uidike a very large Margaronia ccesalis. Walker. 



XXXI. — The Lemurs of the Hapalemur Oroup. 
By li. I. POCOCK, F.R.S. 

On Hapalemur and Prolemur. 

In addition to the skeleton and skull of the Hapalemur simus 
described by Beddard (P. Z. S. 1901, pp. 121-129), the 
Zofdogical Society's collfction contains^ the following ma- 
terials of Hapalenmr, all the specimens being labelled 
//. yriseu'f, Madagascar, without nearer locality : — < 

1. The skull of an adult but small specimen, without 

history of any kind. 

2. The skin of a small, probably immature, male specimen 

which was received in Nov. 18S7, and has never been 
described. 

3. The skin of the adult male described by Beddard 

(P. Z. S. 1884, pp. .391-399), and later' by Bland 
Sutton (P. Z. S. 1887, p. 3G9). 

4. The skin and skull of an adult male dated June 9th, 

1903, to Sept. 17th, 1904, which like no. 2, has never 
been described. 



344 Mr. R. I. Pocock on the 

This i^aper is based iirimarilj upon an examination of these 
examples. 

The two species above named have quite an extensive 
literature. Skulls assioued to //. grhe.ns have been figuretl 
on several occasions. 'J'o these and to tlie specimens iu the 
Society's collection I shall revert later. 

Good tif^ures of the skull of //. siniii.t have been published, 
notably by Gray (P. Z. S. IbTO, pp. 829-830, fi-s. 1-4), by 
Jeutink (Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. 1885, p. 33), by JMilne- 
Edwards and Grandidier (Hist. Nat. Madno;. Mamni., x\tlas 
ii. pis. cxxii. G & 11, 1890-1896), and by Elliot (Mon. 
Primates, i. j)l. xvii., 1912); and it may be noted that these 
figures attest no structural variations of moment, suggesting 
that more than one form has been described under the name 
siniKs. As I shall presently attempt to show, this is not the 
case with skulls ascribed to //. griseus. 

The fToneric name Jlapaleniur, proposed in 1851 by 
I. GeotlVoy for tiie species then known as Lemur griseus^ 
met with universal and unchallenged acceptance until 1912, 
when Elliot, misled by a sui)erticial inspection of the text, 
substituted lilioxicthus — emended to Mi/oxicehus — on the 
alleged, but entirely enoneous, grounds that Lesson in 1840 
had given the latter title to the type-species of Ilapalemur. 
It is quite true that the first species cited under Mioxicehus 
was named griseus; but it is equally and obviously true that 
the diagnoses, both generic and specilic, oi Mioxicehus griseus 
have no a)>plicabiLity to Hapdleinur griseus. On the contrary, 
they fit tolerably closely the species for which they were 
intended, namely, Chirogaleus major, then known as milii. 
It is possible that Lesson had at the time a specimen of a 
different but closely allied sjjecies of C/iirogalnis before him ; 
but until evidence on that head is forthcoming Mioxicehus 
griseus must stand as a synonym of Chirogaleus major. 
Uapaleniur consequently resumes its former place in litera- 
ture *. 

* Anotlier uiniecessnrj cbanpre introduced by Elliot iuto tlie nomen- 
clature of lemurs is the substitution of the new name Altililemur for 
Opoleniur on the alleged grounds that Gray applied the latter generic 
term to Chirogaleus milii. That is an incorrect interpretation of the 
facts. Opolemur (P. Z. 8. 1870, pp. 853 -8o4) was proposed by Gray for 
a species represented in the British Museum by specimens which he 
wrongly identified as Chiror/aleus milii. That his identification was 
erroneous is shown by the diagnosis and figures. The characters, stated 
and illustrated, of his Opolemur do not fit CJiiror/aleus ; hence the former 
cannot be a synonym of the latter, as Elliot asserted, and Opolemur must 
be restored to use," if the genua it designates is maintainable, with Altili- 
lemur as its synonym. 



I 
I 



Lemurs of the Hapalemur Group. 



345 



So far as I am aware, tlie only other name vvhicli can come 
genericallj into the little group ot lemuroicl species exemplified 
by griseus of I. Geoffroy is ProJeinur, which was used by 
Gray first in a subgeneric, then in a generic, sense for the 
species he described as simus. It ai)pears to me that full 
generic rank should be assigned to this tbrm. The characters 
upon wliicli this opinion is based have been either figured or 
described by previous authors — notably by Gray, Beddard, 
Milne-Edwards, Graudidier, and Elliot, — who, however, did 
not attach so much importance as I do to the differences 
between griseus and simus where they were appreciated *. 
These differences appear to me to be of considerably greater 
systematic value than those which distinguish such genera 
as Chirogalexis and Microcehns, for instance. 

To our knowledge of Prolemur simus I have nothing to 
add. In the subjoined comparative diagnoses of Hapalemur 
and Prolemur T have merely made use of characters in Pro- 
lemur which have been stated by others or are apparent in 
their published figures. 



Hapalemur^ Geoffr. 

Type, griseus, I. GeofEr. 

Gland on forearm present iu 
both sexes. 

Nasals long-, extending back be- 
yond lacrymal foramina. 

Interorbital constriction not ex- 
ceedinji: half the width of the post- 
orbital constriction. 

MesopteryoTjid fossa much longer 
than its greatest width in front. 

Widtli across paroccipital pro- 
cesses at most a little greater than 
length of nasals. 

Malar orifice large, set back be- 
hind middle of orbit. 

Symphysis of mandible strongly 
curved, chin rounded. 

Ramus of mandible slightly 
everted behind dental line. 

Upper /?wt"' much lower than 
canine, a little higher than jmi^ ; 
jivi^ and pm^ unlike in size and 



Prolemur, Gray. 

Type, simus, Gray. 

Gland on forearm present in 
neither sex. 

Nasals short, not extending back 
to level of lacrymal foramina. 

Interorbital constriction con- 
siderably more than half the width 
of the postorbital constriction. 

INIesopter^'goid fossa shorter than 
its <rreatest width iu front. 

Width across parocciijital pro- 
cesses much greater than length of 
nasals. 

Malar orifice small, set forwards 
nearly in line Avith middle of orbit. 

Symphysis of mandible not 
strongly curved, chin flattish. 

Iiamus of mandible strongly 
everted behind dental line. 

Upper pm^ slightly lower than 
canine, much higher than pvi^ ; 
pni^ and ^;»i^ approximately alike 



* Gray's opinion, for example, that the species described by Schlep:el 
as Hapalemur griseus was the same as his //. simiiii attests failure in thia 
respect on his part ; and Beddard, when he suggested that Mivart had 
identified simvs as griseus, must have overlooked that author's description 
of the teeth. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 23 



3i6 Mr. R. I. Pocock on the 

Hapahmur, Geofifr. Proleniur, Gray. 

form ; pm^ molariform, with quad- in ?ize and form ; pm^ not molari- 

rate inner lobe ; jh^ and m^ with form, with ronnded inner lobe ;- 

simple cingiilum, without accessory vi^ and m^ with bilobate cingulum,. 

cusp ; no trace of groove on the the posterior lobe cuspidate ; tlie 

inner cusp of these teeth behind. main inner cusp of these teeth 

grooved posteriorly. 
Legs shorter ; sliull about six- Legs longer : skull about two- 
sevenths the length of the femur *. thirds the length of the femur. 

On the Species of Hapalemur. 

When Hapnlemiir was instituted two species were assigned 
to it by Geoffrey — namely, ^ruews and olivaceits. Tlie latter 
was said to differ from the former in colour and in the shape 
of the lower jaw. Most subsequent authors have concurred 
in the specific identity of the two, and Milne-Edwards and 
Grandidier, who had access to Geoffroy's specimens, called 
olivaceus a variety of griseus ; and their coloured figures show- 
that ^r*'ie».s is lighter in tint than olivaceus. Elliot, however, 
admitted the two species because of the difference in colour 
and the larger size of the skull in olivaceus. The inference to 
be drawn from the literature, whether rightly or wrongly, is 
that the two forms may represent distinct subspecies, or 
possibly species, but that in any case they are closely related 
and exhibit few, if any, constant cranial differences except of 
size. 

The three skins in the Zoological Society's collection are 
decidedly dark in tint, and may be described as dusky brown, 
the hairs being dark bluish giey annulated with rusty brown 
towards the tips. On the crown of the head the rusty brown 
is more in evidence, but round the eyes and on tiie cheeks 
it is less obvious. The underside is lighter than the upper. 
In the small specimen, received in 1887, the belly and thighs 
inside are bright buff, the throat grey. In the two others 
the throat is darker and the belly dark grey washed with 
brown. Provisionally I regard these skins as belonging to 
one and the same species and race, and the colouring enforces 

• Judging from M.-Edwards's figures of the skeletons of H. griseus 
and P. simus. For instance, in H. griseus the skull measures 73 mm. 
and the femur 90 ; in P. siimis the skull is 81 mm. and the femur 120. 

In the Zoological Society's specimen of P. simus the femur is actually 
a little longer, being 122 mm. to the head, whereas the skull is shorter, 
namely, 75 mm. The skeleton, however, is that of an immature speci- 
men, with the last molar teeth still buried in the bone, as Beddard's 
figure indicates. Probably the skull would have increased in length 
proportionately much more than the femur. 

Unfortunately the leg-measurements of II. schlegeli are unknown. 
Hence the character above stated can only be used provisionally in a 
freneric sense. 



Lemurs of tlie Hapalemur Group. 347 

the conclusion that they are the oJivaceus-{Q\-m of //r/sews, and 
not typical griseus. Tliis conclusion is borne out by the skull 
ot" the example received on 9. 6. 03, which is a little larger,, 
than the skull of griseus figured by Milne-Edwards and 
Orandidler. It also has the muzzle less steeply inclined, the 
posterior half of the zygomatic arch a little more arcuate, and 
the glenoid a little lower with reference to the dental line. 
I have not sufficient material to judge of the systematic value 
of these differences. Otherwise the two skulls are very much 
alike ; and it is possible that M.-Edwards^s illustration, as 
suggested below, was taken from an example of what he 
called the olivaceus variety o? griseus. 

I stated above that skulls of specimens assigned to Ilapa- 
lemur griseus iiave been figured on several occasions; and 
the figures indicate confusion of more than one form under 
that name. For instance, if the figure of the skull published 
by Schlegel be compared with that published by Milne- 
Edwards and Grandidier, it will be seen that the differences 
between them fall quite outside the limit of individual varia- 
tion exemplified by Prohmur simus ov by any single species 
of the Lemuridse known to me. Gray, indeed, declared that 
Schlegel had drawn the skull of an example of Prolemur simus 
in mistake for Hapalemur griseus. With this opinion 
Beddard was disposed to agree, and Jentink tried to account 
for the error of this view by explaining that Schlegel's 
illustration was inaccurate, apparently because it did not 
agree with tlie skulls that he possessed. Doubtless it did 
not; but in my opinion Schlegel's figure was exact in all 
essential points, seeing that it agrees singularly closely with 
the adult skull in the Society's cullection mentioned first on 
my list in the opening ])aragiaph of this paper. 

Similarly, the skull of the specimen that lived in the Gardens 
from June 1903 to Sept. 1904 agrees in the main, though not 
so closely as in the other case, with the skull of IJ. griseus 
figured by Milne-Edwards and Grandidier. Since these 
French authors had access to GeoftVoy's type of griseus, it 
must be assumed that the example they identified as griseus 
belonged to that form or to olivaceus, which was regarded as 
the same, and that Schlegel's example was wrongly rt-ftrred 
io griseus. Confirmation of this conclusion was supplied by 
Elliot, who also saw the specimens in the Paris Museum, and 
remarked in connection with Schlegel's illustration : — "This 
figure is badly drawn, or does not represent the skull of 
H. griseus. It is altogether too broad, especially the muzzle." 
From this passage it seems that Elliot was not prepared 
altogether to accept Jentink's verdict as to the inaccuracy of 

23* 



348 Mr. R. I. Pocock on the 

Sclileo-el's figure, and tliat the possibility of anotlier species 
beiii"- concerned dawned npon him. Nevertheless, the short- 
ness of the muzzle misled him apparently in the matter of its 
apparent superior width. 

Both the literature, therefore, and the skulls in my 
possession attest the existence of two well-marked species of 
JIapalenmr — one exemplified by the small skull above referred 
to, which ])robably belongs to the form Schlegel identified as 
H. griseus, the otiier being the tine f/riseus of Geoffroy, which 
has been well figured by Milne-Edwards and Grandidier. 
The former species I propose to describe as new, taking the 
skull in the Zoological Societj'^'s collection as the type. Since 
the only other skull I have at hand is that of the specimen 
determined, for reasons already stated, as olivaceus, I have 
diagnosed the new species with special reference to olivaceus 
rather than to griseus^ although the differences between it and 
Milne-Edwards's figure of the skull of gr'iseus are almost as 
well maiked. 

Hapalemur schlegeli, sp. n. 

P Hapaletnur griseus, Schlegel, in PoUeu & Van Dam, Rech. Faune de 
Madag., Mamui. et Ois. p. 6, pi. vii, tigs. 4 a-d (skull). Nee H. gri- 
seus, Is. Geoff. 

Skull (type) considerably shorter but relatively broader, 
higher, and more arched antero-posteriorly along its upper 
profile, and less hollowed between the postorbital processes, 
than in H. olivaceus, the orbits relatively larger, with the 
inferior edge much more salient, giving a strongly sinuous 
curvature to the outline of the malar arch, and causing a 
deeper groove along the outer surface of its suborbital 
portion ; the upper surface of the muzzle more depressed and 
curved, the upper portion of the maxilla compressed along 
the nasal suture, the lateral edge of the anterior nares emai- 
ginate in profile view, this orifice slightly higher than wide, 
compresr^ed above. In H. olivaceus the muzzle and anterior 
nares are not compressed above and the latter orifice is slightly 
wider than high. The zygomatic arch and postorbital bar 
are relatively stouter than in olivaceus ; the mastoid is inflated, 
reducing the pai-occipital process, and the ujjper edge of the 
zygoma is not continued as a crest back to tlie occiput as it 
is in H. olivaceus, where the mastoid is not inflated but flat, 
leaving the paroccipital processes salient. The basicranial 
axis is more steeply inclined, so that the bullae and occipital 
condyles are set considerably lower with reference to the 
alveolar border of the maxilla than in olivaceus^. 

* This difference is not so marked between the skulls of H. schlegeli 
and H, griseux, judging from M.-Edwards's figure of the latter. 



Lemurs of the Hapalenuu- Group. 



349 



Teeth of 11, schlegeli shorter and narrower. 

The typical skull of H. schlegeli has fully erupted and 
cornj.'lete dentition and the sutures nearly obliterated. The 
obliteration, however, has not extended to quite the same 
extent as in the skull referred to //. olivaceus. Nor is there 
in the skull of //. schlegeli a median sagittal ridge on the 
parietal region. Tlie low temporal crests are merely con- 
fluent near the middle of the parietals. The difference in this 
respect may be due to difference of age ; but this is uncertain. 
AVhen the two skulls are placed side by side on a flat surface 
they are practically the same height, despite the considerable 
disparity in length. 

The differences in the shape and the dimensions of various 
parts of the skulls may be appreciated fiom the subjoined 
table of measurements of the type of schlegeli ii\id of my skull 
referred to olivaceus. In the third column are given the 
dimensions taken from the figures of the skull named griseus 
by M.-Edwards : — 



i 


schleyeli. 


olivaceus. 


gi'iseus. 


I 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


Basal lena-th 


52 


64 


60 


Length of palate along middle line .... 


25 


31 


29 


Length from post, edge of postorb. bar 








to tip of pmx 


36 


42 


37 


Length from post, edge of orbit to 








lacrvmal foramen 


19 
14 


19 
14 


19 
14 


Height of orbit 


Height from alveolar border to lower 


edge of orbit 


9 
31 

23 


12 
33 
19 


10-5 

33 

19 


Width of cranium 


Width of postorbital constriction 


Width of interorbital constriction 


8 


10 


10 


Width across zygomata (postorbital) . . 


44 


49 


48 


Width across orbits 


39 


40 


40 


Width of muzzle above canines 


14 


17 


16 


Length of mandible from condyle 


41 


52 


48 


Width of upper p7n^ 


4-5 


6-5 


5 





Skulls assigned to H. griseus have also been figured by 
Jentink (Notes Leyden Mus. vii. pis. i. & ii. figs. 3-4^ 1885) 
and by van der Hoeven (Tijds. Nat. Geschied. 1844, pi. i. 
fig. 1) ; but in both cases there are discrepancies in the 
dimensions of the superior and lateral views which make it 
impossible to tabulate the measurements. For instance, in 
the case of Jentiuk's specimen the superior view of the skull is 
65 mm., the lateral view 62*5, whereas the lateral view of the 
mandible from the condyle is 44 and the superior view 40. 



350 Mr. R. I. Pocock 07i the 

In Iloeveii's figure the superior view of the cranium is 59, 

the hiteral view is 63. Ifc may be noted that in M.-Edwards^s 

figure of the skull of griseus the measurements coincide, as 

should be the case, both from the lateral and superior aspects. 

Turning to Jentink's text, we find it stated that sixteen 

adult skulls measured 61 mm. in total length and 42 in width 

across the z_ygomata. They are thus considerably smaller 

than the skull of griseus figured by M. -Edwards, which i& 

73 ram. long and 48 broad, while my olivaeeus is 70 mm» 

long and 49 broad. Clearly, therefore, Jentink's skulls were 

considerably smaller than the one depicted by Milne-Edwards 

and than the one I have described as olivaeeus. This suggests 

the possibility of j\Iilne-Ed\vards having described a skull of 

olivaeeus as griseuSj^ coiwso, he might very well liave adopted^ 

seeing that he regarded olivaeeus merely as a variety of griseus. 

Again, if the specimen figured by Jentink be a true sample 

of the sixteen lie had for examination, they all differ from my 

olivaeeus and Milne-Edwards''s griseus in having a very much 

thinner postorbital bar. This, however, bke the smaller size, 

may be a matler of age. Moreover, it will be noticed that 

the temporal crests are subparallel, showing scarcely any sign 

of convergence as far back even as the interparietal region,. 

whereas in ray olivaeeus and M.-Edwards^s^/i^'e«s these ridges 

coalesce and form a fairly strong sagittal crest over the 

middle line of the parietal region. 

But, whether Jentink's skulls represent a form distinct 
from M. -Edwards's griseus^ or are merely less well-developed 
individuals of the same species, it is quite clear they are not 
referable to the same form as the one I have named schlegeli. 
They are too long and narrow, have very slender postorbital 
bars, and the frontal bones are depressed as in my skull of 
olivaeeus. 

There is no occasion to publish a figure of the type-skull 
of II. sehl&geli, since it is in almost punctilious agreement 
with SchlegePs illustration, which shows the inflation of the 
mastoid, the sinuous curvature and suborbital salience of the 
malar arch, the thickness of the postorbital bar, the large 
orbits, the cranial width, the curvature of the upper profile, 
the shortness of the muzzle, etc. One rather marked difference 
in tiie tip of the muzzle may be explained, I suspect, by the 
cutting away of this part of the skull in iSchlegel's example 
when it was removed from the skin. The incisor teeth are 
missing, as others have remarked, and this defect suggests 
that a portion of the premaxilla may have been cut away. 
If so, the ends of the nasals may have been truncated at the 
same time. This, howeverj is merely a suggestion. lu the 



Lemurs of the Hapalemur Group. 351 

tjpe-specimen also the angle of the mandible is less rounded 
and the upper end of the coionoid is thinner, longer, and less 
curved than shown in Schleo:el's fio-ure. 

The specimen described by Schlegel as H. griseus was 
•discovered by Pollen at Ambassuana, three days' journey 
fiom the nortii-west coast of Madagascar. If, as I suspect, 
the type of //. schlegeli belongs to the same species, it 
probably came from the north-west coast of Madagascar, 
possibly also from Ambassuana. 

The Arm-glands 0/ Hapalemur. 

The presence of glands on the forearm in Hapalemur 
griseus — or, rather, olivaceus, for such one of the specimens 
proves to be — was first pointed out by Beddard, who also 
iiscertained, from Jentink and Milne-Edwards, that no such 
glands are developed in Proleinur simus. This character 
alone is sufficient, in my opinion, for generic separation of 
the two species. 

In the two male specimens of H. oh'vaceus^ in which he 
described the glands, he pointed out that the naked tract of 
skin above the wrist was covered with long and coarse 
papilla? ; but, judging from his figures, the papillae were much 
better developed in the first specimen examined than in the 
second. 

In the two other skins in the Society's collection, which 
Beddard did not see — namely, the small one received Nov. 10, 
1887, and the adult received June 9th, 1903, — the gland 
differs in that the tract of integument is comparatively 
smooth, being merely roughened, so far as can be judged on 
the dried skin, with fine granular papillse. 

With regard to the glands on the upper arm, regarded by 
Beddard (but, I think, wrongly) as mammse, I can find no trace 
of them in the small and presumably immature skin ; and in 
the adult skin with the glandular tract of the forearm nearly 
smooth they are less well developed than in the specimen in 
wiiich they were first detected — namely, the one with the 
glandular area of the forearm exceedingly coarsely papillate. 

I do not think any special importance should be attached 
to these differences, because in Letnur calta, which possesses 
similar glands, the spur on the glandular tract of the forearm, 
which may be compared to the papillse in Hapalemur, varies 

* I hare the dried skin of the example described by Beddard in 1884. 
Of the second specimen described in P. Z. S. 1891, p. 449, and 1902, 
p. 159, no history was given, and the skin was not preserved. Probably 
it was olivaceus. 



352 Mr. 0. Thomas — Some Notes 

in development with age, being larger in older specimens, 
and the gland of the upper arm is, I believe, subject to 
seasonal changes in size. 

The occurrence of similar glands in two sucli widely 
different species as Lenmr cafta and Hapalemur griseus, and 
their complete absence in the other species referred to Lemur 
and in Prolemur simus, is a remarkable fact. 



XXXII. — Some Notes on Three-toed Sloths. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

To those whose interest it is to compare zoological characters 
in their relation to geographical distribution no group of 
Mammals is so unattractive as the sloths, on account (1) of 
their variability, especially in the skull, in specimens from 
the same place, (2) the slight and intangible characters that 
distinguish specimens from the most distant localities, and 
(3) tlie great state of confusion that has resulted from the 
descriptive eflorts of Wagler, Gray, and Fitzinger. Early 
descriptions, without statements of locality, have been made 
the basis of various names, and it is a matter of the greatest 
difficulty to disentangle the confusion. 

The present notes make no pretence of being complete, and 
are purposely worded somewhat vaguely, as such are the 
difficulties of the case that there is hardly a statement I can 
make which may not prove liable to modification as fuller 
series from all localities are studied. 

Firstly, with regard to genera, I am disposed to recognize 
the collared sloth, Bradypus torqiiatus, Dtsmarest, 1817 (not 
llliger, as usually quoted, for the latter author's two refer- 
ences are both nomina mida), as forming a special genus, 
vvliich may be distinguished by the inflated pterygoids, better 
developed premaxillse, the median spout-like projection on 
the mandible, and the absence of a dorsal gland or " speculum " 
in the male *. all these characters being as in Ckola'pus. The 
generic name of Scceopus, Peters, is available for it. 

* I can b}' no means subscribe to Dr. Allen's conclusion (Bull. Am. 
Mus. XX. p. 339, 1904) that " the presence or absence of this highly 
differentiated patch is not sexual " — a conclusion based on what I must 
consider the incorrect sexing of certain " femules " by one of his collectors. 
Kot only has it long been generally accepted that the speculum is charac- 
teristic of the male, but I find that in every specimen without speculum 
in our collectiou mammte are to be found, while in no example with 
speculum is there any trace of them. With so large a collection, in- 
cluding so main different forms, this evidence appears to me conclusive. 



on Three-toed Sloths, 353 

Synonyms of Scceopus torguatus are cri?iitus, Gray, 1849 
(ex Browne), and affinis, Gray, 1849. The species is con- 
fined to South-western Brazil, but the limits of its range are 
not known. Mr. A. Robert sent a nice series of it to the 
British Museum from Engenheiro Reeve, Espirito Santo, in 
1903. 

Passing now to true Bradypus^ we find the question of the 
identification of its type-species, tridaetylus, Linn., a qucsti )U 
so productive of confusion among tlie earlv writers, lias now 
been settled by the fixation as the typical locality of the latter 
as Surinam * — so that the Guianan species should bear the 
name tridaetylus. 

B. tridaetylus is the best-marked of the species of the 
genus, being readily recognizable by the extension of the 
yellow colour of the face down the front of the neck — a 
character to which no approach is shown by any other species. 
Its skull is rather small and has generally a pair of peculiar 
fosssb or perforations in the floor (or, more strictly, the roof) 
of the anterior part of the mesopterygoid fossa ; but, although 
so striking in well-marked cases that a person might excusably 
think it a character of generic value, this modification varies 
in difterent skulls, and is sometimes practically absent. The 
teeth are of average proportional size, the pseudo-canine t 
well differentiated, and the pseudo-incisor f small, usually 
about a quarter the size in section of one of the molars. 

Wagler (1831) was the first properly to distinguish this 
species, to which he gave its current name of B. cuculliger, 
while other synonyms of it are Acheus ai, Less. J (1827) ; 
guianensis, Blainv. (1839), a name doubtfully valid techni- 
cally ; gularis, Rtipp. (1845); and cristatus, Temm., Fitz- 
inger, 1871. 

B. tridaetylus ranges over the whole of Guiana — French, 
Dutch, and British, — and our collection contains a good series 
of it, mostly presented by Mr. F. V. McCounell. 

* See Thomas, P. Z. S. 1911, p. 132. 

f These names are used respectively for the second and first upper 
teeth, which, really corresponding to the anterior premolars of ordinary 
Mammals, take on iu the three-toed sloths something of the relative 
proportions of a canine and an incisor. The three remaining teeth on 
each side, acting as a premolar-molar series, are subequal, smaller than 
the pseudo-canine, larger than the pseudo-incisor. 

X This name was given to the " Bradypus tridaetylus, L.," of Des- 
marest, which included all the foi-ms of true Bradypus then known. It 
seems best placed as a synonym of tridaetylus, especially as the animal is 
said by Uesmarest to be very common in Cayenne. For the Brazilian Ai 
of ilarcgrav it would be the earliest name, but there would be difficulty 
in justifying its use for that animal cm technical grounds. 



354 



Mr. O. Thomas — Some Notes 



South of Guiana, from Para to Rio, and westwards up the 
Amazon, tiiere occur a very uniform series of forms wliich 
may or may not be divisible into two or more species, but 
which it is impossible at present to clear up without many- 
more sets of specimens. One locality only — Para — is well 
represented, as M. Robert got a series tliere in 1904. 

Throughout this area the sloths are ratiier larger than 
B. tridaclyhis ', the speculutn is of normal size, as in that 
species, and of a ratlier less dark yellow colour, the general 
colour is brown mottled to a very variable extent with white, 
and the band of yellow velvety hair wiiich passes across the 
forehead is usually about half an inch in breadth — say, 10- 
15 mm. The skull averages rather larger than that of tri- 
(lacti/Jus, and has generally a much inflated frontal region. 
The floor of the mesopterygoid fossa is usually flat, with or 
without median septum, and without special perforations. 
The teeth, although variable, are usually of what may be 
called normal proportions, the pseudo-incisor smaller — gene- 
rally much smaller — than the molars, and the pseudo-canine 
decidedly larger than the latter. 

The names for these sloths may be put in two groups — the 
Amazonian and the S.E. Brazilian — not that as yet lean see 
any valid reason for distinguishing the two specifically, but 
merely to help later workers. 

(1) Amazonian: B. infuscahis, Wagl. 1831 (Brazil near 
Peruvian boundary) ; hrachydactylus, Wagn. 1855 (syn. 
t^j^tciilige?', Fitz. 1871) (Boiba, Lower Madeira) ; proble- 
invticus, Gray, 1849 (Para) ; inncolor, Fitz. 1871 (Para) ; 

,i^mithii\ Gray, 1869 (Para). B. warmoratus, Gray, 1849 
(" Brazil ■'■'), seems also to belong here, judging by the type, 
and, if the Upper Amazon infuscaius proves distinguishable, 
would be the tirst name for the Lower Amazon form. 

(2) S.E. Brazilian : B. ai, Wagl. 1831, nee Less. 1827 
(R. Matheus, Espirito Santo) ; hrasiliensis, Blainv.* 1839 
(Rio Janeiro) ; palUdiis, Wagn. 1843 (Rio Janeiro) ; hlain- 
viUei, Gray, 1849 (Brazil) ; dorsalis, Fitz. 1871 (Pernam- 
buco — based on IMarcgrav). 

Series from many localities are needed before these Bra- 
zilian sloths can be properly worked out, the available speci- 
mens — apart from ]\1. Robert's set from Para already mentioned 
— consisting of isolated examples, often without any exact 
locality at all. 

Bradypus bolivi'ensts, Gray, 187 1 (type B.M. no. 46.7.28.24), 
seems to be a valid species. Its speculum is of medium size, 



* Put in valid form on p. 64 of the article on Bradypua. 



on Three-toed Sloths. 355 

ratlier tlark-coloured. The liairs of its tlivoat are tipped with 
white, a point not seen in any other species, thougli probably 
not of great constancy. Its skull is large and solidly built, 
and the teeth are distinguisiied by the unusual character that 
the pseudo-incisor is very large — as large as or even larger 
than the pseudo-canine, which in turn is small, not exceeding 
the posterior molars in transverse section. These tooth- 
ciiaracters are, however, not to be seen in Gray's figure, 
■which seems to have been taken from a wrong specimen. 
But that 46. 7. 28. 24 is the proper type tiiere can be no 
doubt, as its osteological number, 921. a, is quoted by Gray. 
In Central America we have B. castaneiceps^ Gray, 1871, 
of Nicaragua, and B. griseus, Gray, 1871, of Veragua, of 
which we have no further material, and I can add nothing to 
Alston^s account of them except to note that Mr. Goldman 
considers them really distinct, and adds to them a third 
species — B, ignavits, from Panama and the Atrato River. 
It is, however, certain that griseus and ignavus at least are 
very closely allied to B. fiaccidus. It is also to be observed 
that Dr. Allen has identified a sloth from Rio San Jorge, 
Bolivar, Culonibin, with Pliilippi's B. fphippiger', and as au 
example from Condoto, Choco, Colombia, presented by 
Dr. Hpurrell, agrees with Philippi\s figure in the great size 
of the speculum, the breadth of tlie frontal band, the distri- 
bution of the light and dark face-markings, and the size of 
the teeth, I am disposed to accept Dr. Allen's identification, 
and put down ejihippiger, which was described without exact 
locality, as a native of N.W. Colombia, therefore in the same 
region as " B, ignavus" came from. 

Ill any case, however, the relations to each other of 
griseits, ignavus, epJiippiger^ and Jiaccidus clearly need much 
lurtlier investigation. 

B.faccidus, Gray, 1849, has as type-locality Venezuela 
(probably the region opposite Trinidad), and has as synonyms 
dysoni, Gray, 1869, and columbicus, Fitz., 1871. 

But by wiiat characters it can be positively distinguished 
from the Brazilian forms I have not sufficient good material 
to be certain. 

From Ecuador the Museum contains, firstly, a set of five 
adults and two young from Sarayacu on the Upper Pastasa 
River, and, secondly, an adult from the Balzar Mts., Guayas 
district, W. Ecuador. These appear to me to represent two 
forms for which no names are available. The first may be 
called 



356 Some Notes OH Three-toed Sloths. 

Brady pus macrodon, sp. n. 

Most nearly allied to B. infascatus, but the teeth heavier. 

General colour pale brown, the white maibling o£ the 
posterior back generally extensive, with a well-marked brown 
median line, but in one specimen there is scarcely any white, 
and in another but little. Face and chin brown, the light 
frontal band narrow, about half an inch (say, 10-15 mm.) in 
breadth, whitish rather than yellow in most of the specimens. 
Hairs on crown overhanging the frontal band rather darker 
than those on the body generally. Speculum of medium 
size, 2^ inches long in the type, paler yellow than in most 
other species, its median black band broad. Limbs freely 
marbled with white. 

Skull much as in B. infuscatus, the forehead ratlier less 
convex than usual. Nasals, as usual, quite variable in shape 
and length, some convex and some concave anteriorly. Inter- 
parietal also extremely variable, its antero-posterior diameter 
in the type 15 mm., and in another specimen 7 mm. Meso- 
pterygoid fossa widely open, its floor smooth and flat, or with 
a sliglitly raised median ridge, but without deep pits or exca- 
vations. 

Teeth very large, much heavier than in infuscatus. 
Poeudo-incisor very large, oval in transverse section, the 
longest diameter pretty well equalling that of the molars, 
4*3 mm. in the type, 5 mm. in another specimen. Pseudo- 
canine similarly very large and heavy, its greatest diameter 
about 'o'2 mm., far exceeding the molars in bulk. Molars 
rarely less than about 5 mm. in greatest diameter. 

Skull-dimensions of type : — 

Naso-occipital length 78'5 mm. ; condylo-basal length 78'3 ; 
greatest breadth (on squamosal) 56 ; nasals, length 12*5, 
least breadth 12*3 ; interorbital breadth 25'5 ; palate length 
from gnathion 29 ; postpalatal length 43 ; tootli-series 29 ; 
breadth between outer sides of pseudo-canines 22*6. 

Hab. Sarayacu, Upper Pastasa River, Oriente of Ecuador. 
Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 80. 5. 6. 56 *. Collected by 
Clarence Buckley. Seven specimens examined. 

This species is no doubt most nearly allied, as is natural, to 
B. infuscatus^ but differs by the materially larger size of the 
teeth. Kven in this character, however, one specimen fails 
(skull no. 80. 5. 6. 59) ; but among sloths such variations 
must be expected. 

* The skulls were not individually allocated to the skins when they 
came, but I think there is little doubt as to the reference to each other 
of the type-skin and skull. 



I 



Geological Society. 357 

Brady pus violeta, sp. n. 

Allied to B. mafrodon, but distinguished from tliat, as from 
every other slotli, by the great extent of the yellowish velvety 
hair of the face, which extends upwards on the crown to the 
level of the ears nearly 60 mm. from its anterior commencement; 
the hairs of the cheeks as far as the ears also of the same 
colour and quality. Sides of throat likewise inclining to 
yellowish, in continuity with the cheeks, but the chin dark 
blown as usual, and the dark eye-streak also present. Nape, 
shoulders, and middle line at withers brown, the rest of tiie 
back nearly wholly white, as are also the hind limbs. Fore 
limbs brown, marbled proximally with white. Under surface 
dark brown anteriorly, whitish brown posteriorly. Speculum 
not known, the only specimen being a female. 

Skull like that of B. viacrodon, the forehead a little more 
swollen. Teeth of similar size and proportions. 

Skull-measurements of type : — 

Naso-occipital length 72 mm. ; greatest breadth (on jugal) 
49*5 ; nasals, length 14, least breadth 12'3 ; interorbital 
breadth 24; palate length from gnathion 28*5 ; tooth-series 
27*2 ; breadth between outer corners of pseudo-canines 20 ; 
greatest diameter of pseudo-incisor 4, pseudo-canine 6, second 
molar 4'8. 

Hah. Balzar Mountains, Guayas, W. Ecuador. 

Tyije. Adult female. B.M. no.'80. 5. 6. 83. Collected by 
Mr. Illingworth. 

Characterized by its nearly wholly velvet-clothed face. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 
GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

January 24th, 1917.— Dr. Alfred Harker, F.R.S., President, 
iu the Chair. 

Mr. ScoEESEY RouTLEDGE, M.A., gave an account of Easter 
Island. He said that the Expedition, that he had had the 
honour to command, was organized with the object of carrjang 
out a long-standing wish of various bodies interested in anthro- 
pology. This wish was that Easter Island, and other islands most 
near to it, though far distant from it, should be thoroughly 
examined, and that all information and material thereon found 
should be carefully considered on the spot, or, if jDossihle, he brought 
back for comparative study. 

This programme necessitated a vessel being specially designed, 
built, and equipped for the pui-pose. A schooner with auxihary 
motor power, the ' Mana,' of 90 tons gross register, 78 feet 



358 Geological Society. 

on the water-line, 20 feet beam, and drawing lOo feet aft, 
was accordingly completed by the end of 1912, and she sailed 
from Southampton in February 1913 with a company of twelve 
all told, of whom four formed the scientific staff. After the 
longest vo^'age ever made by a yacht under canvas, she sailed 
into Southampton again in June 1916, without having experienced 
accident to man or material. 

The course taken was through the Magellan Straits, and thence 
through the lab3'rinth of Andean Avaterways that stretch north 
therefrom, and are knoAvn as the Patagonian Channels. 

On reaching Juan Fernandez Island, the ' Mana ' had to put 
back to Valparaiso because the geologist of the Expedition, the 
late Mr. F. L. Corry, had contracted typhoid fever on the Chilean 
coast. Mr. Corry never recovered sufficiently to allow him to 
rejoin the Expedition. Hence no formal geological report on 
the island could be submitted to the Meeting. It Avas thought 
best, therefore, to endeavour to convey the conditions existent on 
Easter Island b}' means of a series of panoramic and other photo- 
graphs, specially taken to illustrate geological features. As these 
very largely consist of coast-sections, the opportunity was taken to 
show, and explain, other pictures that were closely associated with 
them. Such were the ruins of the village called Orongo, consisting 
of peculiar canoe-shaped houses built of imbricated slabs of shale, 
with the roof convex, both longitudinally and transversely, on its 
exterior aspect, and covered with earth. They are romantically 
situated on the rim of the volcano of Kano Kao, with an almost 
sheer di'op of 900 feet into the sea, or of 600 feet into the crater- 
lake. At Orongo, too, are found certain large rocks, carved with 
the symbol of a bird-headed man, holding in its hand an eg^. A 
cult, based on annually obtaining the first-laid e^^ of a certain 
migratory sea-bird, was thus gradually brought to light, and appears 
to be a tmique form. A brief outline only could be given of 
some of the knowledge obtained concerning the peculiar routine 
associated with seeking, and taking, the sacred egg, and of the part 
which it occupied in the former religious life of the island. 

Proceeding along the coast, typical examples of the great terraces, 
and theu" giant stone figures, were shown, and their leading cha- 
racteristics discussed. A submarine freshwater spring, near the 
great image-terrace of Tongariki, and opposite certain typical 
lava-formed caves, gave occasion to the lecturer to explain how 
bad arisen the longstanding, and world-wide spread report, that 
man and beast on Easter Island habitually di'ink sea-water, in the 
place of fresh. 

The old volcano of Eano Earaku, the centre of the former 
religious life of the island, was then described. A series of 
panoramic pictures, preceded by an accurate survey made by 
Lieut. R. D. Ritchie, R.N., the Cartographer of the Expedition, 
showed a crater-lake surrounded by a rim of tuff which rises to a 
height of SIO feet above the suiTounding plain. The plain is 
undulating in surface, formed superficially of hard, dense, but 
nevertheless vesicular, lava, and it rests on compact non-columnar 



Geological Society. 359 

basalt. One section of this crater wall, some 600 yards long, 
on bath its interior and exterior aspects, was seen to be quarried 
right up to the highest point. On the mountain -face, both inside 
and out, large numbers of statues, in every state of completion, 
were to be seen. The largest of these measured 68 feet in length. 
Some of those excavated by the Expedition exhibited fine details, 
such as the finger-nails, in perfect condition. 

In conclusion, Easter Island might be described as a plateau of 
basalt raised from 50 to 100 feet above the sea. Superimposed on 
this wex-e numerous cones ranging up to nearly 2000 feet. The 
plateau was covered but sparsely wdth soil, and could only be 
crossed with difficulty in any direct line. The cones, on the other 
hand, were generally smooth of surface, with a good depth of soil. 
Nevertheless the island is practically without trees, bushes, or 
shinibs. 

February 7th, 1917.— Dr. Alfred Harker, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. ' The Trias of New Zealand.' By Charles Taylor Trechmann, 
M.Sc, F.G.S. 

The fossiliferous Triassic rocks of New Zealand have been wholly 
or in part at different times attributed by the geologists of that 
Dominion to a Devonian, Permian, Pernio- Carboniferous, Lower, 
Middle or Upper Triassic, or Trias-Jui-a age. A review of the 
previous research on these rocks and of their correlation and nomen- 
clature is given. They are quite distinct from the Matai rocks, 
which contain a Perino-Carboniferous fauna. 

Triassic beds appear at intervals from Kawhk on the western 
coast of the North Island to Nugget Point on the south-eastern 
coast of the South Island — a distance of 620 miles. Except in two 
localities, they are everywhere very steeply inclined, and where they 
approach the Alpine Chain of the South Island pass into semi- 
metamorphic greywackes or completely metamorphic plwUites and 
schists. They are of great thickness. A short description of the 
special faunal, lithic, and tectonic features of each of the more 
iinportant localities is given, all of which but one occur in the 
South Island. In the North Island, only the None and Ehsetic 
horizons have been recognized. Wherever the sequence is preserved, 
the Trias passes confonnably up into Jurassic deposits. 

The lowest fossiliferous horizon of the Trias occurs near the top 
of a great thickness of greywackes and conglomerates called the 
Kaihiku Series, and is separated by several hundred feet from 
the next fossiliferous beds above it. The Kaihiku fossils are 
scanty in species, and no cephalopods occur. Among those re- 
stricted to this horizon is Daonella indica Bittner, which occtirs 
in Ladino-Carnic deposits in the Himalayas and in the Malay 
Archipelago. Members or survivors of a Muschelkalk fauna 
occur in the form of Spiriferincs of the group of Spiriferina 
fragilis Schlotheim. It is concluded that the Kaihiku fossil 



360 Geological Society, 

horizon is either late Middle or early Upper Trias, and the great 
unfossiliferous series below it represents the Middle and possibly 
Lower Trias. 

The most higlily fossiliferous division is the Carnic — the Oreti 
and Wairoa Series of New Zealand geologists. Several am- 
monites occur, among which Disco2ihijUites cf. ehneri Mojsisovics 
is found in the Carnic and Lower Noric of the Himala^'as. 
Tli£ Halobice include H zittell Lindstrom, a Spitsbergen fossil, 
together with S. hochstetteri Mojsisovics and H. austriaca 
Mojsisovics. Several of the Carnic fossils show affinities with 
European Alpine forms, and can be used for purposes of 
correlation. 

The Noric horizon, the Otapiri Series in part, is represented by 
felspathic sandstones containing immense quantities of Pseudo- 
monotis, a genus which characterizes the Noric in all the Circum- 
Paeific Trias. Ps. richmondiana Zittel is known only from New 
Zealand and New Caledonia; but the Author found the Asiatic, 
Siberian, and Japanese form, Ps. achat ica Teller, in all its varieties, 
in verj' high Noric beds near Nelson. 

The Rhagtic, the upper part of the Otapiri Series of local 
geologists, comprises a great thickness of sandy and pebbly beds. 
Its fossils include an extremely-alate Sj^/rtjerina and a groujj of 
specialized bisulcate Spirigerids. An Arcestid of Rhaetic aspect 
was collected high up in these beds at Kawhia. 

Forty-seven genera and species of molluscs and brachiopods are 
recorded in the present paper, of which three genera and forty-one 
species are regarded as new. 

The brachiopods are of considerable interest, and exhibit phylo- 
gerontic tendencies in several of the groups as they approach 
extinction. 

The affinities of the New Zealand Trias with that of the Malay 
Archipelago, and especially of New Caledonia, is discussed ; and it 
is shown that the faunal transgression wliich occurred over those 
regions, at or shortly befoi*e the commencement of Upper Triassic 
times, extended also to the area now occupied by New Zealand. 

2. ' The Triassic Crinoids from New Zealand collected by Mr. C. 
T. Trechmann.' Bv Francis Arthur Bather, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

The specimens are all from the Kaihiku Series, and comprise : — 

(1) an Entraclius fi'om near Nelson, with a broadly waved suture ; 

(2) a rock-fragment from the Hokanui hills, containing imprints 
of columnals and brachials representing two genei-a : namely, (a) an 
Entrochus Avith ridges of the joint-face arranged in pairs separated 
by shorter ridges ; (&) an Isocrimts of the group of I. diibius 
(Groldfuss). Comparison of the three new species based on all these 
remains with the Triassic crinoids described from Europe and 
especially with those from North America, leads to the conclusion 
that they are of Upper Triassic age. They bear, however, no 
resemblance to the Upper Triassic crinoids from Timor, which the 
Author has in hand for description. 



I 



-.t' 



THE ANISTALS 

AND 

MAGAZLNE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[EIGHTH SERIES.] 
No. 113. MAY 1917. 



XXXTII. — Descriptions of Neiv Pyralidae of the Subfamilies 
Hydrocarapinse, Scoparianee, ^c. By Sir George F. 
Hampson, Bart.^ F.Z.S., &c. 

The numbers attached to the species in the following paper refer 
to my classification of Hydrocampinse and Scoparianse in the Trans, 
Ent. Soc. 1897, pp. 127-240, and to subsequent supplementary 
papers in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 

Epipaschianje. 

Genus Plftopaschia, nov. 

Type, Stericta sinapis, Roths. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, the 2nd joint reaching 
to vertex of head, the 3rd rather long. Antennae of female mi- 
nutely ciliated ; tibise smoothly scaled. Fore wing narrow, the 
apex rounded, the termen evenly curved ; vein 3 from before angle 
of cell ; 4, 5 stalked ; 6 from upper angle ; 7, 8, 9, 10 coincident ; 
11 from cell. Hind wing with veins 3 and 5 shortly stalked, 4 
absent ; 6, 7 from upper angle of cell, 7 anastomosing with 8. 

Genus Gebopaschia, n. n, 

Arxopaschia, Hmpsn, A. M. N. H. (8) xviii. p. 134 (1916), nee Hmpsn, 
1906. 

Type, G. grisealis. 

Arm. (fc Macf. K Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 24 



362 Sir G. F. Hampson on new 

CHRVSAUGhWE. 

Murgisca mesozonalis, sp. n. 
$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish ; patagia and abdomen 
above tinged with rufous. Fore wing pale greenish yellow ; a 
silvery-white fascia on base of iunerarea bomided above by a rufous 
line ; a medial silvery-white band from upper angle of cell to inner 
margin bounded by rufous and constricted at lower angle of cell 
and vein 1. Hind wing ochreous yellow ; cilia of both wings 

silvery white. 

Hah. W. AusTEALiA, Sherlock K. {Clements), 2 § type, Roe- 
bourne. Exp. 22 mm. 

PvRALix.i;. 

Pyralis costinotulis, Hmpsn. A. M. N. H. (8) xix. p. 67 (1917). 

Hab. Formosa, Arizan {Wilemon), 2 6 type. Exp, 21 mm, 

IIydrocamp]k.ii:. 

(Irt) Gargela iiiphostola, sp. n. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen silvery white, the last doreally 
sufi'used with red-brown except on two basal segments ; palpi with 
the 2nd joint golden brown behind ; fore femora and tibiae suffused 
Avith golden brown, the tarsi ringed with brown towards extremity ; 
ventral surface of abdomen tinged with golden yellow. Fore wing 
silvery white ; a faint curved brownish postmedial line ; a blackish 
point on termen below apex. Hind wing unifonn silvery white. 
Underside silvery white; the fore wing with a black point on 
termen below apex. 

Rah. D"E>TBECASTEArx Is., Fergusson I. (Meek), 1 $ type. 
E.rp. IS mm. 

(6) Gargela ohliquivitta, sp. n. 

Mid tibia of male dilated with a fold and tuft of long hair and 
fringed with hair above. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen silvery white ; antennae brown except 
above ; palpi behind, except the 3rd joint, and base of maxillary palpi 
dark brown ; fore legs tinged with ochreous, the femora at extre- 
mities, tibiae near extremities and tarsi banded with black-brown. 
Fore wing silvery white ; a golden-orange medial line, obhque to 
upper angle of cell, then inwardly oblique and faint; a golden- 
yellow tinge from end of cell to medial part of termen ; an oblique 
golden-orange line from costa well beyond middle, where it is dilated 
into a small wedge-shaped mark to discal fold near termen, an 
oblique golden-orange wedge-shaped mark beyond it from costa to 
discal fold just before termen ; a cupreous-brown terminal line from 
apex to discal fold, and a double cupreous-brown striga before termen 



PyralklEe of tlie Sii'ifamily HyJrocampina3. 363 

above vein 3 ; cilia white, metallic golden at tips, with cupreous- 
brown line at base from vein -1 to submedian fold, and wholly tinged 
with gold towards tornus. Hind wing uniform silvery white. 

Hab. Moluccas, Batchian {Doherty), 1^,15 type. Exp. 
16 mm. 

(5 5) Argyractis leucostola, sp. n. 

Fore wing of male with small fovea below the costa beyond 
middle and vein 11 distorted. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen silvery white ; fore tibise black at 
base and extremity. Fore wing silvery white, the costa suffused 
with blackish brown to end of cell ; a reddish-brown spot in end 
of cell and oblique black-brown line from median nervure near end 
of cell to inner margin, diffused on inner side ; a brown discoidal 
striga and oblique line from it to inner margin ; postmedial line 
double, black-brown filled in with yellow and oblique to vein 3, 
then single, retracted with an upwards curve to lower angle of cell, 
then strongly excurved to inner margin, its sinus filled in with 
yellow ; a terminal ^^ellow band, arising just below apex, its inner 
side defined by a black-brown line to above vein 2 and its outer by 
black points, a sUvery spot defined by brown before termen below 
vein 2. Hind wing silvery white ; a sinuous black-brown line 
from middle of costa to tornus, with a yellow patch before it below 
the cell ; a double slightly sinuous black-brown line from costa just 
before apex to submedian fold, excurved below costa and filled in 
with yellow below vein 3 ; a yellow terminal band from apex to 
submedian fold, defined on inner side by -a waved black line except 
at apex ; cilia with a brown line at base to vein 2. 

Hah. Bk. C. Africa, Mt. Mlanje {Xeave), 2 d , 5 $ type. 
E.vp., 6 18, 2 22 mm. 

(13 rt) Argyractis JfavivittaJis, sp. n. 

S ■ Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish mixed with some red- 
brown ; antennae red-brown ; fore tarsi with brown bands towards 
extremities. Fore wing silvery white, the costal area suffused with 
brown ; a brown antemedial line denned on outer side by white, 
incurved from below costa ; a medial brown fine defined on outer 
side by white, incurved below the cell ; a small brown discoidal 
spot ; postmedial line silvery white, defined on inner side b}' brown 
from costa to vein 4, then angled inwards to median nervure before 
end of cell, then obHque and defined on inner side by brown to 
tornus, with a wedge-shaped yellow patch above it from lower angle 
of cell to below its angle at vein 4 ; a silvery-white subterminal 
line defined on each side by brown from costa to vein 2 and a small 
brown spot with silvery-white mark before it below vein 2 ; cilia 
brown at base, whitish at tips. Hind wing white, the end of cell and 
the area beyond it from costa to vein 3 yellow ; a silvery discoidal bar 
defined on inner side by a brown striga ; postmedial line silverv white 
and oblique from costa to vein 3 ; a temiinal black patch from below 

24* 



3(51: Sir G. F. Hanipson on new 

apex to vein 2, with four ocelli on it with black centres defined on 
inner side by white and on outer by golden yellow ; cilia white 
with brown line near base from apex to vein 2. 

J£ab. Peru, San Domingo ( OckemJen), 1 6 type. Exp. 1-i mm. 

(20 rt) Argyractis cuprescens, sp. n. 

5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen cupreous red-brown mixed with 
some white, the abdomen banded with white ; f rons white at sides. 
Fore wing cupreous red-brown ; a broad oblique silvery- white band 
from median nervure before middle to inner margin near base : a 
white medial line defined on each side by darker brown, excurved 
below costa, then erect ; an orange-yellow discoidal bar defined on 
outer side b^^a brown line ; postmedial line represented by a silvery- 
white bar from costa connected with an oblique wedge-shaped patch 
from beyond the cell to above vein 2 and an oblique band from 
lower angle of cell to inner margin with an orange-yellow patch 
between it and the wedge-shaped patch ; a silvery-white band before 
termen ending in a point at vein 2 ; an orange-yellow terminal band 
defined at sides by brown lines, ending below submedian fold where 
it is bent inwards ; cilia brown at base, wliite at tips. Hind wing 
silvery white ; some brown at base ; a brown medial band, incvu-ved 
below the cell, with an orange-yellow discoidal patch on it and some 
orange-yellow below the cell; postmedial line cupreous brown, 
oblique to beyond lower angle of cell, then incurved ; an irregularly 
reniform wdiite subterminal patch defined by cupreous brown from 
costa to vein 4 ; a black tei-minal band from apex to vein 2 Avith 
five iridescent silvery annuli on it, defined on inner side by a white 
line with a waved black-brown line before it and with some fulvous 
yellow from it to tornus ; cilia white, red-brown at base except 
towards tornus. 

Hah. Ecuador, Rio Yerde (Prt/we?-), 1 $ t^-pe. Exp. 18 mm. 

(24 o) Argyractis productalis, sp. n. 

5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown mixed with whitish, 
the abdomen with whitish bands on basal and 3rd segments ; an- 
tenuse red-bi'own ; f rons wliitish ; A'entral sm-face of abdomen white. 
Fore wing red-brown mixed wuth white, the subterminal triangular 
patch from costa to vein 2 deep red-brown ; a rather diffused white 
antemedial band from below costa to inner margin ; a white medial 
band defined on outer side by brown, sharply bent inwards to inner 
margin ; a white discoidal bar defined by red-brown ; a white post- 
medial band, its outer edge oblique to vein 3, then retracted to near 
lower angle of cell, then oblique to inner margin near torn as with 
its inner edge defined by brown ; a silvery- white subterminal band 
from costa to below vein 2 where it ends in a point and is some- 
what bent inwards, a fulvous-yellow band beyond it defined at sides 
by brown lines ; cilia white, brown at base except towards tornus. 
Hind wing white, the terminal area irrorated with black to vein 3 ; 



Pyralidye of the Subfamily HyJrocampiiige. 365 

a faint rather diffused yellow-brown medial line, oblique to below 
the cell, then incurved ; postmedial line indistinct, yellow-brown, 
oblique to below vein 4, then inwardly oblique and sinuous ; a black 
point just below apex and four black spots defined on outer side by 
silver before termen at veins 6 to 2 with a slight waved black line 
before them and some brownish beyond them before the blackish 
terminal line. 

Hub. Pehu, Carabaya, Oconeque (Ockenden), 1 $ type. ^xp. 
32 mm. 

(24 c) Argyractis argyropliora, sp. n. 

5 . Head and thorax silvery white, the vertex of head and 
dorsum of thorax with some rufous ; abdomen silvery white irro- 
rated with brown, the anal tuft rufous ; palpi rufous, the extremity 
of 2nd joint and the 3rd joint white ; pectus, legs, and ventral 
surface of abdomen white, the fore legs suffused with iTd'ous and 
with black band at the exti-emity of the tibiae. Fore wing silvery 
white, the costal area suffused with nifous ; a rufous antemedial 
line, interrupted in submedian interspace ; a silvery- white discoidal 
bar defined at sides by rufous ; postmedial line riifous, oblique to 
vein 4, then almost obsolete and retracted to median nervure before 
end of cell, then strong and incurved, a silvery-white band beyond 
it extending to costa ; a wedge-shaped rufous patch from costa to 
vein 4 before a white terminal band suffused with metallic silver 
defined by fine blackish lines and forming a wedge-shaped mark at 
tornus, the area above this mark suffused with yellow ; cilia white. 
Hind wing white ; a fulvous-yellow discoidal bar defined on outer 
side by a metallic silvery bar ; an oblique postmedial metallic 
silvery band, inteiTupted at vein 4 and ending on termen above 
tornus, defined on inner side by a yellow band and with the area 
beyond it yellow ; five partly confiuent black spots on tennen with 
some metallic silvery between them from below apex to vein 2 and 
with some silver on termen from them to tornus ; cilia white with 
a fine brown line near base from apex to vein 2. 

Hah. Colombia, Choko Prov., Condoto {Spurrell), 5 $ type, 
R. San Juan, Juntas de K. Tamana, 1 $ . i^uyj. 20 mm, 

(25 a) Argyractis brunneosvjfusa, sp. n. 

5. Head and thorax red-brown mixed with some whitish; 
abdomen fulvous brown with whitish segmental lines, the base with 
some whitish ; palpi with the 3rd joint white ; ventral surface of 
abdomen red-brown with white segmental lines. Fore wing 
whitish suffused with red-brown especially on costal area ; a sub- 
basal shade formed b}^ black-brown scales ; a curved whitish ante- 
medial line defined by shades formed by dark brown scales in the 
interspaces ; a slight white discoidal lunule defined by diffused 
dark brown ; postmedial line white defined on inner side by rather 
diffused dark brown, oblique to vein 6, incurved at discal fold, at 



SGG Sir G. F. Ilanipson on ncto 

vein 3 retracted t(i jvist below angle of cell and excurved beloAV 
vein 2 ; a white subterniinal liand narrowinsc to points at apex and 
vein 2, defined on inner side by dift'iised dark brown and on outer 
by ar yellow terminal band defined on each side by dark lines. 
Hind wing white, the inner area tinged with red-brown ; an oblique 
white band beyond the cell irom below costa to svibmedian fold, 
defined on each side by red-brown shades ; postmedial line white, 
oblique to vein 2 where it is excurved to near termen, incurved at 
sul)niedian fold then bent outwards to termen above tornus, defined 
on inner side by red-brown and with an oblique white bar before it 
nea]' tornus, the area beyond it suffused Avith broAvn from costa to 
vein 2 with a whitish patch on it ; a black band just before termen 
fi'om below apex to vein 2, with four metallic silvery annuli on it ; 
the apex yellow followed by a yellow line beyond the ocellate band ; 
cilia white with a brown line at base to vein 2. 

Hab. EcTADOE, R. Pastaza, Banos {Palmer), 1 $ type. Exp. 
32 mm. 

(31 b) Argyractis mimicalis, sp. n. 

Head and thorax whitish mixed with pale red-brown ; abdomen 
white tinged with pale red-brown ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface 
of abdomen white with a faint rufous tinge. Fore wing white 
irrorated with blackish ; an inwardly oblique antemedial series of 
black strife ; a yellow patch in and above end of cell ; medial line 
black, erect to just beyond lower angle of cell, then oblique, sinuous 
and with another faint line before it towards inner margin ; an 
indistinct black postmedial line from vein 3 to inner margin, 
angled outwards above vein 1 ; the apical area yellow, broadh' at 
costa and narrowing to a point at submedian fold ; a subterminal 
white spot below costa before a blackish and silvery line from below 
the costa to vein 3 towards which it is i-ather diffused ; a small 
black spot at apex, then a terminal series of black points to sub- 
median fold A\here there is a black and silvery mark before it ; cilia 
white mixed Avith fuscous. Hind wing white thickly irrorated with 
black except on basal and terminal areas ; a diffused oblique black 
subbasal band from discal fold to inner margin ; a waved white 
medial line slightly defined on each side by black ; subtenninal 
line white defined on each side by black, excurved below costa, then 
sinuous ; terminal area yellow ; a black bar with some silvery-blue 
scales on it at apex, then three black ocelli each with two silvery- 
blue points on them and a black spot with some silvery blue on it 
below submedian fold ; cilia white with a black line near base to 
discal fold, then black bars bej^ond the ocelli. 

Hab. SiEEEA Leoxe {Clements), 1 d ; N. Xigeeia, Zungei-u 
{Macfie), 1 $ type, Borgu, Yelwa L. {Migeod), 1 $ . Exp, 
14 mm. 



Pyralidse of the SuhfamiJy lljclrocumpinse. 3G7 

(31 c) Argyractls nyasalis, sp. n 

c^ . Head and thomx pale yellow mixed with black-brown and 
some white ; abdomen pale red-brown with white segmental lines 
and a blackish patch before extremity ; antennae dark brown ringed 
with white ; palpi pale rufous ; pectus and legs white tinged with 
rufous, the fore tibiae with black band near extremity ; ventral 
sm-face of abdomen white. Fore wing white iiToi-ated with black ; 
a blackish patch at base of costa ; a dilfused inwardl\^ oblique black 
subbasal line ; a golden-yellow antemedial patch defined by black 
scales from cell to inner margin ; a double inwardly oblique sinuous 
black medial line ; postmedial line double, black filled in with 
white, oblique to vein 3, then reti'acted with an upwards curve to 
lower angle of cell, then strongly excurved above inner margin, 
the area beyond it yellow irrorated wdth black ; a white subterminal 
band defined by black lines from costa to vein 4 with some black 
below it and an oblique black mark above tornus ; a terminal 
yellow band to vein 2 ; cilia white mixed A\'ith black. Hind wing 
white, the postmedial area to vein 2 and the terminal area irrorated 
with black ; a small black spot on inner margin near base ; a broad 
black antemedial band from below costa to inner margin with a 
small yellow spot on it in lower angle of cell, defined on outer side 
by a white line followed by a curved black line ; a double black 
subterminal line filled in with white, excurved below costa, then 
sinuous, the area beyond it yellow ; fom* rather diffused black ocelli 
with silvery-blue points on them on termen between vein 7 and the 
submedian fold, with a waved black line before them ; cilia blackish 
at base, white at tips. 

Hah. Be. C. Afeica, Blantyre {Davey), 1 S type. Exp. 
16 mm. 

(45 «) Argyractis melanograpta, sp. n. 

S . Silver}' white ; head with some black-brown behind ; abdo- 
men with black-brown band on 2nd segment and slight bar near 
exti'emity, the anal tuft brown at extremity ; palpi with the 3rd 
joint black ; fore femora and fore and mid tibiae black-brown in 
front, the tarsi banded with black-brown. Fore wing with oblique 
black-brown subbasal band from costa to median nervure ; medial 
line black-brown, double and oblique towards costa, then single, 
inwardly oblique, rather diffused and bent inwards to inner margin ; 
subterminal line black-brown, double toAvards costa and inner mar- 
gin, bent outwards to costa wliere the inner line has a short streak 
on its inner side at costa, excun'cd to near termen at middle and 
with some black-brown suffusion beyond it at tornus : a black-brown 
terminal line from below^ apex to vein 4 ; cilia tinged Avith yellow. 
Hind wing with some black-brown in end of cell ; an obliquely 
curved black-brown medial line, arising below costa and diffused on 
outer side towards inner margin ; a rather intenaipted sinuous 
black-brown subterminal line, diffused below discal fold ; cilia 



368 Sir G. F. Hampson on neio 

yellow at base and with some black-brown scales at middle at apex, 
brown at base from discal fold to tornus. 

Sab. Be. Guia>'a, Demerara {liodway), 1 <? type. Exjp. 
10 mm. 

(46 «) Argyractis plKEopastalis, sp. n. 

$ . Head and teguljB white ; thorax and abdomen white suffused 
■with brown ; antennaj brown, yellowish Avhite towards base ; palpi 
white ; pectus, legs, and ventral sm-face of abdomen white, the fore 
and mid legs tinged with yellow. Fore wing red-brown ; a slight 
whitish medial line, angled outwards below costa and excurved 
below the cell ; an obliquely'' cmwed white postmedial line from 
costa to vein 4 where it is met by an oblique white mark on its 
inner side from vein 6 ; a silvery-white subterminal band from 
below costa, where it is bent outrwards to vein 4, an orange-yellow 
band beyond it on termen extending to vein 2 and defined by 
brown lines, some silvery white below it above tornus ; cilia white. 
Hind wing red-brown ; an indistinct sinuous whitish medial line 
defined on inner side by darker brown ; four minute ocelli just 
before teniien between veins 7 and 2 with black centres and metallic 
silvery annuli ; cilia white, yellow at base and with dark brown line 
at middle from apex to vein 2. 

Hah. Colombia, Choko, Prov, Condoto {Spurrell), 1 $ type. 
Exp. 10 mm. 

(1 c) Eristena tenehrifera, sp. n. 

Antennae of male thickened with scales above towards base ; 
hind femora with fringe of short hair behind towards base, the hind 
tibiae with large tuft of long hau- on inner side ; fore wing with 
veins 3, 4 stalked. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen white tinged with ochreous 
brown and mixed with some fuscous ; antennae fuscous ; hind legs 
with the fringe of hair on femora whitish, the tuft of hair on tibiae 
white at base, black at tips. Fore Aving white tinged with oclii-eous 
brown ; some black suffusion on basal area ; medial area with some 
black suffusion, its inner edge rather oblique, its outer incurved 
below the cell and excurved above inner margin ; some blackish 
suffusion on postmedial costal area and two rather diffused blackish 
subterminal lines, somewhat excurved below costa, then oblique ; a 
shght dark tenninal line with some ochreous brown before it. 
Hind wing white, the terminal area suffused with ochreous brown. 

Sab. Dutch N. Guixea, Mimika E. (Wollasfon), 1 6 type. 
Exp. 14 mm. 

(ly) Eristena tetralitha, sp. n. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen grey suffused with brown and 
some fuscous ; pectus and venti'al sm-face of abdomen whitish ; 
fore tibiae Avith black stripe. Fore wing whitish suffused with 



Pj'ralidse of the Suhfamily Hydiocampinoe. 369 

brown and irrorated with black ; an oblique diffused black ante- 
medial shade ; the cell whiter towards extremity ; postmedial line 
rather diffused, black, obliquely curved to vein 3, then bent upwards 
to upper angle of cell, then inwards and oblique to inner margin, 
the area above its sinus whitish except towards costa and the area 
in its sinus at end of cell and the whole area beyond it rufous ; an 
obliquely curved rather maculate silvery subterminal line defined on 
each side by fuscous ; a tenninal series of black points ; cilia white 
mixed with brown. Hind wing whitish ; the basal area tinged 
with brown and suffused with black ; a rather diffused curved 
black postmedial line, incurved below vein 3 ; the terminal area 
suffused w4th rufous ; four small black ocelli before termen between 
discal and submedian folds, the two or three upper ocelli with white 
points in centre, and the upper one with a black point above it ; 
cilia whitish tinged with brown and with a brown line near base. 

Hah. Dutch N. Guinea, Mimika R. {Wollaston), 5 $ type, 
Wataikwa R. {Wollaston), 4 ? , Snow Mts., Setakwa R. {Meek), 
1 $ ; Br. N. Guinea, Kunmsi R. {Meek), 8 $ . Exp. 14-20 mm. 

(16 «) Nympliula vianilensis, sp. n. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen yellow mixed with some white' 
and fuscous, the last white at base and extremity and with black 
segmental lines ; antennte yellow ringed with black ; pectus, legs,, 
and ventral surface of abdomen white slightly irrorated with brown.. 
Fore wing yellow irrorated with dark brown and mixed with some 
white, especially on outer half of medial area except towards costa ; 
antemedial line white defined by some black scales, oblique below 
the cell ; a black point in middle of cell and some black suffusion 
in end of cell ; medial line white defined on inner side by black 
scales, oblique to middle of discocellulars, then iuAvardly oblique, an 
oblique white mark beyond it below costa ; postmedial line double, 
brown filled in with white, arising below the costa where there is a 
white mark before it, oblique and sinuous ; subterminal line formed 
by somewhat dentate white marks defined on each side by blackish, 
excurved at middle. Hind wing yellow irrorated with black, the 
base white ; an oblique black mark above inner margin near base ; 
medial line double, black filled in with white, sinuous ; medial ai'ea 
white with a yellow patch defined by black from below costa to 
vein 2 ; postmedial line double, black filled in with white, obliquely 
curved, slightly sinuous towards costa ; a rather maculate white 
subterminal band defined on each side by black, sinuous ; a fine 
black terminal line ; cilia white. 

Kah. Philippines, Manila {Ledyard), 1 c? type. Exj}. 14 mm. 



(19 «) NympTiiila leiicoplayalis, sp. n. 
[usalis, Druce, Biol. Centr.-Am., Het. ii. p. 5 

6 . Head, thorax, and abdomen fulvous vellow mixed with fuscous 



Bocchoris zoiliisalis, Druce, Biol. Centr.-Am., Het. ii. p. 558 (part.), nee 
Wlk. 



370 Sir G. F. Ilainpsoii on new 

and some white ; antemuT? lulaek ; pectus, liind legs, and ventral 
surface of abdomen towards base white ; fore tibiae fuscous, white 
at exti'emities. Fore wing fvilvous ^'■ellow irrorated with dark red- 
brown ; a subbasal red-brown shade ; a medial red-brown shade 
with some white scales on it in end of ceU, a white patch beyond it 
on costal area, defined on outer side by a red-brown shade joining 
the medial shade at lower angle of cell, then with three small white 
spots on its outer edge, a small white spot beyond it on costa ; the 
terminal area suffused Avith dark red-brown. Hind wing fulvous 
yellow, the basal half and tenninal area suffused vdth dark red- 
brown. 

Sab. Mexico, Morelos, Cuernavaca {M. H. Smith), 1 6 type, 
Godman-Salvin Coll. Exp. 14 mm. 

(305) NympTiula plumhefusaUs, sp. n. 

2 . Head and thorax leaden grey tinged with fuscous ; abdomen 
white, basally suffused with reddish brown ; antennae dark brown ; 
frons white ; palpi with the 3rd joint white ; pectus, legs, and 
ventral surface of abdomen white, the fore and mid legs tinged 
Avith brown, the fore tibiae blackish on inner side, white on outer 
side except towards base. Fore -wdng leaden grey tinged with 
brown ; an antemedial black spot below the cell and slight rufous 
and dark shade towards inner margin ; a black discoidal spot ; an 
indistinct diffused mfous postmedial shade, incurved below vein 4 
to below end of cell, arising below the costa and interrupted below 
the cell ; a faint dark subterminal shade ; a faint punctiform brown 
line before termen and terminal series of slight dark spots. Hind 
AA-ing pm-e Avhite ; a faint reddish-broAvn line from lower angle of 
cell to vein 1 ; a reddish-brown jDostmedial bar at discal fold, 
diffused spot at vein 2 and small spot at inner margin ; a puncti- 
fonn line before termen and a tenninal line ; cilia Avhite mixed 
Avith reddish broAvn and chequered A^■ith darker brown at base. 
Hah. SrjDAK, Blue Nile {Floicer), 6 5 type. Exp. 20 mm. 

(52 J) Xyinphula metastictalis, sp. n. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen w^hite, the metathorax with 
brownish bar, the abdomen tinged with ochreous brown except at 
base ; fore tibiae fuscous brown at exti'emities. Fore Aving silvery 
Avhite slightly tinged Avith ochreous brown except on terminal area ; 
small black-brown spots at base of costa and cell ; a black-broAvn 
antemedial spot on costa ; an iuAA-ardly oblique broAvn medial line 
AA'ith black spot at costa ; a small Avhite discoidal spot indistinctly 
defined by brown ; postmedial line brown Avith a black spot at costa 
Avhere it arises towards apex, excurved to vein 2, then incurved to 
inner margin beloAv end of cell ; a curved brown subterminal line 
from vein 7 to submedian fold ; a fine black tenninal line before a 
yelloAv terminal band, punctifonn towards apex ; cilia Avhite suffused 
Avith broAA-n. Hind AA-ing Avhite suffused Avith reddish brown except 



Pyralidse of the SihfamVy Hyurocnnipinse. 371 

at base and on inner area ; diffused brown ante- and postmedial 
lines and a faint subterminal shade ; two small black spots just 
before termeu below apex and eight between discal and submedian 
folds, all defined'on inner side by white ; the termen yellow ; cilia 
brown at base, white at tips. 

Hah. Goodenough I. {Meek), 1 $ type. Exp. 20 mm. 



(53 &) Nymijliula Jlavicostalis, sp. n. 

Fore wing of male without fovea below the cell. 

d" . Head and thorax white mixed with black-brown and some 
yello\vish ; abdomen white irrorated with black forming diffused 
dorsal bands except at base ; antennte 3'ellow ringed ^\'ith brown ; 
palpi yellow mixed with red-brown ; pectus and ventral sm-face of 
abdomen Avhite irrorated with dark brown ; legs white, the tibiae 
and tarsi banded with black. Fore wing white tinged in parts 
with brown and irrorated with black-brown, the costal area to end 
of cell and towards apex orange-yellow ; antemedial line white 
defined on each side by blackish, curved, obsolete at inner margin ; 
an elongate white spot in the cell before the medial line which is 
white defined on each side by blackish, slightly waved, oblique 
below the cell, a white patch beyond it on costal area ; an irregular 
yellowish discoidal spot defined by black scales ; postmedial line 
white defined on each side by dark brown, maculate and slightly 
curved to vein 3, then bent inwards and obsolescent to lower angle 
of cell, then erect and sinuous, some alternating black and white 
marks before it on costa ; a Avhite subapical point, then a series of 
white subterminal lunules, larger and extending to near the post- 
medial line above and below vein 6, with diffused black marks 
beyond them to vein 3 ; the termen narrowly yellow ; cilia black 
at base, then white with black marks to\\iirds apex and at middle. 
Hind wing white ; rather diffused brownish medial and post- 
medial lines ; the termen suffused with brownish, its inner edge 
slightly waved ; some slight dark marks on termen towards apex ; 
cilia with some dark scales at tips ; yellowish at base and with a 
blackish line at middle between veins 3 and 1. 

Huh. Peru, Carabaya, Oconeque {OcJcenden), 1 S type. Exp, 
22 mm. 

(53 c) Nympliula fjrapliicalis, s^?. n. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen white, the last with faint dorsal 
ochreous-brown bands except at base. Fore wing silvery^ white ; a 
subbasal black point below vein 1 ; a slight antemedial spot formed 
by black scales below costa ; medial line with an oblique black 
striga from costa, then double and pale ochreous brown, incurved 
in the cell and obliquely excurved below it ; a narrow discoidal 
lunule defined by black and a patch of pale ochreous-brown suffu- 
sion below end of cell ; postmedial line double, brown with a black 
point on the inner line at costa, excurved below costa, then oblique, 



372 Sir G. F. Ilanipson on new 

slightly waved and paler below vein 4;, a pale ochreous-brown tinge 
before its costal half and beyond it below vein 5, pale ochreous- 
brown streaks beyond it on costa and vein 7 with a black streak 
between them from termen ; cilia tinged with" oehreous brown. 
Hind wing silvery white ; a double waved black-brown antemedial 
line ; a discoidal bar defined by black-brown ; postmedial line 
double, oehreous brown and somewhat dentate, slight ochreous- 
brown suffusion before it except towards costa and inner margin 
and slight streaks beyond it on the veins of costal half, then brown 
suffusion to tornus ; cilia with pale oehreous brown mixed. 

Hab. Peru, Ciu'a,ha,ja,Oconeqne{Ockenden), 1 $ type. Uxp. 
20 mm. 

(1&) Margarosticha gaudinlis, sp. n. 

S . Head and thomx greyish mixed with brown, the tegulse and 
patagia with some fulvous ; abdomen fulvous with brown dorsal 
bands ; antennse whitish tinged wdth brown ; palpi banded with 
dark brown ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen whitish 
tinged with brown, the fore legs with the femora black above, the 
tibijB black at extremities, the tarsi with black marks at the joints. 
Fore wing fulvous orange, the base tinged with brown ; an oblique 
silvery band defined on each side by brown from middle of cell to 
inner margin ; the fovea in end of cell surrounded by brown suffu- 
sion ; a triangular silvery-white mark beyond the cell defined by 
rather diffused brown which extends to the costa ; a silvery- white 
subterminal band from costa to vein 4 where it ends in a point, 
defined on inner side by rather diffused brown and on outer by a 
black line extending to below vein 3 ; a terminal series of small 
black spots to vein 2 and a short leaden-brown fascia above tornus 
ending in a silvery point ; cilia silvery. Hind wing fulvous orange, 
the base pale ; a slightly sinuous silvery- white medial band defined 
on each side by brown ; the postmedial area brown, ending in a 
point above tornus ; four ocellate black spots on termen between 
vem 7 and submedian fold, defined on inner side by a waved white 
line and with fulvous orange between them, a small triangular 
black spot above the uppermost ocellus ; cilia silvery. 

Hah. ADMIEA.LTT Is. {Meek)., 3 6 type. Exp. 18 mm. 

(3 a) Margarosticha euprepiaJis, sp. n. 

6 • Head and thorax silvery white, the shoulders and some hairs 
at tips of patagia yellow-browai ; abdomen silvery white at base 
with a yellow-brown band, then pale yellow with slight yellow-brown 
dorsal spots to beyond middle and silvery-white segmental lines ; 
antennse pale fulvous ; palpi white, the 2nd joint banded with pale 
red-brown ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen silvery 
white, the fore tibise tinged with yellow above. Fore wing pale 
yellow ; a red-brown tinge at base of costa and a triangular white 
patch on basal inner area defined on outer side by red-brown scales ; 



Pyralida of ihe SuhfanvUij Hydiocampiiise. 373 

a broad oblique silvery-white medial band from cell to inner margin, 
defined on inner side by a curved red-brown line and on outer by a 
diffused red-brown patch from submedian fold to inner margin ; an 
oblique silvery-white discoidal bar beyond the fovea ; an oblique 
conical silvery-white postmedial patch from costa to vein 3, defined 
by red-brown and with some red-brown beyond it on costa ; a 
silvery-white subterminal band from costti to discal fold, defined by 
red- brown extending to vein 2 where it ends in a point and with a 
Avedge-shaped bi'own mark below it above tornus, these brown 
markings tinged with silvery below the band ; a fine red-brown 
terminal line ; cilia silvery. Hind wing white ; a black-brown 
subbasal band from below costa to above outer margin ; a yellow 
band from middle of costa to tornus defined on each side by slightly 
sinuous red-brown Hues, the outer line with a brilliant silver line 
beyond it ; the area beyond the band irrorated with black scales ; 
five black ocellate spots on a white band on termen between discal 
and submedian folds with small brilliant silvery spots between 
them ; the termen yellow towards tornus ; cilia silvery. 

Sab. QuEEXSLAXD, Townsville (Dodd), 1 d tvjie. H.rjJ. 
22 mm. 

(5) Marf/ai'osticha argyrograpta, sp. n. 

5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen orange-yellow with a golden 
gloss, the head, patagia, and base of abdomen with some white ; 
palpi white with brown band at extremity of the 2nd joint and the 
3rd joint yellow; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen 
white, the fore and mid tibia; tinged with yellow and the former 
black at extremity. Fore wing orange-yellow ; a silvery-white 
subbasal patch from middle of cell to inner margin where it extends 
to the base, its outer edge angled outwards at median ner^-ure ; an 
oblique silveiy- white medial band from discal fold to inner margin, 
produced to streaks beyond lower angle of cell and below cell 2 ; an 
oblique triangular silvery-white postmedial patch from costa to 
vein 4, its outer edge defined by brown ; a wedge-shaped silvery- 
white subterminal band from costa to below vein 3, slightly defined 
at sides by brown and its lower part metallic silvery ; a metallic 
silvery fascia above tornus ; a terminal series of black points with 
larger point at apex ; cilia white tinged with yellow. Hind wing 
orange-yelloAv, the base white ; a silveiy-white medial band with 
slightly waved edges, its inner edge defined by brown ; a metallic 
silvery postmedial lunule between veins 5 and 2 and a spot above 
tornus ; three large black ocellate spots on termen between discal 
and submedian folds with some silvery scales on their inner edge 
and a line before them which is yellowish above and silvery white 
below, extending to termen below the lowest spot, a small triangular 
black spot above the uppermost spot on termen ; cilia silvery white 
at base, white tinged with brown at tips. 

Hah. BiSMAECK Aechipelago, Rook I. {Meek), 3 $ type, 
llxp. 18-22 mm. 



374 Sir G. 1" . IJampson on new 

(Ic) Cataclysta ■j>eri>'rorata, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and alxlomon silvery wliite mixed with brown ; 
antenna} white tinge<l with brown ; ]>alpi white tinged with yellow ; 
pectus, legs, and ventral svu'face of abdomen white tinged with 
brown. Fore wing white, the medial area irrorated witli large 
black scales ; the base orange-yellow with some brown at eosta ; an 
inwardly oblitpie orange-yellow anteniedial band slightly defined at 
sides by brown ; an oblique orange-yellow postmedial band from 
below costa to termen at submedian fold where it is coniluent with 
a similar curved subterminal band, a silvery point below its extre- 
mity with a yellow striga before it to tornus ; an orange-yellow 
terminal band from just below apex to vein 3 where it ends in a 
point, defined on inner side by a brown line and with some silver 
between it and the subterminal band except towards costa ; cilia 
white mixed with brown. Hind wing white, the medial area 
irrorated with large black scales, narrowing to inner margin near 
tornus ; a faint oblique orange-yellow antemedial shade ; two fine 
\er\ slightly waved black subterminal lines, slightly excurved 
below costa and bent outwards to tornus ; four ocellate black spots 
on termen from below apex to submedian fold with small metallic 
silver spots on the 1st and 4th and small silver spots between them 
on termen ; cilia white with a brown line at base and some brown 
at tij)s especially towards apex. 

Ab. 1. Abdomen orange-yellow mixed with brown ; fore wing 
■with the costal area suffused with brown, the medial area more 
thickly irrorated with black except towards costa, the medial band 
on outer side and the subterminal band on inner side with some 
.silvery suffusion, the oblique ])ostmedial band almost interrupted at 
middle and with distinct bar from it to tornus ; hind wing suffused 
Avith brown excejit at base, the oblique orange-yellow antemedial 
band distinct, defined by brown and bent inwards to inner margin, 
the ocellate terminal black sjwts more confluent. Br. C. Africa, 
Mashonaland. 

Ab. 2. Fore wing with the bands and hind wing with the ante- 
medial shade rufous. Cape Colony. 

Hub. Gold Coast, Appan, 1 6 , Bibianaha {Spnrrell), 4 S , 
2 $ , Kumasi (Sanders), 1 c? type ; S. Nigeuia, Ebute Meta 
iBoag), \ 6 A 2\ Bit. C. Africa, Zomba {Old), 1 $ , Mt. Mlanje 
(Neai-e), 4^,2 $ ; Mashoxalaxd (Dohbie), 2 J ; Cape Coloxy, 
Annshaw ( J/i'ss F. Barrett), 1 <S . E.rj). 12-16 mm. 

(I e) Cataclysta nigristriata, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen silvery white suffused with red- 
brown, the last more fulvous towai'ds extremity ; palpi brown 
towards base, white towards extremity ; pectus, legs, and ventral 
surface of abdomen white tinged with brown. Fore wing white, 
the medial area except towards costa irrorated with Large black 
scales and with fine black streaks beyond the cell and on vein 1 



Pyralklee of the Snlfumily Hy^lrocampinfe. 375 

and inner margin, tlie terminal area from costa beyond middle to 
inner margin near torims golden yellow ; the base reddish ])ro\vn 
with inwardly oblique outer edge ; a faint inwai'dly oblique 
yellowish antemedial band, followed by a cupreous-brown medial 
line, incurved below the cell ; an oblique wedge-shaped white post- 
medial patch from costa to discal fold, defined on inner side by 
brown ; a subterminal band from below costa to vein 4 whei'e it 
ends in a point, white above, silvery below, defined by black lines, 
the line on inner side reaching the costa ; an oblique silvery bar 
from below vein 4 beyond the cell to just above tomu?; cilia 
white tinged with cupreous brown except at submedian fold and at 
tips between veins G and 4. Hind wing white, the medial area 
irrorated with large black scales and with slight streaks below costa 
and triangular in sliape, from costa to submedian fold ; cupreous- 
broAvn bars at and beyond end of cell ; the inner area orange- 
yellow from before middle to torn us with metallic streaks on it at 
middle of inner margin and in terminal part of submedian fold ; an 
ol)li(|ue black line from below apex to submedian fold beyond 
middle ; five ocellate black spots on termen from below apex to 
above tornus with a white band before them and orange-yellow 
between their upper parts and metallic silver spots on termen, the 
first and third black spots smaller; cilia cupreous brown, white at 
tips except at apex. 

Hah. Dutch X. Guinea, Hon I. {Doherfy), 1 d, 1 2, Kapaur 
(Doherty), 1 6 , IsWimkai {Woolaston), 1 S tA^pe ; Admiralty Is, 
(3Ieak), Id, 1 $; Louisiade Is., St. Aignan (Meek), 1 $- 
Exp. 12 xmii. 

( 1_^) Cataclysta amhoinalis, sp. n. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen golden yellow mixed with white 
and black ; antennae brownish, yellow towards base ; palpi yellow 
tinged with brown ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen 
white tinged with brown. Fore wing white, the basal area and 
costiil area to end of cell tinged with cupreous brown, the medial 
area irrorated with large black scales except towards costa, the 
apical area from costa at end of cell to termen above tornns golden, 
yellow defined on inner side by brown ; antemedial line dark brown,, 
slightly curved ; an oblique wedge-shaped silvery-white postmedial 
patch defined by brown from costa to vein 4 ; a curved subterminal 
band fi-om costa to vein 3, silvery -white above, metallic silvery 
below defined by black lines, the outer line not reaching the costa ;. 
an oblique metallic silvery spot defined by blackish above tornus ; 
cilia cupreous brown at base, white. tinged with brown at tips, at 
submedian fokl pure white to base. Hind wing white, the medial 
area irrorated with large black scales except towards inner margin^ 
the terminal area cupreous brown ; a slight black spot near base 
below the cell ; an indistinctly double oblique cupreous-brown 
antemedial line ; four pai'tly confluent ocellate black spots with- 
metallic silver centres on termen from below apex to submedian 



;J7i] On new Pyraliilae of the Subfamily Ilydrocanipinfe. 

foUl, with some oi-ange-yellow scales before the three lower spots 
and motallic t^oUl ])oints between the spots on tennen ; cilia 
cupreous hrown at biise, white tinged with brown at tips. 
Ilab. AMBOlXi. {Doherty), 1 $ type. Exp. 12 mm. 

(17/) Cataclysta queenslandica, sp. n. 

cf . Head and thorax silvery white, the patagia yellowish at tips ; 
abdomen silvery white suffused with golden yellow ; antennae 
brownish with white points in front ; palpi yellow tinged with 
brown ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen white tinged 
with yellow, the fore femora above and tibiae on inner side black. 
Pore wing white, the basal area obliquely and the costal area to 
end of cell cupreous brown, the medial area irrorated with cupreous 
brown except towards costa, the terminal area orange-^'ellow from 
costa at end of cell to inner margin near tornus ; a cupreous-brown 
discoidal spot and two lines from lower angle of cell, diverging 
towards inner margin ; an oblique wedge-shaped silver\'- white post- 
medial patch from costa to vein 4, some cupreous brown beyond it 
on costa ; a subterminal band from below costa to vein 3, where it 
ends in a point, white above and metallic silver below, the white 
part defined at sides by cupreous brown on inner side extending 
to the costa ; an oblique metallic silver spot above tornus ; a fine 
dark terminal line ; cilia cupreous brown, white at submedian fold. 
Hind wing white, the postmedial area irrorated with large black 
scales, triangularly from costa where it extends to apex to sub- 
median fold ; the base tinged with j'ellow ; a cupreous-brown ante- 
medial bar in and below the cell ; an oblique cupreous-brown 
medial band from costa to submedian fold ; the terminal half of 
inner area orange-yellow with some metallic silver at middle 
of inner margin ; a fine sinuous black-brown subterminal line from 
apex to above tornus ; five partly confluent ocellate blaek spots on 
termen with metallic silver points between them and orange-yellow 
points on termen ; cilia cupreous brown at base, white tinged with 
brown at tips. 

$ . Head with dark bar behind antennae ; thorax tinged with 
ochreous brown ; abdomen yellower ; fore wing with the base and 
costal area redder brown, an oblique red-brown medial band, the 
yellow terminal area defined on inner side by two red-brown lines, 
angled inwards to lower angle of cell ; hind wing with oblique 
orange-yellow medial band defined at sides by cupreous-brown 
lines, the postmedial area more strongly irrorated, the subterminal 
line more distinct and defined on each side by ^-ellowish white, the 
terminal ocellate spots better defined and separate. 

Hah. QuEEXSLAXD, Cooktown, Cedar Bay (Meek), 1 c? type, 
Kuranda {Dodd), 1 2 • ^^P-y 6 14, $ 16 mm. 

[To be continued.] 



On the Genera Sanlinella, Harengula, dec. 377 



XXXTV. — A Revision of the Chfpeid Fishes of the Genera 
iSardiiiella, Hareiio;ula, c&c. B7 0. TatE Regan, M.A. 

(Published by permission of the'Triistees of the British ACuseum.) 

The j^eniis Clupea, as understood by Giintlier, includes a 
iiutnher of genera which may be arranged in two groups : 
one of these, characterized by a well-marked median notch in 
the npper jaw, has been dealt with in a recent paper (xicpra, 
\). 2U7) ; the other group includes genera without a distinct 
notch in tiie upper jaw, namely, Clupea, Clapeonella, Sinlina, 
Sirdinelhij Opiathonenia, ILirenjnla, Lile^ and Ilerinq'ut. 
Of these I have already published revisions of Clupea and 
Sardina (' Annals,' (8) xviii. 1916, p. 1, and xix. 1917, p. 2-2(i), 
anrl I have nothing to add to Berg's synopsis of Clupeonella 
(llarengu^ Berg, 'Annals,' (8) xi. 1913, p. 480, and Poiss. 
de I'eau douce de la llussie, p. 30, 1916). The other genera, 
comprising species that are mostly tropical and stiictly 
murine, form the subject of the present paper. 

Sabdinella, Val. 1847. 

Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx. p. 263. 
Clupeonin, Cuv. & V'al. t. c. p. Sio. 

This genus is closely related to Sardina, Antipa (Regan, 
Ann. &'Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xviii. 1916, p. 11), from which 
it differs especially in the absence of radiating grooves on the 
opercubim and in the structure of the posterior margin of the 
branchial cliamber, the vertical edge of the cleitlirum being 
covered by a dermal fold which bears two obtusely pointed 
projections some distance apart, with a shallow concavity 
between them. The verfebrse are fewer than in Sardina, 
numbering 44 in 8, gihbosa, 45 in S. sindensis, and 4G in 
*S. longiceps and S. madtrensis. 

The majority of the species are tropical, but those of the 
Eastern Atlantic range into the j\lediterranean ; most of 
them are of considerable economic value, both as food-fishes 
and as a source of oil. 

Synopsis of the Species, 

I. Ventral scutes sharply keeled. 

A. Pelvic tius 9-rayed ; a dark spot at edge of operculum. 
Eye 3| to 4^ iu length of head, which is 3^ to 4 in 
length of lish ; 110-160 gill-rakers on lower 
part of anterior arch 1 . aurita, 

Ann, di Mag, N. Hist, Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 2b 



378 Mr. C. T. Regan o>i the Clup^id Fishes 

Eve 5 to G in length of head, \\-liich is 3 to 3? in 
length of tish ; 180-250 gill-rakers on lower part 
of anterior arch 2. lonr/iceps. 

]5. Pflvic fins S-raved ; a dark spot at base of anterior rays of dorsal 
iiii. 

1. Mediterranean and "West African species. 
Dopth 3« to 4 in length : 60 to 9o gill-rakers on 

lower part of anterior arch (in specimens of 100 

to 300 mm.) 3. maderensis. 

Depth 3.^ to 3? in length ; 110 to 1.30 gill-rakors on 
lower part of anterior arch (in specimens of 100 
to 200 mm.) 4. eba. 

Depth 3 in length : 90 to 100 gill-rakers on lower 
part of anterior arch (in specimens of 170 to 
200 mm.) 5, cnmcronensis. 

2. Indo-Pacific species. 

Depth 25 in length ; 130 gill-rakers on lower part of 

anterior arch G. dai/i. 

Depth 2^ to 3; gill-rakers 00 to 60; diameter of eye 

3 to 3^ in length of head 7. hrachysnma. 

Depth 3 ; irill-rakers 48 to 55 ; diameter of eye Z\ to 

3| in length of head 8. perforatit. 

Depth 3 to 3i ; gill-rakers 70 to 75 9. fimhnata. 

Depth 3 J to 4 ; oill-rakers 58 to G2 10. shulensis. 

Depth 3^ to 4 ; gill rakers 50 to 55 11. (/ihbosa. 

Depth 3^ to 4 ; gill-rakers 38 to 44 12. melanura, 

II. Ventral scutes feehly keeled. 
Maxillary nt^arly or quite reaching to below eye ; 36 

to 40 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch ; 

pelvics below anterior half of dcn-sal 13. sirtn, 

]Sraxillarv not reaching eye ; 27 to 31 gill-rakers on 

lower part of anterior arch ; pelvics below origin 

of dorsal 14. clupeoides. 

1. Sardniella a unfa.' 

? Chipen rceriiko-rittata, Dichards, Ichth. Chin;v, p. 305 (1846) *, 
SarHncVa auriti, Oiiv. & ^'al. Ilist, Nat. Poi&s. xx. p. 263, pi. 594 

(1847). 
Siirdinplla anchwia, Ouv. &; Val. t. c. p. 269. 
Meletfa medittrranea, Cnv. & Val. t. c. p. .369. 
Snrdinella lemuru, Bleek. Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. v. 1853, p. 500. 
r iSardinia psendiihispcmfca, Poey, 3Iem. Cuba, ii. p. 311 (1860). 
C/upea auritu. (riiuth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 420 (1868). 
C'/u/iea anrhovin, Giinth. t. c. p. 421. 
Clupen nicldiifisticta, Giinth. t. c. p. 430. 
Chipea lenmru, Giinth. t. c. p. 430; Bleek. Atl. Ichth. vi. p. 108, Chip. 

pi. ix. fig. 1 (1872). 
? Cliipea p.yoido/ii^panica, Giinth. f. c. p. 442. 
C'lupea brasllicnsis, Sleiud. Sitzuiigsb. Akad. Wien, Ixxx. 1880, p. 182. 

* Richardson's description is based on a coloured figure by Reeves^ 
probably, but nnt cert;:iiilv. iiit*nded to represent this sj.ecies. 



of the Genera Sarclinella, Harengula, dtc. 379 

Clupanodon pseudohispanicus, Jord. & Everin. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. 

xlvii. 189H, p. 423. 
Sardinella anchovia, Jord. & Everm. t. c. p. 429. 
C'lupea immaculata, Kishinoiiye, .Tourn. Imp. Fisheries Bureau Tokyo, 

xiv. 1907, p. 96, pi. xix. tig'". 1. 
SardineUa eu.vina, Antipa, DenkscLr. Akad. Wien, Ixxviii. 1906, p. 46 

pi. iii. fifr. 12. 
Clupea lom/iceps, Weber & Beaufort, Fisli. Indo-Austral, Archipelago, 

ii. p. 82 "(1913). 

Depth of body 4 to 5j in the lengtli, lengtli of head 3^ 
to 4. Snout as long a.s or longer than diameter of eye, which 
is Sj to 4|- in the length of head ; maxillary extending to 
l)elo\v anterior ^ of eye; a patch of teeth on the tongue. 
110 (young) to 160 gill-rakers on lower part of^anterior 
arch. About 48 .scales in a longitudinal series, 12 to 14 in a 
transverse series; ventral scutessliarply keeled, 18-20 + 13—15. 
Dorsal 16-20. Anal 15-19. Pel vies 9-rayed, inserted below 
or behind middle of dorsal. A dark spot at edge of operculum. 
Vertebrte 47 or 48. 

Ocijie Cod to Rio Janeiro ; Black Sea and Mediterranean ; 
Indo-Australian Archipehigo, Giiina, and Southern Japan. 

The description is based on eight specimens, 120 to 180 mm. 
long, from Havana, Trinidad, and Kio de Janeiro (^S. an- 
chovia), several of 110 to 130 mm. from Algiers, the type of 
>S'. lemuru from Java (145 mm. long) and two examples from 
China, 180 mm. long [C. nwlanos/icta, Giinth.). In a very 
small fish (75 mm.) I count 80 gill-rakers on the lower part 
of the anterior arc!). 

The discontinuous distribution of this species is remark- 
able ; in the Indian Ocean it is represented by the allied 
/S. longiceps. 

2. Sardinella longiceps. 

Sardinella longiceps, Cuv. & Val. Ilist. Nat. Poiss, xx. p. 273 (1847). 

Sardinella neohoioii, Cuv. & Val. t. c. p. 274. 

Aloxn scomhrina, Cuv. & Yal. t. c. p. 442. 

Clupea lonyiceps, Giinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 428 (1868) ; Day, Fish. India, 

p. 037. 
Clupea scomhrina, Giinth. t. c. p. 448. 

Depth of body 4 to 4| in the length, length of head 3 to 3|. 
Snout longer tlian diameter of eye, which is 5 to 6 in the 
length of head ; maxillary extending to below anterior part 
'or nearly to middle of eye. 180 to 250 gill-rakers on lower 
part of anterior arch. 46 to 48 scales in a longitudinal 
series, 12 or 13 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes sliarply 
keeled, 18-21 + 13-15. Dorsal 16-18. Anal 14-16. Pelvics 
9-rayed, below or behind mi idle of dorsal. A dark spot at 
edge of operculum. Vertebire 47. 

25* 



380 Mr. C, T. Regan on the Clupeid Fishes 

Indian Ocean. 

Several specimens, 120 to 180 mm. in total length, from 
Mombasa, Muscat, and India. 

3. Sardlnella maderensis, 

Clupm mniierensis, Lowe, Trans. Zonl. Soc. ii. 1839, p. 189. 
?SardmeUa (jranigera, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx. p. 267 (1847). 
Clupea mad'erensi$ (part.), Giiutli. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 440 (1868). 

Depth of body 3| to 4 in the length, length of head 3f to 
4|. Snout as long as or a little longer than diameter of eye, 
which is 3^ to 4 in length of head ; niaxillavy extending to 
below anterior { of eye. 60 to 95 gill-rakers on lower part 
of anterior arch. 48 to 50 scales in a longitudinal, 12 or 13 
in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 19-20 + 14-16. Dorsal 
18-19. Anal 18-19. Pelvics 8-rayed, a little in advance 
of middle of dorsal. A dark spot at base of anterior dorsal 
rays. Vertebrae 43. 

Eleven specimen.^, 110 to 300 mm. in total length, from 
Madeira, Cape Verde Is., and Mogadore. 

If S. granigei'a be this species, it occurs in the Medi- 
terranean. 

4. Sardinella eha. 

Alosn eba, Cut. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx. p. 369 (1847). 
Clupea mnderemis (part.), Giiuth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 440 (1868). 

Depth of body 3^ to 3| in the length, length of head 3f to 
4. Snout as long as diameter of eye, which is 3^ to 4 in the 
length of head ; maxillary extending to below anterior X of 
eve or a little beyond. 110 to 130 gill-rakers on lower part 
of anterior arch. 44 to 46 scales in a longitudinal, 11 to 13 
in a transverse series; ventral scutes 18-19 + 14. Dorsal 
18-20. Anal 17-22. Pelvics 8-rayed, below middle of 
dorsal. A dark spot at base of anterior dorsal rays. Ver- 
lebrje 46. i 

Mediterranean ; West Africa. I 

Eight specimens, 110 to 200 mm. in total length, from i 
Egypt, Algiers, and Nigeria. "; 

5. Sardinella cameronhnsis, sp. n. 

Clupea senegalensis (non Benn.), Giinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 441 (1868) *. ^ 

1 
Depth of body 3 in the length, length of head 4. Snout \ 

* Alosa senegalensis, Bennett (Proc. Zool. Soc. i. 1831, p. 147), i& 
probaVj]}' a synouym of Sardina pilchardus. >; 



k 



(f the Genera Saidinella, Ilaiengula, Sfc, 381 

as long as diameter of eyp, which is 3§ in length of head; 
maxiihuy extending" to below anterior \ of eye. 90 to 100 
gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 44 scales in a 
longitudinal, 1.") in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 18- 
19 + 14. Dorsal 18-19. Anal 20-21. Pelvics 8-rayed, 
below middle ot doi^ial. Caudal lobes long, |- length of tisli. 
A dark spot at base of anterior dorsal rays. Vertebrte 4(3. 

Two specimens, 170 and 200 mm. in total length, from 
Catnaroon. 

6. Sardinella dayi^ sp. n. 

Depth of body 2| in the length, length of liead '6%. 
Snout as long as diameter of eye, which is 3f iu length of 
head; maxillary extending to below anterior ^ of eye. 130 
gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 44 scales in a 
longitudinal and 12 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 
19 + 13. Dorsal 18, nearly equidistant from end of snout 
and base of caudal. Anal 19. Pelvics 8-rayed, below middle 
of dorsal. Pectoral f length of head. hiiivery ; back 
darker; a blackish spot at base of anterior dorsal rays-; 
upper part of dorsal and edge of caudal dusky. 

A single specimen, 125 mm. long, from Karwar, Indin, 
presented by N. B. Kinnear, Esq. The species is named iu 
memory of Dr. Francis Day. 

7. Sardinella hrachijsoma. 

? Kowala albella, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx. p. 362, pi. 602 

(1847). 
SardiiieUa brachi/soma, Bleek. Verb. Bat. Gen. xxiv. 1852, Haringaclit. 

p. 19. 
Harengula hypselosoma, Bleek. Nat. Tijdsclir. Ned. lud. viii. 1855, 

p. 427. 
Clupea brachysoma, Giinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 423 (1868) ; Bleek. Atl. 

Ichth. vi. p. 104, Cliip. pi. ix. tig-. 4 (1872) ; L>ay, Fish. India, p. 635, 

pi. clxiii. fig. 3 (^I878j ; Weber & Beaufort, Fish. ludo-Austral. 

Archipel. ii. p. 70, tig. 25 (1913). 
Cbipea hyp)selosu)na, Giiiith. t. c. p. 431 ; Bleek. /. c. pi. ix. fig. 2. 

Depth of body 2| to 3 in the length, length of head 4 to 
Al\. Snout shorter than diameter of eye, which is 3 to 3.^ in 
length of head ; maxillary extending to below anterior \ of 
eye or a little beyond. 55 to 65 gill-rakeis on lower part of 
anterior arch. 40 to 44 scales in a longitudinal and 12 or 13 
in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 17-20+ 12-13. Dorsal 
17-20. Anal 18-22. Pelvics 8-rayed, below or ni advance 
of middle of dorsal. A dark spot at base of dorsal ; upper 
part of dorsal and ends of caudal lobes often dusky. 

India ; Malay Archipelago. 



382 Mr. C. T. Ixegan on the Chipeid Fishes 

Seven examples, 100 to 150 mm. in leiigtli, from I^Fadras, 
J:iv:i, and Amboiiia, including tlie types of the species and of 
77. Jn/pselosovia. 

8. SartVinella perforata. 

CInpeonia perforata, Cantor, J. As. Soc. BiMigal, xviii. 1850, p. 1276. 
Clujmhsn bulan, lileek. Verli. Bat. Geu. xxii. 1S4D, ]\[adura, p. 12. 
Spraiella koicala, Bleek. Nut. Tijilsclir. Ned. Ind. ii. 18-51, p. 492. 
Chipeu perforata, Guuth. Cat. I'ish. vii. p. 424 (18li8) ; Bleek. Atl. 

Ichth. vi. p. 110, Chip. pi. X. fig. 2 (1872); Weber & Beaufort, 

Indo-Aiistral. Arcb. Fibb. ii. p. 74 (1913). 
Chipea bulan, Bleek. Atl. Icbtb. vi. p. llO, Clup. pi. viii. fig. 5 (1872). 

Depth of body about 3 in the lengtli, length of liead 4 
to 4?. Snout as long as or a little shorter than diameter of 
eye, whicii is 3^ to 3f in length of head ; maxillar}' extending 
to below anterior ^ of eye. 48 to 55 (58) gill-rakers on 
lower part of anterior arcb. About 44 .scales in a longitudinal, 
12 or 13 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 17-20 + 10-13. 
Dorsal 17-20. Anal 17-20. Pelvics S-raj^ed, below or in 
advance of middle of dorsal. A dark spot at base of anterior 
dorsal rays. 

Indian Ocean and Archipelago. 

Several specimens, 90 lo 130 mm. in total length, including 
types of the species, of S. kowala, and C. hulan, from the 
Persian Gulf and the Malay Archipelago. 

9. Sardlnella Jimhriata. 

Spratella fmhriata, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx. p. 359, pi. 600 

(1847). 
Korvala lauta, Cantor, J. As. Soc. Bengal, xviii. 1850, p. 1279. 
Chipea Jimhriata, Gliutb. Cat. Fisb. vii. p. 427 (1868). 

Depth of body 3 to 3^ in the length, length of head 4. 
Snout as long as diameter of eye, which is 3i to 3§ in length 
of head ; maxillary extending to below anterior \ of eye or a 
little beyond. 70 to 75 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior 
arch. About 45 scales in a longitudinal and 12 in a trans- 
verse series; ventral scutes 18-19 + 12-13. Dorsal 18-19. 
Anal 18-21. Pelvics 8-rayed, in advance of middle of 
dorsal. A dark spot at base of anterior dorsal rays ; upper 
part of dorsal and posterior edge of caudal du.sky. 

Sf-a of Bengal. 

Four sj)ecimens, 110 to 125 mm. long, from Akyab, Orissa, 
Malabar, and Madras {Day), and tlie types of K. lauta 
(.-kin.s) from Pinung. 



I 



of the Genera Sardinella, Havengula, c5c. 383 

10. Sard nUa s'mlem^'is. 
Clupea smdemis, Day, Fish. ludia, p. G33, pi. clxiii. fig. 2 (1878). 

Depth of body 3^ to 4 in the length, Iviiigth of head 3_| to 
i^. Snout as loitg a.s or shorter than diameter of ejt>, wiiich 
is 3^- to 3^ in the length o\ heail ; maxillary extending t ) 
below anterior ^ of eye. 58 to 6G gill-iakeis on lower port 
of anterior arch. 44 to 48 scales in a longituditial, 11 to 13 
in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 17-19+ 12-15. Dorsal 
17-19. Anal 18-2J. Pelvics 8-iayed, below or in advance 
of middle of dorsal. A dark spot at base of anterior dorsal 
rays ; upper part of dorsal and ends of caudal lubes sometimes 
blackisli. 

Indian Ocean and Archipelago. 

Thirteen specimens, 9a to 130 mm, in total length, from 
Sind, Bombay, Amboina, and Formosa. 

11. Sardinella gihhosa. 

? Cliipanoihn jussieui, Lacep. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. pp. 4G9, 474, pi. xi. 

tig. 2 (1803). 
? Ciiipeonia jussieui, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Xat. Poiss, p. 346 (1847); 

Sauvage, Hist. Madagascar Pui&s. p. 495. 
? Cl'ipeouia Jasciata, Cuv. & Val. t. c, p. 349. 
Clupea (/ibbusa, 13leek. Journ. lud. Arch, iii, 1849, p. 72 ; and Atl, 

Ichth. vi, p. 106, Chip. pi. viii. lig. 6 (1872). 
S2)rateUa teinbang, Bleek. Vei-h. Bat. Gen. xxiv. 1852, Hariugacht. 

p. 28. 
Clupea temhaiig (part.), Giinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 426 (1868). 
Clupea Jimhriata (part.), Day, Fish. India, p. 637 ; Weber & Beaufort, 

Fish. ludo-Austral. Arch. ii. p. 75, tig. 26 (1913). 

Deptli or body 3|- to 4 in the length, length of head 4 to 
41. tSnout as long as or longer than diameter of eye, wliich 
is 3^ to 4 i)i length of head; maxillary extending to below 
anterior ^ or ^ of eye. 50 to 55 gill-rcdcers on lower part of 
anterior arch. 44 to 48 scales in a longitudinal, 11 to 13 in 
a transverse series; ventral scutes 18-20 + 13-15. Dorsal 
17-20. Anal 17-19. Pelvics 8-rayedj somewliat in advance 
of middle of dorsal, A daik spot at base of anterior dorsal 
lays ; upper part of dorsal and posterior edge of caudal often 
du.-ky. 

Indian Ocean and Archipelago. 

Eleven specimens, 100 to IGO mm. in total length, from 
Durban, Mombasa, Ganjam, Madras, 8iam, Celebes, Java, 
and Amboyna, including the type of S. tembaug. 



384 Mr. C. T, Regan on the Chipeid Fishes 

12. Sardinella melanura. 

Cltipatwdon sinensis, var., Lacen. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. pi. xi. fig. 3 

(1803). 
Cliipea melannrn, Cnv. Regiie Anim. ed. 2, ii. p. .318 (1829). 
Cliipeoniti commtrsoni, Cuv.& Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. x.\. p. t5oO (1847) ; 

.Sauvage, Hist. Madagascar Poiss. p. 494 (I89I). 
Sjiratel/a jimbiHata, Eieek. Verb. Batav. Geuootsch. xxiv. 1852, 

llariiigacLt. p. 27. 
JInnngula mvlanurns, Bleek. Nat. Tijd'^clir. Xed. Iiid. y. 1853, p. 245. 
Cliipc'i (itricau ia,(i\xn\.\\. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 42() (181)8); Pkek. At], 

Iclith. vi. p. lOtJ, Cliip. pi. X. fig. 5 (1878) ; Day, Fish. India, p. 036, 

pi. clxiv. fig. 6 (1878); Weber & Beaufort, Fish. ludo-Austral. 

Arch.ii. p. 80(1913). 
Clnppo sundaica, Bleek. All. Ichth, vi. p. 105, Clup. pi. xiii. fig. 5 

(1872). 
? JIaren(/ula melanura, Sauvage, Hist. Madagascar Poiss. p. 492, 

pi. xlviii. fig. 4. 

Dejith of body ?>\ to 4 in llie lengtli, leiif^tli of liead 4 to 
4j. Snout as long as or a little longer than diameter of eye, 
which is 3'| to 4 in the lengtli ot head ; maxillary extending 
to below anteiior ^ of eye. o8 to 44 gill-raker.-5 on lower 
])art of anteiior arch. 44 to 46 scales in a longitudinal 
serie.«, 12 oi 13 in a tran.sver.se serie.s ; ventral scutes sharply 
keeled, Vd--10+n. Uor.'^al lb-19. Anal 16-18. Pelvics 
8-rayed, below or a little in advance of middle of dorsal. A 
dark spot at base of anterior dorsal rays; ends of caudal 
lobes usually blackish. 

Indian Ocean and Arcliipelago. 

Four .si)ecimens, 115 to IGO mm. in total length, including 
two received from Dr. Bleeker as IJ. m ehi ii iirus aud S. Jiinbri- 
ata, which ap|)ear to be the specimens figured as C. alricauUa 
and C. sundaica. 

13. Sardinella sirtn. 

Chiped sinn, Riipp. Neue Wirbelth. I'ische, p. 77, pi. xxi. fig. 1 

(1835-40) ; Guuth. Cat. Fi.^li. vii. p. 425 (18(J8) ; Weber & Beaufort, 

Fish. Indo- Austral. Archipel. ii. p. 62 (1913). 
Sardinella leioyuster, Cuv. it ^'al. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx. p. 270 (1847). 
Hardinella leioyastroides, Bleek. Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. lud. vii. lbo4, 

p. 255. 
Clupea liof/aster, Bleek. A tl. Ichth. vi. p. 102, Clup. pi. iv. fig. 6 (1872) ; 

Klunzinger, Zool. Botan. (jes. Wieu, xxi. Ie71,p. 598; Weber & 

Beaufort, t. c. p. 61. 
Clupen leiof/asfroides, Bleek. l. c. Chip. pi. xiv. fig. 2. 
Clupea jmirjuis, Ciinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. x. 1872, p. 425, and 

BiEuchley's Cruise of the ' Curacoa,' p. 42G (1873) ; Weber «& 

Beaufort, t. c. p. 83. 

Depth of body 4^- to 5 in the length, length of head 4 to 
A\- JSnout longer than diameter of eye, which is 3f to 4^ in 
the length of iiead ; maxillary nearly or quite reaching 



A 



of the Genera Saixliuellaj Harengula, etc. 385 

vertical from anterior margin of eye. 36 to 40 gill-rakers on 
lower j)art of anterior arch. 42 to 45 scales in a longitudinal, 
12 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 16—18 + 13-15. 
Dorsal 17-19. Anal 17-20. Pelvics S-rayed, in advance of 
middle of dorsal. 

Indian Ocean and Archipelago. 

ISix specimens, 105 to Ibo nnii. in total lengtli, from 
Zanzibar, Batavia, Celebes, and Misol, including types of 
S. lio(/astroides and C. j^ifti/ttis. 



14. Sardinella cJupeoules. 



A 



imfjii/gnster chipeoides, Bleek. Journ. Ind. Arch. 1849, p. 73. 

:lupea chipeoides, Giintb. Cat. I'ish, \ii. p. 42.5 (1868) ; Bleek. Atl. 

Jchth. vi. p. 103, Clap. pi. xiv. tig. 1 (1872) ; Weber & Beaufort, 

Fish. Indo-Austr.il. Arcliipel. ii. p. 63 (1913). 
C'liipea (Jci)i(nce>tsis, Kishiiioiive, Jouru. Imp. Fisheries Bureau, Tokyo, 

xiv. 1907, p. 90, pi. xix. Hg. 2. 

Depth of body 3| to 4^ in the length, lengtli of head 4 to 
4^. JSiiont as long as or a little longer than diameter of eye, 
A\iiich is 3^ to 4 in length of" head ; maxillary not extending 
to below eye. 27 to 31 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior 
arch. 42 to 44 scales in a lon<>itiidinal, 12 in a transverse 
s^-ries ; ventral scutes 16-17 + 12-14. Dorsal 17-19. Anal 
16-18. Pelvics 8-iayed, nearly below origin of dorsal. 

Malay Archi]:)elago to liiu-Kiu Lslands. 

Two .'specimens, 160 and 230 mm. long, the latter the typo 
of the .species. 

Opisthonema, Gill, 1861. 

Proc. Acad. Philadelphia, p. 37. 

Differs from Sardinella in that the last ray of the dorsal 
fill IS prolonged into a tilament. 

Two species from Tropical America. 

]. Opisthonema oglinum. 

Clvjiea thrissa (non Linn.), Broussouet, Ichth. fasc. 1 (1872); Giinth. 

Cat. Fish. vii. p. 432 (1868). 
Me^dlops oglina, Lesueur, J. Ac. Philad. i. 1817, p. 3"59. 
Opistliunema oylhium, Jord. Sc Everm. Bull. U.S. Xat. Mus. xlvii. 

189f), p. 432. 

Depth of body 2| to 3| in tlie length, length of liead 4 
to 4n. Snout as long as or a little longer than diameter of 
eye, which is 3- to 4 in length of head ; maxillary extending 
to below anterior ;\ of eye. 65 (young) to 100 gill-rakers on 
lower part of anterior arch. 48 to 50 scales in a longitudinal. 



386 Sir. C. T. Regan on the CJupeid Fishes 

15 01- IG ill a transverse scries ; ventral scutes 17-'20 + 13-10. 
Dorsal 18-20. Anal 22-25. Pclvics b-raycd, a little in 
advance of middle ot" dorsal. 

Carolina to Brazil. 

Several examples, 85 to 275 mm. in total length. 

2. Opisthonema liber tatt's. 

Meletta Uhertatis, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1866, p. 603. 

Clupea libertath, Giiiitli. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 433 (1868). 

Opiathonema libertute, Jord. & Everin. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mas. xlvii. 

1806, p. 433. 
Clupea (Opisthonema) buUeri, Ilegau, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xiii. 

1904, p. 255. 

Depth of body 3 to 3^ in the length, length of head 3^ to 
41. Snout as long as or longer than diameter of eye, which 
is 3 3 to 5 in the lengtii of head ; maxillary extending to 
ludow anterior ^ or nearly to middle of eye. 85 (young) to 
11J5 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 48 to 50 
scales in a longitudinal, 11 to 16 in a transverse series ; 
ventral scutes 17-19 + 14-16. Dorsal 17-19. Anal 19-21. 
Pelvics 8-rayed, a little in advance of middle of dorsal. 

Pacific coast of Mexico and Central America; Galapagos 
Islands. 

Several examples, 75 to 250 mm. in total length. 

Harengula, Val. 1847. 

Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx. p. 277. 

Tiiis genus has never been properly distinguished from 
Siirdinella, but they differ in some important characters. 
In Sardinella, as in Sardina, the two last rays of the anal 
lin are enlarged and the transverse grooves on the scales are 
piaired, their inner ends separated by an interspace. In 
Harengula the posterior anal rays are equal and the trans- 
verse grooves on the scales are continuous; moreover, the 
lower jaw is more prominent and the sheath at the bass of 
the dorsal Hn is lower than in Sardinella. I count 39 ver- 
tebrae in //. dispilonotiis, 40 in U. maculosa and II. castelnaui, 
41 in II. 2}e)tsacola^, 4:2 in //. schrammi, 43 in //. zunasi, 43 
or 44 in If. macropkthahna^ and 44 in //. punctata. 

Like Sardinella, this genus occurs in the tropical Indo- 
Pacific; but whereas Sardinella has four West African and 
Mediterranean and ordy one Antillean species, Harengula 
has four species on the coasts of Tropical America, but is 
absent from the eastern Atlantic. 



of the Genera Sardiiiella, TTareiigiila, cfcc. 387 

The species are mostly smaller and of less economic value 
tlian those of Sardmeha, and some of tliem are reputed 
pivisoiious [cf. Cuv. & Val, XX. p. 295 (//. humeralis=^ma- 
crophtJialnia) and j). 377 (Meletta ve)ienosa= H. punctata)^. 

S(/nopsis of the Sjyecies. . 

I. Aiuericau. 

A. 27 to o3 gill-raliers on lower part of anterior arch. 

I. Depth of operculum 2, diameter of eye 2| to S in length of 

head ; depth of body o to 3| in the length. 

1. maculosa. 

II. Depth of operculum more than ^ length of head, diameter of 

eye 3 to 3^ in length of head. 
Anal of 16-19 rays. Depth 3-3§ in the length, 

head 3^ to 3f 2. macrophthalma. 

Anal of 15 x&ys. Depth 2f (-3^) in the length, 

head 3f 3. thrissina. 

B. 33 to 36 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch ; depth of 

opei'caluni ^ to § leugth of head; eye 2f to 3 in head; depth 
of body 2J to 2f in the length 4. i^^^sacolce. 

II. Indo-Pacific. 

A. 35 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch ; 36 to 38 scales in 

a loiiuitudinal series 5. dispilonotus. 

B. 30 to 34 gill-rakers on lowei'part of anterior arch ; 40 to 45 scales 

in a longitudinal series. 

Depth of bod}' 2§ in the length 6. honinyihergeri. 

Depth of body 3^ to 4 in the length, length of head 

3^ to 4 ; eye 3 to 3^ in length of head 7. punctata. 

Depth of body 4 to 4f in the length, length of head 

4 to 4f ; eye 3^ to 3§ in length of head .... 8. schrammi. 

C. More than 40 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 

1. Depth of body 2^ to 3i in length; eye 3 in length of head; 

45 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 

9. custelnaui. 

2. Depth of body 3 to 4 in length ; eye 3^ to 3§ in length of head. 
About 50 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch ; 

40 to 42 scales in a longitudinal series ; ends 

of caudal lobes blackish 10. vittata. 

About 50 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch ; 

44 to 4G scales in a longitudinal series ; 

caudal fin uniform .■ 11. zunasi. 

70 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch .... 12. ?ti/)njjluea. 

1. Ilarengula maculosa. 

Harengula maculosa, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Xat. Poiss. xx. 1847, p. 292. 
Alcm apicaUs, Miill. & Trosch. in Schomburgk, IJist. Barbadoes, p. 673 

(1848). 
JTarengiiki jaguana, Poey, Rep. i. p. 190 (1866). 
Vlupea macruphthaima, Giiuth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 421. 



388 Mr. C. T. Regan on (he Clupeid Fishes 

Sardinella sardina, Jord. &; Everm. Bull. U.S. Xat. Mus, xlvii. 1896, 

p. 430. 
Saidintlla macrophtluihnus, Jord. & Everm. I. c. 

De}itli of body 3 to 3^ in the lengtli, length of liead 3^ to 
Si. (Snont shorter than or nearly as long as diameter of eye, 
\vliich is 2| to 3 in the length ot head and greater than its 
distance tiom lower edge of prEeoperculuni ; maxillary ex- 
tending to below anterior part or middle of eye ; depth of 
opercuhun }, length of head. 27 to 33 gill-rakers on lower 
part of ant(;rior arch. About ■10 scales in a longitudinal and 
11 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 15-17 + 10-12. 
Dorsal 17-19. Anal 17-19. Pelvics 8-rayed, below middle 
of dorsal. Anterior part of dorsal blackish superiorly. 
Vertebrae 40. 

Several examples^ 90 to 200 mm. in total length, from 
Floiida, the Bernmdas, and the West Indies. 

2. Ilarengula macrophthalmus. 

Chtpea mncrophthahna, Rauzaui, Nov. Com. Ac. Sc. Inst. Bonon. y. 

lt!4i>, p. 320, pi. xxiii. 
HareiK/ina latulus, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx. p. 2S0, pi. 695 

(iS-iZ). 
Hanmi/ula clupeola, Cut. & Val. t. c. p. 289. 
llareiiijtila liuniendis, Cuv. & Val. t. c. p. 293. 
Alosa striata, Cuv. He Val. t. c. p. 429. 
Ahm hishojn, Miill. & Trosch. in Scliomburgk, Hist. Barbadoes, p. 675 

(1848). 
llareityula sardina, Poey, Mem. ii. p. 310 (1860). 
Clupea liumevalis (part.), Giinlh. Cat. ln.xh. vii. p. 422 (1868). 
Sardhiella Immeralis (part.), Jord. & Everm. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. xlvii. 

leUO, p. 431. 

Depth of body 3 to 3| in the length, lengtli of head 3i to 
3f . Snout shorter than diameter of eye, which is 3 to 3^ in 
the length of head and not greater than its distance from 
lower edge of prseoperculum ; maxillary extending to below 
anterior ^ of eye or beyond ; depth of operculum more than 
■^ length of head. 29 to 33 gill-rakers on lower part ot 
anteiior arch. About 42 scales in a longitudinal and 11 in a 
tiansverse series; ventral scutes 16-19 + 12-14. Dorsal 
16-19. Anal lG-19. Pelvics 8-rayed, below middle of 
dorsal. A dark humeral spot. Vertebrse 43-44. 

Atlantic coast of Tropical America*. 

iS'umeious examples, 80 to 130 mm. in total length, from 
Florida, the We^t Indies, Fernando Noronha, and liahia. 

* Valenciennes described H. lutula as a European species; it is 
probable tbat tbis "was a mistake, although it is not impossible that the 
species msiy cross the Atlantic. 



of the Genera Sardiiiella, Harengula, dsc. 389 

3. Harengrila thrt'ssina. 

Clupen fJirissinn, Jord. & Gilb. Proc. TT.S. Nat. Miia. 1882, p. .3o:3. 
SardmeUa thrissinn, Jord. & Evenn. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. xlvii. 189G, 
p. 430. 

Deptli of body 2| (-3^) in tlie \ex\^i\\, lenfftli of bead 3f . 
Snout a little sborter tban diameter of eye, wbicii is 3^ in the 
lengtb of bead and ratber less tban its distance horn, lower 
edoe of pr890|)erculutn ; maxillary extendinj^ a little beyond 
anterior ^ of eye ; deptb of opercnlum more tban J lengtb of 
liead. oO gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arcb. 40 
scales in a longitudinal and 12 in a transverse series; ventral 
scutes 18 + 11(16 + 13). Dorsal 17. Anal 15. Pelvics 
8-rayed, below middle of dorsal. A dark bumeral spot. 

Pacitic coast of Mexico. 

A single specimen, 115 mm. in total lengtb, from Jalisco. 

4. Ilarengula pensacoloe. 

Chipea hianeralis (part.), Giinth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 422 (1868). 
Harengida pensacola, Guode & Bean, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1879, p. 153, 
SardmeUa humeralis (part.), Jord. & Everm. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. xlvii. 

1896, p. 431. 
Sardinella sardina, Jord. Sc Everm. t. c. 1900, fig. 193. 

Deptb of body 2| to 2| in tbe lengtb, lengtb of bead S3 to 
5|. Snout sborter than diameter of eye, wliicb is 2f to 3 in 
lengtb of bead and equal to its distance from lower edge of 
prseoperculum ; maxdlary extending to below anterior ^ of 
eye or beyond ; deptb of operculum | to f lengtb of bead. 
33 to 36 gill-rtikers on lower part of anterior aicb. About 
40 scales in a longitudinal and 11 in a transverse series ; 
ventral scutes 16-17 + 13. Dorsal 16-18. Anal 16-18. 
Pelvics 8-rayecl, below middle of dorsal. Vertebrai 41. 

Four specimens, 80 to 140 mm. in total lengtb, from 
Floiida and Trinidad. 

5. Harenguia dispilonotus. 

Harenguln dispilonotus, Bleek. Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. iii. 1852, p. 456. 
Cliipea dispi/ojiotus, Giiuth. Cat. Fisli. vii. p. 429 (186S) ; IJIeek. Atl. 

Jchth. vi. p. Ill, Chip. pi. iii. fig. 3 ri872); Weber & Beaufort, 

Fish. Indo-Austral. Arch. ii. p. 69 (1913). 

Deptb of body 3 to 3i in tbe lengtb, length of bead 3| to 
4. 8nout a little sborter than diameter of eye, wbich is 3 in 
tbe lengtb of bead ; maxillary extending to below anterior \ 
of eye. 35 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arcb. 36 to 
38 scales in a longitudinal, 11 or 12 in a transverse series j 



31»0 Mr. C. T. Rfgau on the Chipill Fishes 

ventral scutes l-i-l() + 11-13. Dorsal 18-20. Anal lii-lS. 
Pt'lvics below anterior ^ of dorsal. A dark spot or ocellus on 
back at. base of posterior dorsal rays, a second behind it. 

E. Indian Archipelago. 

Six specimens, 7o to 100 mm. in total lengtli, including 
the type of the species. 

6 . Ihtrenjula Ico n ingshergeri . 

Chippa K-o)xiiigsherqcri, Weber & Beaufort, Verb. Akad. Amsterdam, 
xvii. no. 3", 19l"2, p. 14 ; Fisb. ludo-Austral. Arcb. ii. p. 72 (1913). 

Depth of body 25 in the length, length of head 3|. 
Snout shorter than diameter of eye, which is 2| in length of 
head ; maxillary extending to below anterior ^ of eye or a 
little bej'ond. 33 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. 
42 scales in a longitudinal and 12 in a transverse series ; 
ventral scutes 17-1.S + 11-12. Dorsal 18-19. Anal 20-21. 
Pelvics below or a little in advance of middle of dorsal. 

A specimen of 11,5 mm. from N.W. Australia, and one of 
75 mm. from New Guinea; the species was described from 
the Aru Is. 

7. IlarengnJa 'punctata. 

Chippn punctata, liiippell, Neiie Wirbeltb. Fiscbe, p. 78, pi. xxi. fig. 2 

(1840). 
CInpea fjundrimoculata, Eiippell, t. c. p. 78, pi. xxi. fig. 3. 
Sardinellu lineolata, Ciiv. & Viil. Hist. Nat. Poiss. x.x. p. 272 (1847). 
Hfirenz/ula punctata. Ciiv. & ^'al. i. c. p. 297 ; Sauvage, Hist. Mada- 
gascar Pois.s. p. 493 (1891 \ " 
UareiiguJa bipuitctata, Cuv. it Val. t. c. p. 293. 
Mel-.'tta ubtusirostrif:, Cuv. &: Yal. t, c. p. 375. 
Meletta veiienosa, Cuv. & Val. t. c. p. 377. 

Harengula molurcensis, Bleek. Nat. Tijdscln-. Ned. Ind. iv. 1853, p. 609. 
Ilaremjula httnzei, Bleek. id. xii. 1857, p. 209. 
JianntpOa ."pihirus, Guicheiiot, iu Maillard, lie de la Ii6union Poiss. 

p. l(j (1805) ; Sauvage, op. cit. p. 493, pi. xlviii. fig. 3. 
Cliipea niotuccensis, (jiiiitb. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 427 (1808); Bleek, Atl. 

Iclitb. vi. p. 107, Chip. pi. V. liir. 2 (J872j ; Weber & Beaufort, 

Fisb. ludo-Austral. Arcb. ii. p. 8i (1913). 
C'lupea venenosa, Giiiitb. t. c. p. 449 ; Weber & Beaufort, t. c. p. 77. 
Clupta kuuzei, Bleek. Atl. Icbtb. vi. p. 107, Chip. pi. v. fig. 1 (1872) ; 

Day, Fisb India, p. 636. 
Chipca duljia, Bleek. t. c. p. 108. 
Hurenqrda stereolepis^ Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales, xxii. 1897, 

p. 769. 
Clupea mizun, Kishinouj'e, Journ. Imp. Fisberies Bureau, Tokyo, xiv. 

1907, p. 98, pi. XX. tig. 3. 

Depth of body 3_^ to 4 in the length, length of head 3^ to 4. 
Snout as long as or shorter than diameter of eye, which 



of the Genera Sanlinelln, Ilarcngula, etc. 391 

is 3 to ?»\ ill the leiio-th of head, equal to or greater than its 
distance from lower edge of prseoperculum ; maxillary ex- 
toiiding to bidow anterior ^ of eye or a little beyond ; depth 
of operculiini about ^ lengtli of head. 30 to 3-4 gill-ralcers on 
lower part of anterior arch. 42 to 45 scales in a longitudinal, 
11 or 12 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 16-20 + 11— 14. 
Dorsal 17-19. Anal 17-19. Pelvics below or a little in 
advance of middle of dorsal. Anterior part of dorsal blackish 
superiorly. Yertebrje 44. 

Tropical Indo-Pacific, fioin E. Africa to the Paumotu 
Arcliipelago. 

Numerous examples, GO to 130 mm. in total length, in- 
cluding the types of //. moluccensis and H. kunzei. 

8. Ilarengula schrammi. 

Alosa schrammi, Bleek. Verb. Bat. Gen. xxii. 1849, Bali, p. 11. 
Clnpea sc/trammi, Bleek. Atl. Iclitb. vi. p. 109, Clup. pi. xiv. fisr. 3 
(1«72) ; Weber & Beaufort, Fish. Indo-Austral Arch, ii, p. 83 (1913j. 

Deptii of body 4 to A^ in the length, length of head 4 to 
4|. Snout a little longer than diameter of eye, which is 3^ 
to 3f in the length of head ; maxillary extending to below 
anterior ^ of eye. 32 to 34 gill-rakers on lower part of ante- 
rior arch. About 42 scales in a longitudinal and 12 in a 
transverse series ; ventral scutes 17— 18 + 12. Dorsal 18— 1 9, 
Anal 18-19. Pelvics 8-rnyed, below or a little in advance of 
middle of dorsal. VertebriC 42. 

i\Ialay Archipelago. 

Four specimens, 100 to 115 mm. in total length, from 
Misol and Goram ; wiih these I have compared the ty[)e, u 
small tisii iri bad condition. 

9. Harengula castelnaui. 

Kawaht castelnaid, Ogilbv, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales, xxii. 1897^ 
p. m. 

Depth of body 2^ to 3i in the length, length of head about 
4. Snout a little shorter than diameter of eye, which is 3 in 
the leiiiith of head : maxillary extending to below anterior i 
or middle of eye. 45 gill-r;ikers on lower part of anterior 
arch. 40 to 42 scales in a longitudinal, 12 in a transverse 
series J ventral scutes 16-19 + 10-13. Dor.-al 17-19. Anal 
18-21. Pelvics below middle or anterior | of dorsal. Tip 
of dorsal and ends of caudal lobes blackish. " 

New South Wales. 

ISiiiie spccimt^ns, 130 to 180 mm, in (otal length. 



3J2 Mr. C. T. R>-gaii on the Clupeid Fishes 

10. Ilarengula vittata. 

Cl'ipevur. viffafa.Cnv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xx, p. 352 (1847). 

Alau<n tuel'inurus, Ciiv. & Val. t. c. p. 441. 

Clupeonta juxsieni, Ciiv. & Val. op. eit. pi. <599. 

Chipen melamcra, Gunth. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 449 (ISGS) ; Bleek. .Vtl, 

Ichth. vi; p. Ill, Chip. pi. xi. fi-_'. 5 (1872); WeLer & Beaufort, 

Fish. Indo-Aiistral. Arch. ii. p. 72 (1913). 
Harenqnla vnnicoris, Jord. & Seale, Bull. U.S. Bureau Fisheries, xxv. 

190(3, p. 187. 
Clupea rechingeri, Steiud. Sitzungsl). Akad. Wien, cxv. 1900, p. 1424. 

Deptli of body 3.V to 3f in tlie length, length of head 3| to 
4. Snout as loiior as diameter of eye, which is 32 to 3| ia 
the length of head; maxillary exteiiding to below anterior ^ 
of eye or beyond. 50 gill-rakers on lower part of atiterior 
arch. 40 to 42 scales in a longitudinal, 12 in a transverse 
series; ventral scutes 17 + 13. Dorsal l(j. Anil 18-19. 
Pel vies below anterior \ of dorsal. Basal part of caudal 
dusky; ends of lobes blackish. 

Indo-Pacific. 

Two specimens, 80 and 90 mm. in total length, from 
Celebes and Raiatea. 

11. Harengula zunasi. 

Chipea liownl (non Riipp.), Schleg. Faun. Japon. Poiss. p. 23.5, pi. vii. 

fig. 1(1846). 
Hareuqiila zunasi, Bleek. Verb. Bat. Gen. xxvi. 18o4, p. 117. 
Clupea hnval (part.), Guutli. Cat. Fish. vii. p. 450 HSOS). 
Clupea zunasi, Giinth. t. c. p. 451 : Kishinouye, Journ. Imp. Fisheries 

Bureau, Tokyo, xiv. 1907, p. 98, pi. xx. fig. 4. 

Depth of body 31 to 3f in the length, length of head 4 to 
4^. Snout nearly as long as or shorter than diameter of eye, 
which is 3^ to 3f in the length of head ; maxillary expending 
to below anterior ^ of eye or beyond. About 50 gill-rakers 
on lower part of anterior arch. 42 to 4G scales in a longi- 
tudinal serie-:, 11 or 12 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 
17-20-1-11-15. Dorsal 17-19. Anal 17-20. Pelvics 
below anterior ^ of dorsal. 

China, Corea, and Southern Japan. 

Several specimens, 90 to 140 ram. in total length, from 
Amoy, China, and from Japan. 



12. Harengula nymphcea. 

Richards, Ichthyol. China, p. > 
428 (1863). 

Depth of body 3,1 in the length, length of head 4. Snout 



Clupea fii/mph(pa, Richards, Ichthyol. China, p. 304 (1848) ; Giinth. 
Cat. Fish. vii. p. 428 (1863). 



of the Genera Sardinella, Harengula, cfcc. 393 

as long as diameter of eye, which is 3|-in the lengtli of head; 
niaxillaiy extending to below anterior ^ of eye. 70 gill- 
rakers on lower part of anterior arch. About 40 scales in a 
longitudinal and 13 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 
18 + 11. Dorsal 17, Anal 20. Pelvics 8-rayed, a little in 
advance of middle of dorsal. 

China. 

Here described from the type, 120 mm. in total length. 

LiLE, Jordan & Evermann, 1896. 
Bull. U.S. Nat. Mu3. xlvii. p. 429. 

This genus is close to Ilarengula, but is distinguished by 
the well-defined bluish-silvery lateral band and by the absence 
of scales on the lobes of the caudal tin. The dermal fold on 
the edge of the cleithrum described in Sardinella, which is 
developed to a greater or less extent in Harengula^ is absent 
in this genus. 

Three species from America. 

1. Lile stolifera, 

Clupea stolifera, Jord. & Gilbert, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1881, p. .339* 
Sardinella stolifera, Joi'd. & Everm. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. xlvii. 1896, 
p. 431, and 1900, fig. 194. 

Depth of body 3i to 4 in the length, length of head 4;^ 
to 4|. Diameter of eye 3 in length of head ; maxillary 
extending to below anterior \ of eye. 36 gill-rakers on lower 
part of anterior arch. About 40 scales in a longitudinal, 10 
or 11 in a transverse series ; ventral scutes 16-18 + 10-12. 
Dorsal 15-17 ; origin nearer to end of snout than to base of 
caudal. Anal 16-19. Pelvics 8-rayed, below anterior rays 
of dorsal. A silvery lateral band ; ends of caudal lobes 
blackish. VertebrfB 40 (42). 

Pacific coast of Mexico. 

Eight specimens, 90 to 100 mm. long. 

2. Lile piquitmga. 

Sardinella piquidnffa, Schreiner & Eibeiro, Arch. 31us. Eio Janeiro, 
xii. 1903, p. 72. 

Depth of body about 3^ in the length, length of head 3f 
to 4. Diameter of eye 2f in lengtli of head ; maxillary 
extending to below anterior ^ of eye. 33 gill-rakers on lower 
part of anterior arch. About 40 scales in a longitudinal and 
10 in a transverse series; ventral scutes 16-17 + 10-11, 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 26 



;^P4 On the Qenera Sardlnella, Ilarengula, &c. 

Dorsal 15-18 ; origin nearer end of snout than base of caudal. 
Anal 17-19. Pelvics 8-rayed, below anterior part of dorsal. 
A silvery lateral band. Yertebrse 40. 

Coast of Brazil. 

Three specimens, 80-90 mm. long, from Pernambuco. 

3. Lile plat ana, sp. M. 

Depth of body 3 in the length, length of head 4. Diameter 
of eye 3 in length of head; maxillary extending to below- 
anterior i of eye ; 23 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior 
arch. About 40 scales in a longitudinal series ; ventral 
scutes 18 + 10. Dorsal 14 ; origin equidistant from end of 
snout and base of caudal. Anal 18. Pelvics below origin of 
dorsal. A silvery lateral band. 

La Plata. 

A single specimen of 45 mm. 

Heringia. 

Heringia, Fowler, Proc. Acad. Philadelphia, Ixiii. 1911, p. 207. 
Rhinosardinia, Eig-enmaun, Mem. Carnegie Mas. v. 191 2^ p. 445. 

Form moderately elongate, strongly compressed ; abdomen 
sharp-edited. Mouth small, toothless ; lower jaw rather 
prominent, upper without distinct notch; maxillary with a 
retrorse spine near its proximal end ; 2 supramaxillaries. 
Operculum smooth ; suboperculum rounded. Dorsal median, 
of 13 to 15 rays, without scaly sheath ; anal of 15 to 17 rays, 
with a low scaly sheath ; caudal forked^ scaly at base, without 
alar scales. Pelvics 8-rayed, a little in advance of dorsal. 
38 to 40 scales in a longitudinal, 9 or 10 in a transverse 
series ; each scale crossed by a transverse groove, from which 
2 (fewer anteriorly, more posteriorly) run backwards to the 
free edge, which is entire. Veit'-brse 39. 



1. Heringia amazonica. 

Clupea amazonica, Steind. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien, Ixxx. pt. 1, 1880, 

p. 18,3. 
Rhinosardinia serrata, Eigenni. Mem. Carnegie Mus. v. 1912, p. 445, 

pi. Ixii. tigs. 3, 4. 

Depth 3 to 3^ in length, length of head 4^ to 5. Diameter 
of eye 3 to 3^ in length of head; maxillary extending to 
below anterior margin or anterior ^ of eye. 35 gill-rakers 
on lower part of anterior arch. 38 to 40 scales in a longi- 
tudinal, 9 or 10 in a transverse series: ventral scutes keeled 



I 



On new Weevils from India. 395 

anrl pointel, 16-17 + 10-11. Dorsal 13-15; origin nearer 
end of snout than base of catxflal. Anal 15-17. Pelvics a 
little in advance of dorsal. Silvery; back bluish. 

Amazon ; rivers of Guiana. 

Four specimens, 60 miu. long, co-types of R. serrata, 
from British Guiana. 

2. Heringia hahiensis. 

Tellonula hahiensis, Steind. Sitzimgsb. Akad. Wien, Ixxx. 1880, p. 181, 

pi. iii. fig. 2. 
Sardinella pernamhucana, Schreiuer & llibeiro, Arch. Miis. Rio 

Janeiro, xii. 1903, p. 72. 

Maxillary extemiing to below anterior ^ of eye. 42 to 44 
scales in a longitudinal series. Dorsal 16-17. Anal 16-18. 
A more or less distinct bluish-silvery lateral band. 

(Joast of Brazil. 

This species seems to be scarcely distinct from the preceding, 
examples of which also show a faint lateral band in certain 
lijiht.H. 



XXXV. — Oh new Weevils of the Genus Mecysmoderes //'owj 
hid. a. By Guy A. K. Marshall, D.Sc. 

Subfamily Ceutrorbktncrinm. 
Mecysmoderes memecylonis, sp. n.* 

^ . Colour black ; the head with moderately dense seti- 
form scales, those in the middle being brown and the others 
white ; the pronotum sparsely set with inconspicuous dark 
setse, and with a longitudinal patch of transverse white setse 
on the anterior half on each side ; the elytra with a longi- 
tudinal stripe on the first interval bordering the thoracic 
spine and composed of small, ovate, overlapping, yellowish- 
white scales (the basal half of the stripe usually brownish), 
being continued behind the spine as a double row of elongate 
brown scales, partly replaced by white ones near the apex ; 
the remaining intervals each bear a single I'ow of similar 
brown scales, with a ^qw white ones here and there, except 
along the immediate base, where all the scales are white; the 

* The types of all the species described here are in the British 
Museum. 

2G* 



306 Dr. G. A. K. Marshall on 

lower surface fairly closely covered with spparated white 
scales thronorhout. 

Head minutely shaareened, with an indistinct network of 
raised lines and a strono- longitudinal carina on the vertex ; 
the forehead only slightly depressed below the level of the 
eyes and with a faint central carina. Rostrum moderately 
stont, very slightly widened from the middle to the apex; the 
basal halt' shagreened, with a well-marked central carina and 
another on each side of it, the apical half siiining in the 
middle and with several rows of very shallow punctures at 
the sides. Antennce with the scape sharply pointed at the 
apex ; the funicle with joint 1 about as long as 2 and twice 
as thick, 3 a trifle longer than 2, 4 shorter than 2, and 5 and 
6 shorter still and bead-like, 5 as long as broad, 6 transverse. 
Prothorax very strongly and regularly convex transversely, 
the sides about equal to half the basal margin, almost straight 
and with a moderate apical constriction, the front margin 
produced into a sharp obtuse angle in the middle, the basal 
spine very long (more than one-third the length of the elytra), 
the basal margin forming on each side an angle of about To*^ 
with the main axis ; the upper surface finely shagreened and 
dull, with a strong complete central carina and a large-meshed 
reticulation of fine raised lines, wntliout any conspicuous 
depressions ; the dorsal outline moderately curved, sloping 
gradually from the base to one-third, and thence much more 
steeply. Elytra about as long as their united width at the 
shoulders and \evy broadly rounded behind, the humeral 
slope forming an angle of about 45° with the suture ; the 
strife broad, shining, and deeply punctate, the intervals 
rather narrower, carinate and minutely granulate; the dorsal 
outline convex, deepest before the middle, sloping gradually 
to the base and more steeply behind. Legs black, clothed 
with separated setiform white scales, the tarsi piceous ; all 
the femora with a sharp tooth, the dorsal apical fringe of the 
hind tibia longer than the first tarsal joint, the claws unusually 
snudl. Sternum : the space between the front coxae as broad 
as the rostrum ; the meso- and metasternum broadly exca- 
vated, the end of the furrow sloping gradually up to the base 
of the metasternum, and the mesosternum being almost 
horizontal. 

Length l?-lf, breadth l.^-lg mm. 

Mysore: Madhavgiri, on leaves of Memecylon umbellatum 
[H. Maun, Pusa Coll.). AsSAM : Sylhet (type). 

Allied to M. nigrorufn^ Mots., but, apart from its red- 
brown colouring, distinctly narrower form, and unarmed 
femora, that species has the prothorax much more finely 



J 



neiv Weevils from India. 397 

refciculate, its dorsal outline being almost flat, the front 
margin rounded, and the central carina flattened; the elytra 
bear a single row of white scales on tiie first interval behind 
the thoracic spine, and the other intervals are set with 
irregular minute dark setae ; and the metasternum is only 
shailowly excavated in front. Tlie sternal furrow of M. me- 
meci/lonis is very similar to that of J/, carinata, Fst., but in 
the latter the margins of tlie apex are overhanging. 

Mecysmoderes verrucosa^ sp. n. 

cJ . Black or brownish black, shining and sparsely set with 
very short recumbent white seteo ; the elytra with an elongate 
patch of brown scales along each side of the thoracic spine ; 
the tarsi testaceous. 

Head unevenly reticulate, with a well-marked central 
carina running from the vertex to the edge of the interocular 
depression. Eostrum stout, about as long as the front femur, 
gradually widening from base to apex, somewhat compressed, 
the greatest depth exceeding the width, the dorsal outline 
strongly curved, but with a depression at the base and a deep 
sinuation in the middle ; the upper surface rugosely punctate, 
with a strong central carina (obsolete in the median depres- 
sion and ceasing a little behind the insertion of the antennge) 
and two finer irregular ones on each side. Antennae with the 
apex of the scape not produced into a sharp point ; the 
funicle with the two basal joints eqtial in length, 3 rather 
shorter, 4 again much shorter, 5 and 6 bead-like. Prothorax 
with the sides about as long as half the basal margin, slightly 
rounded in the posterior half, abruptly narrowed in front, the 
apical constriction being broad and collar- like, the front 
niargin rounded dorsally and slightly produced in the middle; 
the whole of the central portion of the disk is raised into a 
large boss-like prominence, the top of which bears an elevation 
on each side, the space between them being longitudinally 
flattened; the upper surface is coarsely reticulate, with a 
sharp central carina running from the apical edge to the tip 
of the basal spine, and on each side of it on the apical collar 
is another sharp carina — these being convergent behind in 
the type and parallel in a second specimen. Elytra about as 
long as their width at the shoulders, which are very promi- 
nent and rounded, the humeral slope forming an angle of 
about 70° with the main axis ; the striae broad and shallow, 
rather sinuous, much more irregular than usual, and con- 
taining very unequal punctures, the intervals very uneven, 
bearing elongate tubercles and set with scattered minute 



308 Dr. G. A. K. .^^ar3llall on 

granules ; the move conspicuous tubercles are situated as 
t'oUows : — interval 2 witli a small one at the top of tlie de- 
clivity, on interval 3 a snnvU one near the base and a verj 
large one near the middle, on interval 5 a large one near the 
base and a small one close behind it, on interval 7 a medium 
one near the shoulder and anotlier about the middle, on 
interval 9 a large one about the middle, and a large one just 
behind the shoulder on interval 10 ; near the apex a trans- 
verse row of tubercles on intervals «^— 7, those on 5 and 6 
being elongate and the others short ; behind these is a broad 
tiansverse impression. L^gs rather long, with scattered 
recumbent short white setse ; the femora rugoselj punctured, 
armed with a stout tooth, and transversely impressed exter- 
nally near the apex ; thetibise rather slender, scarcely dilated 
at the apex and there clothed externally with golden-brown 
hairs, Avhicli form a dorsal fringe hardlj^ as long as the first 
tarsal joint. S/enimn: the mesosternum sloping very steeply 
and very sballowly impressed in the middle to receive the 
apex of the rostrum, the metasternum not excavated, and the 
space between the front coxae as wide as the rostrum. 

Length 2i-35, breadth 2-2^ mm. 

Assam: Patkai Hills {W. Doherty). 

A strikingly distinct species. 

Mecysmoderes nietasternallsy sp. n. 

($ . Colour varying from black to red-brown, variegated 
with brown, yellowish and wiiite scales or setse ; the head 
with fairl}' dense narrow wliite scales; the prothorax with the 
entire sides and lower surface bearing close whitish scales 
and setee, a triangular patch of white sette on the apical third 
of the median area (its base on the front margin), and some 
pale setae on each side of the basal third of the central carina, 
thus leaving a broad, roughly X-shaped, bare discal patch ; 
the elytra with a very long raised stripe of scales on each 
side of the thoracic spine extending for more tlian half 
their length, the basal two-thirds being very dark brown, the 
apical third whitish ; these scales are very closely packed and 
obliquely raised or almost erect ; a large lanceolate sub- 
humeral patch of dense whitish scales (continuous with 
similar scaling on the whole lower surface), the inner edge of 
which reaches the sixth stria at the base and extends obliquely 
backwards to nearly the middle of the lateral margin ; the 
ajiical margin and the posterior half of the lateral margin 
with an irregular edging of white scales, and a row of 
yellowish scales on the basal fourth of the second interval; 



new Weevils from India, 309 

the rest of the elytra clothed with dark brown scales varie- 
guted with narrower light brown and white scales, and with 
a conspicuous spot of broader white scales before the middle 
on the eighth interval. 

Head with the inner edge of the eyes strongly raised above 
the general level ; the forehead very narrow, not broader than 
the antennal club, and broadly impressed behind ; the vertex 
rugosely punctured, with a well-marked central carina and 
densely clotlied with elongate p;ile scales. Rosb'uni piceous 
black, with the extreme apex reddish ; long, slender, and 
cylindrical, extending beyond the middle of the nietasternum ; 
rather dull and very finely aciculate, with two short indistinct 
furrows on each side at the base, and no central carina ; the 
j)unctures indistinct at the base, shallow and widely separated 
tor most of the length, and deeper near the apex. Antennce 
testaceous ; the scape without any apical process ; the three 
basal joints of the funicle subequal in length, joints 4 and 5 
a little longer tlian broad, 6 almost globular. Frotkorax with 
the basal spine very long, about as long as the jirothorax, 
and extending along nearly two-thirds of the elytral suture ; 
the sides (viewed vertically) almost straight and shorter than 
half the basal margin ; the front margin somewhat produced 
dorsall}^, the produced portion elevated and truncate in the 
middle, so that when seen from in front it appears as a flat- 
tened triangle ; the upper surface covered with large irregular 
reticulate punctures, tiie median area raised and strongly 
compressed in the anterior half, being bounded by a sharp 
carina on each side to about the middle, the central carina 
well-marked throughout ; the dorsal outline distinctly convex 
and deepest about the middle ; the scales on the sides of the 
prothorax are mostly setiform, but there is a patch... of much 
broader scales just below the outer carina and another patch 
some distance below that. Elytra about as long as broad ; 
the striaj broad and deep, with large punctures and without 
rows of scales, except in the first stria ; the intervals some- 
what broader than the striae and irregularly granulate ; the 
scales on the greater part of the surface are small, narrow, 
parallel-sided, and truncate at the tip, but those in the raised 
patch along the suture, in the basal stripe on interval 2, the 
subhumeral patch, and the white border are broader and 
elliptical in shape. Legs piceous, the tarsi paler; the femora 
densely clothed with broad pale scales and all with a strong 
tooth ; the dorsal apical fringe of the posterior tibiaa much 
longer than the first tarsal joint. Ster'num with the front 
coxse widely separated ; the mesosternum almost horizontal 
and broadly and shallowly impressed; the nietasternum with 



400 Dr. G. A. K. Marsliall on 

a broad and deep furrow throughout^ which is quite open at 
the posterior margin. 

Lengtli 2i, breadth 2 mm. 

33UKMA : Tavoy, Tenasserim {W. Doherfj/). 

The most striking features of this species are the structure 
of the front margin of tlie pronotum, the very long pro- 
thoracic spine, tlie elevated sutural scales on the elytra, and 
the open continuous furrow on the metasternum. 

Mecysmoderes subhumeralis, sp. n. 

(J. Colour varying from piceous black to red-brown, the 
upper surface s])arse]y clothed with yellowish hair-like 
scales; the sutural patch of scales on the elytra extending 
for about one-lhird of their length, the basal two-thirds of 
the patch being black and the apical third whitish ; on the 
seventh interval of the elytra there is a small spot of white 
scales before the middle; the lower surface sparsel}^ clothed 
with pale scales, except for a dense patch on the upper half 
of the mesosternal epimeron. 

Head reticulate, the central carina continued well on to 
the forehead, which is almost as broad as the base of the 
rostrum and strongly impressed. JRostrum short and very 
stout, hardly longer than the front femur and oidy just 
reaching the metasternum, parallel-sided in the basal two- 
thirds, slightly wider at the apex, its dorsal outline strongly 
convex, and its depth greater than its width in the middle; 
the upper surface with indistinct confluent punctation, a 
strong central carina for three-fourths its length, and a less 
distinct lateral one. A7itenn(B testaceous ; the scape without 
an apical process ; the iunicle with joints 1 and 2 subequal, 
3 distinctly shorter, 4 longer than broad, 5 and 6 subglobular. 
Prothorax with the sides equal to half the basal margin, 
straight from the base to beyond the middle and then rather 
abruptly constricted j the basal margin more nearly trans- 
verse than in most species, the spine siiort, about one-fourth 
the length of the suture ; the front edge truncate dorsally and 
narro\\ly marginate ; the whole discal area forming a rounded 
elevation laterally compressed in the anterior half, irregularly 
and unequally reticulate, with a strong and complete central 
carina, on each side of it in the front half a short carina that 
does not reach the maigin, and beyond this another irregular 
sinuate one that does reach the margin. Elytra about as 
long as their greatest width, the striae broad and deep, with 
separated })unctures and each with a single row of distant 
minute white set8s ; the intervals costateaud scarcely broader 



neio Weevils from India. 401 

than the striae, each with a row of small granules bearino; 
short recumbent sette and some scattered yellowish hair-like 
scales (especially in the basal half). Le<js piceous, with the 
tarsi paler ; the femora rugosely subgrauulate, with sparse 
whitish hail-like scales and each with a small tooth ; the 
dorsal apical fringe of the hind tibia not longer than the 
first tarsal joint. Sternum with the front coxse widely 
separated, but not enough to receive the whole rostrum ; the 
niesosternum not impressed and sloping steeply ; the meta- 
sternum simple. 

Length 2?, breadtli 1| ram. 

Assam: Patkai Hills (IF. Doherty, type); Sudiya 
(^Doherty^. 

\e\-y similar superficially to M. memecylonis, sp. n., but 
difiering markedly in the structure of the sternum, non- 
angulate front margin of the prothorax, short thoracic spine, 
short third funicular joint, setigerous elj'tial striae, etc. 

Mecysmoderes pusio, sp. n. 

(J ? . Colour piceous, with greyish-white scaling, the 
rostrum and tarsi often paler ; the scales on the head are 
iiarrow and fairly dense ; on the pronotum they are more 
hail-like and sparser on the disk, being shorter and denser at 
the sides and margins and in the central furrow ; on the 
elytra there is a short stripe of almost circular small scales on 
the basal fourth of the first interval, the remaining intervals 
.each bearing a single regular row of very narrow and short 
scales, except on intervals 9 and 10, at the bases of 3 and 5, 
and on the humeral callus, where the scales are duplicated or 
more numerous ; on the lower surface the scales are larger, 
oval, and fairly close, but usually not quite contiguous. 

Head shagreened and shallowly reticulate, with an in- 
distinct central carina on the vertex only, the forehead 
shallowly impressed and broader than the club of the an- 
tenna. Rostrum long, slender, and cylindrical, not quite 
reaching the hind margin of the metasternum {S) or ex- 
tending sligiitly beyond it ( ? ) ; very faintly tricarinate in 
the basal part, the more shining apical area with indistinct 
shallow separated punctures. Antennoi testaceous, the scape 
with a short apical pointed process, the funicle with the two 
basal joints subequal, the third slightly longer. Prothorax 
with the sides about as long as half the basal margin, scarcely 
rounded and very shallowly constricted at the a)}ex ; the 
basal margin nearly transverse externally, the central spine 
short, only about one-eighth the length of the suture, the 



402 t)r. G. A. K. Maisliall on 

apical margin truncate dorsallj ; the upper surface moderately 
convex, with well-marked carinate reticulations, except on 
the apical collar, a broad shallow central furrow from the 
collar to beyond the middle, containing a deep rounded fovea 
in front and changing near the base into a low carina that 
runs on to the spine. Elytra about as long as their greatest 
breadth, the strite very broad, with deep separated punctures 
and quite bare, the intervals subcarinate, each with a row of 
spaced setigerous granules. Legs piceous, with the tarsi 
paler, clothed with separaterl, long, narrow, pale scales ; the 
femora with a minute tooth, wiiich is situated much lower 
down than usual, being about in the middle of the limb and 
])arrly concealed by scales ; the dorsal apical fringe of the 
hind tibipe hardly as long as the first tarsal joint. Sternum 
with the front coxae widely separated for the reception of the 
rostrum ; the mesosternum broadly and deeply excavated, 
almost horizontal in the middle ; the metasternum with a 
l)road central furrow throughout, which is not enclosed 
behind. 

Length 1?, breadth 1-^q mm. 

Burma: Tavoy, Tenasserim {W. Doherty). 

Very similar to M. carinatus, Fst., in wliich the thorax 
is of quite the same type and the sculpturing of the elytra is 
similar ; but that species differs markedly in its metasternum, 
which has a deep overhanging excavation in its anterior part 
only, the femora have no tooth, there is uo carina on the 
head, etc. 

Mecysmoderes pectinipes, sp. n. 

Colour black, variegated with grey and brown setae and 
scales ; the prothorax clothed above with recumbent setaa 
only, the brown ones being more numerous on the disk ; the 
elytra with a sutural strij)e of dense whitish scales extending 
for more than one-third of the suture, the remaining intervals 
bearing linear scales (not less than two, and more often throe 
deep), wliich are grey at the base and mostly dark brown 
elsewhere, variegated here and there with grey scales ; the 
lower surface rather densely clothed with broad whitish 
scales. Immature S|)ecimens are sometimes testaceous, with 
the thoracic carina and spine black; and various intergrades 
occur between this and the black mature form. 

Head with coarse close confluent punctation, the central 
carina indistinct or absent, the forehead not at all impressed. 
Rostrum black, with the apex reddish ; as long as the front 



i 



new Weevils from India. 403 

femur ( c? ) or a little longer ( ? ), cylindrical, slightly tapering 
to the apex from the insertion of the antennse ; the upper 
surface without any -distinct carinas, but closely and cou- 
fluently punctate from the base to the antenna?, beyond which 
the punctures are tiner and isolated, especially in the ? . 
Antennce testaceous ; the scape without any apical process ; 
the tunicle with joints 1 and 2 subequal, 3 shorter, 4-(J bead- 
like. Frothorax with the sides gently rounded and each 
about as long as half the basal margin, the apical constriction 
slight ; the basal spine nearly one-third the length of the 
suture, the apical dorsal margin feebly angulate in the 
middle ; the upper surface is reguhirly and gently convex, 
without elevations or depressions, evenly set with longitu- 
dinally confluent punctures, with a low, broad, complete 
central carina and a fine, short, apical one at some distance on 
each side of it ; the dorsal outline almost flat, deepest near 
the base, and sloping forwards. Elytra as long as their 
greatest width, the strias broad and deep, and containing 
single rows of narrow scales ; the intervals evidently broader 
than the strite, flat, and closely and strongly punctate. Legs 
black, with the tarsi red-brown, rather thinly clothed witli 
narrow pale scales ; the femora with a stout tooth; all the 
tibiae strongly dilated at the apex, which bears a double row 
of stout testaceous spines instead o£ the usual bristles. 
Sternum with the front coxse so narrowly separated tliat the 
rostrum cannot lie between them; the mesosternum almost 
vertical and not impressed ; the metasternuui simple. 

Length 2|-3i, breadth 13-2 mm. 

MadeaS: Nilgiri Hills {H. L. Andrewes). 

A very distinct species on account of its dilated and pecti- 
nate tibia?, closely approximated front coxoe, and unimpressed 
forehead. 

Mecysmoderes tenuirostris, sp. n. 

? . Colour reddish brown above, with the head, the 
thoracic carina and spine, and the basal margin of the elytra 
blackish ; the head, and pronotum with rather sparse yellowish 
setae, the latter with a small patch of ovate whitish scales ou 
each side before the middle just below the outer carina ; the 
elytra with the sutural stripe of ovate scales extending over 
nearly half the suture, the scales being blackish except for a 
short distance at the apex, where they are whitish ; a few 
ovate whitish scales at the base of interval 2 and near the 
apex of the suture, the rest of the intervals being clothed 



404 On new Weevils from IndLi. 

(usually about three deep) with intermingled yellowish and 
blackish narrow setiforni scales ; the lower surface blackish 
(except the prosternum, which is reddish) and densely clothed 
with broad ovate whitish scales except on the mesepimeron, 
the lateral lobe of the mesosternum, and the front half of the 
melepisternum, where the scales are markedly narrower and 
have a brownish tinge. 

Head coarsely and confluently punctate, with a carina on 
the vertex ; the forehead strongly depressed, very broad 
behind, and narrowing in front to the width of the rostrum. 
llostmm extremely long and slender, cylindrical and mode- 
rately curved, reaciiing to the hind margin of the first ventral 
segment ; a smooth central line on the basal third and rows 
of punctures on each side of it, the apical area smooth 
and impunctate. Antenna' testaceous brown, inserted behind 
the middle of the rostrum ; the scape without any apical 
process ; the funicle with joints 1 and 3 subequal, 2 markedly 
longer, 4 much longer than broad, 5 and 6 globular. Fro- 
thovdx with the sides as long as half the basal margin, gently 
rounded and rather broadly constricted at the apex, the apical 
margin being truncate (as seen from above), but raised in the 
middle so as to form a vertical angle ; the basal margin rather 
less oblique on each side than usual, the spine very long and 
slender, extending nearly for one-half the suture ; the upper 
surface not very convex, coarsely and subreticulately punctate, 
with a well-marked and complete central carina, and a promi- 
nent carina on each side of it in the anterior half, below 
which the sides are compressed. Elytra as long as their 
greatest width, the striae deep but not broad, each containing 
a row of spaced yellowish scales ; the intervals evidently 
broader than the striae, flat, and coarsely punctate. Legs 
rather long and slender, clothed with separated yellowish 
setiform scales ; the femora with a stout tooth ; the dorsal 
apical fringe of the hind tibia3 not longer than the first tarsal 
joint. Sternum with the front coxae moderately widely sepa- 
rated ; the mesosternum quite flat and almost vertical ; the 
metasternum simple. 

Length 2f-2f, breadth lf-2 mm. 

Madkas: Nilgiri Hills (//. L. Andreioes). 

Differs from all the Indian species known to me by its 
very long and slender rostrum ; the unusual length of the 
second joint of the funicle is also noteworthy. 



Oil a new Ilololhurian from Bermuda. 405 



XXXVI. — Occurrence, of a TTolothnrian nev) to the Fauna of 
Bermuda. By W. J. CrOZIER. 

[Contributions from the Bermuda Biological Station for 
Research. — Xo. 61.) 

The Wesf-Tn.Iian affinities of the Bermuclan faana and flora 
(Biitton, 1912, }). 19.}) have been evident to every student 
of these regions ; yet, as Pilsbry (1900, p. 494) remarks in 
considering the Pulinonates, there is "abundant evidence of 
what we call chance, or the rigorous selective action of an 
over-sea journey, in the Berrnudian assemblage." Con- 
tinued collecting is disclosing further additions to the marine 
population in the shape of species identical with well-known 
West-Indian forms *. In one such case, wliich is the subject 
of this note, it seems to me that the addition may legiti- 
mately be considered as of recent date. 

The pedate Holothurians of Bermuda waters have been 
collected ever since 1888 by Heilprin, Verrill, Clark (1901), 
and others. Each of the five species previously reported 
(Cucumaria punctata, Stiehopus mohii, Holothuria surinam- 
ensis, H. capdva, and N. rathhuni) is well represented in 
the West-Indian area. Certain conspicuous Antillean types 
' have, however, been lacking in the Bermudan collections ; 
Actinopyga and several species of Holothuria are in this 
category f- 

I have had occasion to examine with care several thousand 
specimens of Stiehopus mobii, Semp. — with which, on super- 
ficial examination, Actinopyga might conceivably be con- 
fused, — and have, indeed, given particular attention to Holo- 
thurians collected at many points in Bermuda. No unusual 
specimens were observed until July 3, 1916, when there was 
secured from a depth of about 6 feet beneath low water, in 
the channel entrance to Hungry Bay (on the exposed soutli 

* Amoug the Enteropiieusta, for example, of wliich an illustrated 
account is in course of preparation, at least two of the four or more 
species which I have found occur also in the Bahamas and at Jamaica, 
as well (probahly) as at other stations in the West Indies. 

t Of the five apodous species found here (Clark, 1907), only two 
{Chirodota rotifera and Syncqjlida hydriformis) are typically West- 
Indian, while two others [Leptosynajria inhcerens and L. roseola) are 
northern forms ; the remaining one (i. acanthia) appears to be peculiar 
to the Bermudas. 



406 On a nfiw IJulothur inn from Bermuda. 

shore), an iiulivltlual wliicli was at once seen to be peculiar. 
The HoU)thurian was about 25 cm. in length, and of a deep 
yellowish-brown colour, unmarked by spots of any other 
line. Anal teeth were particulaily prominent, and tlie pedi- 
ciles and ventral surface were tinged with greenish piotnent, 
puch as one is accustomed to see in llolothuria cnpttva and in 
//. surinamenffis (Orozier, 1915, p. 274). Stichojuts has no 
anal teeth, and totally lacks this green pigment. The speci- 
men was unfortunately lost before detailed examination could 
be given it. Attempts to discover an additional example 
have thus far been fruitless. 

The single specimen observed has, however, considerable 
zoo-geographical interest. It seems jirobable, from the 
external characters above mentioned, that it is an Actinopi/ga, 
presumably A. agassizii (Selenka) *, which is known from 
the Bahamas, Florida, Tortugas, Barbadoes, Jamaica, and 
Hayti (Sluiter, 1910). The inference seems fair that it 
represents a recent arrival in Bermudan waters, since previous 
extensive and detailed collecting has failed to reveal its 
presence, and since only a single specimen has been found. 
Concerning the method whereby, on this assumption, it came 
to Bermuda, one can only speculate. It may have been 
transported either (as a larva) by ocean currents or (as an 
adult) upon the bottom of a vessel. The latter seems the 
less probable. 

References. 

Brittox, N L. 1912. "Botanical Exploration in Bermuda," Jouru. 
N.Y. Bot. Gard. vol, xiii. pp. 189-194, 5 pi. 

Claek, H. L. 1901. " Bermudan Ecliinoderms. — A Report on Obser- 
vations and Collections made in 1899," Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, 
vol. xxix. pp. 339-345. 

. 1907. " The Apodoiis Holothurians : a Monograph of the 

Svnaptidfe and Molpadidee," Smithsonian Contrib. Knowl. 
vol. XXXV. 231 pp., 13 pi. 

C/ROZiER, W. J. 1915. *' The Sensory Reactions of //o?t»<7»i?-iaswm<?»??- 
ensis, Ludwig," Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Phvsiol. Bd. xxxv. pp. 233-297. 

PiLSBBY, H. A. 1900. "The Air-breathing Mullusks of the Ber- 
mudas," Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts & Sci. vol. x. pp. 491-509, 
pi. 62. 

Sluiter, C. P. 1910. " Westindische Holothurien," Zool. Jahrb., 
Suppl. 11, pp. 331-342. 



* I am indebted to Dr. H. L. Clark for a suggestion regarding the 
probable identity of the specimen. 



On a new Lizard and Two new Frogs. 407 



XXXVII. — Vescriptiona of a new Lizard and Two new Frogs 
discovered in West Africa hi) Dr. H. O. F. SpurrelL By 
G. A. BOULENGER, F.R.S. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Lygosoma spur relit. 

Section Emoa. Habit lacerfciforra ; the distance between 
tlie end of the snout atid the fore limb is contained once and 
two-fifths in the distance between axilla and g-roin. Snout 
short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Supranasals very small ; frontonasal broader than 
long, forming a very broad suture with the rostral and 
narrowly in contact with the frontal, which is as long as the 
frontoparietals; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
latter smaller ; four supraoculars ; seven superciliaries ; sixth 
upper labial largest and below the eye. Ear-opening mode- 
rately large, vertically oval, without lobules anteriorly. 30 
smooth scales round the middle of the body, ventrals largest. 
Mai-ginal prfeanals not enlarged. The hind limb does not 
reach the axilla. Digits rather short, feebly compressed ; 
subdigital lamellae obtusely keeled, 13 under the fourth toe. 
Tail once and a half the length of head and body, gradually 
tapering from the base. Dark reddish brown above, nape, 
back, and limbs with numerous small black and yellow spots ; 
a blackish lateral streak from the nostril, through the eye, to 
the base of the tail ; sides pale brown, without spots; lower 
parts yellowish white. 

mm. 

From snout to vent 48 

,, ,, fore limb 17 

Head 10 

Width of head 8 

Fore limb 13 

Hind limb 18 

Foot 8 

Tail 74 

A single specimen from Obuasi, S. Ashantee. 
Closely allied to L. hreviceps, Peters^, bat with fewer 
scales round the body. 

Rana leonensis. 

Vomerine teeth in very short oblique series close to the 
anterior corners of the clioanse. Head much longer than 
♦ Cf. Boulenger, Ann. Mus, Genova, (3) ii. 1906, p. 206. 



40S On a new Lizard and Ttoo new Frojs. 

broad ; snout pointed, strongly projecting, once and a lialE 
the length o£ the eye ; cantlius rostralis distinct ; loreal region 
feebly oblique, feebly concave ; nostril nearer the end oF the 
snout than the eye ; interorbital space a little broader than 
the upper eyelid; tympanum very distinct, two-thirds the 
diameter of the eye and close to it. Fingers obtuse, first, 
second, and fourth equal ; subarticular tubercles moderately 
large, moderately prominent. Hind limb very long, the 
tibio-tarsal articulation reaching far beyond the tip of the 
snout ; tibia once and two-fifths in length from snout to 
vent, longer than the fore limb or the foot. Toes obtuse, 
broadly webbed, the web reaching the tips of all except the 
fourth, of which the two distal phalanges are free ; sub- 
articular tubercles moderately large, moderately prominent ; 
inner metatarsal tubercle elliptical, half the length of the 
inner toe; no outer tubercle ; no tarsal fold. Skin smooth 
above, with six fine, feebly prominent, interrupted glandular 
folds along the back ; a stronger fold above the temporal 
region ; lower parts smooth. Grrey above; a whitish line 
from the tip of the snout, along the canthus rostralis, to the 
eye, continued on the temporal fo'ld ; side of head, including 
the tymjjanum, dark brown, black above, this dark band 
continued on the side of the body ; limbs with numerous 
dark cross-bands; hinder side of thighs black, variegated 
with white ; throat and belly yellow; lower surface of thighs 
and of inner side of legs bright pink ; plantar surface dark 
brown, the web variegated with white. Male with blackish 
external vocal sacs, each protruding through a slit measuring 
one-third the leno:th of the mandibular ramus and terminating 
close to the middle of the base of the arm. 

From snout to vent 43 mm. 

A single male specimen from Bibianaka, Sierra Leone. 

Distinguished from R. ceqtiiplicata, Werner, by the longer 
snout, with less oblique and feebly concave loreal region, and 
the longer fourth finger ; from R. longiceps, Peters, by the 
web not extending to the tip of the fourth toe and the 
shorter slit for the vocal sac ; from R. oxyrhynchus^ Sundev., 
by the well-maiked canthus rostralis. 

Raj^pia spurrelli. 
Head a little longer than broad ; snout pointed, as long as 
the orbit, projecting strongly beyond the mouth ; canthus 
rostralis rounded ; loreal region nearly vertical and feebly 
concave ; nostril a little nearer the tip of the snout than the 
eye ; interorbital region a little broader than the upper 
eyelid; tympanum hidden. Fingers moderately elongate, 



On neio Species of hido-Malayan Lep'idoptera. 409 

free ; disks rather larj^e. Tibio-tarsal articulation reaching 
the eye ; tibia 2^ times in length of head and body, con- 
siderably longer than the foot ; toes two-thirds webbed, two 
phalanges of fourth free ; subarticular tubercles small and 
feebly prominent. Skin smooth above, granular on the belly 
and under the thighs. Reddish brown above, with four 
blackish longitudinal streaks ; a blackish streak from the 
nostril to the eye and a dark brown temporal band ; lower 
parts white. Male with a large external subgular vocal sac, 
covered by a large round flat disk. 

From snout to vent 28 mm. 

A single specimen from Obuasi, S. Ashantee. 

Closely allied to R. oxyrhynchiis^ Blgr., from the Katanga, 
but distinguished by tiie total aljsence of web between the 
fingers and the presence of the gular disk, as well as by the 
coloration. 



XXXVIIT. — New Species of Indo-Malayan Lepidoptera. 
By Colonel C. SwiNHOE, M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

Family LycaBnidse. 
Arhopala dascia, nov. 

? . Upperside much as in A. yaneRa, Moore, but darker 
in colour. Underside with the ground-colour greyish white, 
markings chocolate-brown; fore wing with a rather broad 
medial band from the costa to vein 2, the immediate base of 
the wing chocolate-brown, this colour running up the costa 
for a short distance, the space between the base and the 
median band filled up with fine transverse bands close to 
each other, a disoal macular band of square spots which 
become somewhat diffuse at the hinder angle, the tiiird spot 
from the costa placed outwards ; the marginal space dark ; 
a double row of lunular marks near the margin : liind wing 
with the whole space, witii the exception of a large round 
p/vtch below the middle of the costa, covered with round spots 
(white-edged) on a dark groujid, very difficult to describe, 
but exactly similar to Watson^s figure, plate A, fig. 6, ? , 
Bo. N. H. Soc. X., of a form he likens to A. yanesa, remarking 
that it deserves a distinctive name, but Watson's figure, 
like A. yanesa, has no tails, and dascia has tails as in 
A. aberrans, Doherfy. I cannot but think that Watson's 
figure represents a specimen of dascia with the tails broken 
off. 

Expanse of wings ly^g inch. 

Uah. Toungoo, Burma. 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xix. 27 



410 ColoiK'l 0. Swinlioc on new 

Fatnily Hesperiid». 
ILaora phi/eta <. 

iKDiene philetas, Pliitz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xlv. p. oo (1834), unpublished 

plato no. 1 1 59. 
Jfnsora f!imi)/ivis.tima, Swinhoe (part.), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1908, p. 84. 
Hanora mi.vtn, Fruhstorfer (part.), Iri3, 1911, p. 63. 

Hah. Philippines. 

Fnxlistorrer puts phihtas as a sj'iionym to mixta, Mab., but 
m\j'ta like simph'cissima is a Parata, whereas phi/etas (which 
►StMiiper wroui^ly identified in llhop, Phil.), is a Flasora, without 
the stii^nia on the fore wino:, thoU'j;h the inarkings are very 
.similar; T have ;)///7r'/(i,s male fiom the Philippines which 
exactly corre3|)onds with Plotz's figure. 

Nolocrypta tobrianda, nov. 

(^ ? . Somewhat similar to A^. ahiensin, Swinhoe, Ann. (fe 
Mag. N. H. (7) XX. p. 4;U (1907), from the Solomon Islands, 
figured in Trans. Ent. Soc. 1908, pi. iii. fig. 11, and 
N. wokana, Plotz (from Aru Isl.), Berl. ent. Zeit. xxix. 
p. 22.5 (1885), a copy of Plotz's figure given in the same 
plate (fig. 9), but in neither sex are there any dots or any 
other markings above or below, there being only the discal 
white band of" the fore wing wiiich is very much narrower 
than in either of the above-named species, is much more 
curved, narrows hindwards in the male into a square spot, is 
similar iii the female, but is of the same width throughout. 

Expanse of wings, ^ ly^o, ? li^o i'*ch. 

IJab. Kiiiwini Isl., Tobriand group. 

Eetion elia-ehurus. 

Hesjwin ebunts, Plotz, Berl. ent. Zeit. x.vix. p. 226 (1885), un- 

publislied plate no. 137.3. 
Eetion elia-ayankara, Frulistorfer, Iris, 1911, p. 19. 

Nab. Malacca, Perak. 

A somewhat variable form, though the type form elia, Hew.,, 
from Sumatra, is fairly constant. 

Telicota hambusce kiiiwinia, nov, 

S . Resembles T. pythias^ Mabille, Pet. Nouve, ii. p. 374 
(1878), from Java, Sumatra, and Nias ; the markings arc 
very similar^ but the colour is paler ; the fore wing is longer 
and the hind wing produced hindwards. 

? . Very different from the females of pythias. Upper- 
side : fore wing nearly all black ; an orange streak on the 
basal half of the cosla ; a small streak below its outer end ; 
a streak on the median vein from near the base to the origin 



species of Tndo-'SLihvjan Lepidoptera. 411 

of vein 2; a longer streak on the internal vein and a shorter 
streak from near the base close along the hinder margin of 
the wing; t\yo orange spots in the disc, and two small .s|)ots 
subapical : hind wing also nearly all black ; a streak of orange 
hairs in the cell, one along the internal vein, and a discal 
narrow band of four orange spots. Underside : both wings 
black, marks orange: fore wing with a broad streak close to 
the costa ; from the base to beyond the cell-end, joined to a 
spot at the upper end of the cell, three discal spots, the upper 
one pushed outwards; a small dot again outwards, and three 
subapical : hind wing with a spot at the end of the cell and 
a discal band as on the upperside ; antennaj longer than 
usual in the group. 

Expanse of wings, ^ ^^ ? 1 1*0 inch. 

llah. Kiriwini Isl., Tobriand group. 

Family Deilemeridss. 

Section I. 

Veins 6 and 7 of hind wing not stalked, palpi short. 

Deilemera paradelpha, nov. 

^ ? . Belongs to the pellex group : Section I. of my 
" Monograph of the Deilemeridce " *. Frons white ; head and 
collar luteous ; thorax white ; a black spot on the head, two 
on the collar, and the thorax with three black spots down the 
middle and three on each side ; palpi luteous, last joint 
black; abdomen dull greyish yellow, with pale brown seg- 
mental bands: fore wing pale black, with a lilac tinge; spots 
white, a small round spot in the middle of the cell in the 
male, developed into a short streak in the female ; a large 
oval spot across the end of the cell, from vein 11 to vein 2 ; 
three submarginal spots as in pellex ; a white streak on the 
hinder margin from base to a little beyond the middle : 
hind wing white; a pale black uniform marginal band, 
running narrowly up the abdominal margin for a short 
distance, and containing a white subapical spot and a medial 
spot. Underside: wings as on the upperside ; legs ochreous ; 
body white, without markings. 

Expanse of wings, $ ? , l/^y inch. 

Hab. Fergussen Isl. 

Deilemera houruanaj nov, 

? . Allied to D. separata, Walker, xxxi. p. 204 (1864), 
from Grilolo Inland. Pectus wliife; palpi white, last joint 
black ; frons, head, and thorax white, collar tinged with 
* Trans. Ent. Soc. 1903, pp. 53-84. 

27* 



412 



Colonel (\ Swinlioe on new 



oclnooiis ; frons with a black spot, a larsje one on the lieafl, 
vuniiinor in between the antennne, two on eacli side of tlie 
collar ; a black streak down the middle of the thorax sind one 
on each side ; abdomen ochreous grey, with black macular 
seoniental bands, marked with white: fore wing black, 
markings white ; a tiiick streak in the cell, from the base to 
its middle, another similar but thicker streak immediately 
below it and extending a little beyond it ; a streak on the 
liinder margin, from tiie base to beyond the middle ; a large, 
oval, discal, oblique spot from close to the costa, where it is 
round and small to vein 2, nearer the hinder angle of the 
wing than is usual in the pelhx group, in one specimen it 
runs below vein 2 and is attenuated ; three larger submarginal 
spots. Underside: wings as above; body white with thin 
segmental bands on the abdomen ; legs white striped with 
black. 

Expanse of wings 1^\^ inch. 

Hah. Bouru Isl., South Moluccas. 



Deihmera externa, nov. 

(J ? . Face white ; pal|ji black ; frons, liead, and thorax 
ochreous; a black spot on the frons, a large one on top of 
head, covering nearly the whole space and running in between 
the antenna", two on the collar, an angular spot beiiind them 
followed by an oval black spot on each shoulder ; abdomen 
greyish ochreous, some white specks at the base and thin 
darker segmental lines touched with white at the sides and a 
row of black spots on each side : fore wing dark black, 
markings white ; a disjointed thin streak from the base to 
the middle of the cell; a small spot below it and a little 
outside ; an oval spot in the disc from vein 11 to a little 
bfdow vein 2, iiarrow in the type-specimen, broader in others; 
three submarginal spots, the two lower ones connected to- 
gether in the type-specimen ; a white streak on the hinder 
marofin : hind wing with a rather broad and even maroinal 
black band running thinly up the abdominal margin to the 
base, and narrowly along the costa, with a knob at its middle; 
two white spots in the band, and indications of a third spot 
as in Aurivillius's figure of pellex*, but not so distinct. 
Underside : wings as above ; legs and thorax ochreous j 
abdomen white with black segmental bands. 

Expanse of wings, ^ ^\o^ ? 1t^^ inch. 

Eab. Baijan Isl., Middle Moluccas. 

* Rec. Crit. ia Sv. Ak. Handl. xix. (5) pi. i. fig. 5 (1882). 



Sjjccies of Indo-Mahiy<in Lepidoptera. 413 

Section I. B. 
Antennte shortly pectinated. 

Deilemera gonora, nov. 
^ . Nearest to D. oroya^ Svvinhoe, from Sula Besi. Palpi 
wliite, last joint black; frons, head, and thorax white ; frons 
with a black sj)ot, collar witii two ; two square black spots 
followed by around one on the thorax; abdomen white with 
liardly any niaikings, tip ochreous ; win^s white, markings 
black: fore wing with the veins black; a small patch on 
tlie middle of the costa, another on the costa above the cell- 
end and running into the bar at the end of the cell ; a broad 
black band on the outer margin containing three white sub- 
apical spots close together, the middle one the largest, the 
lower very small, followed by two spots against tiie black 
patch above the cell-end, with two white linear marks below 
them, and large white spot at the middle of the outer margin 
with a white streak attached to its lower end : hind wing 
with a fairly broad black outer marginal band, not continued 
on the costa, its inner margin sinuous and two white spots in 
it, apical and medial. Undersitie : wings as above ; body 
white without markings ; legs ochreous. 

Expanse of wings 2 inches. 

llab. Stuphensort, Dutch New Guinea. 

Dtilemera similis, nov. 

(^ ? . Nearest to D. burica, Holland, from Bourn, of 
which I have a fine series from Bouru; palpi while, last 
joint black ; frons, head, and thorax pale ociireous, nearly 
white ; frons with a black linear spot, another similar spot 
on the head; thorax with two black spots on each side; 
abdomen pure white, with small black dorsal and lateral 
spots : fore wing black, markings white ; a broad spear- 
shaped streak from the base, from the median vein to the 
internal vein, containing a black dot at its base, two short sub- 
costal streaks above it and two round spots outside it ; a broad 
oblique band divided by the veins into five large spots, the 
lowe.-t round, the others elongate, the fourth from the costa 
tiie largest, and extended both outwards and inwards with a 
little streak hindwards from its interior end, the third wedged 
in outwards between the second and the fourth, sometimes 
with a very small spot attached to its upper side ; a little 
beyond the band is a subcostal spot with another below it; 
a large double spot subapical and another near the middle of 
the outer margin : hiiul wing with a rather broad black band 
narrowing hindwards, and continued in almost a line on two- 
thirds of the costa ; a white spot on the costa below tlie 



414 Colonel C. Swinlioe on new 

apex, a smaller spot just inside it, and a larger spot near the 
mar^-in below tiie middle. Underside : wings as above ; 
body and legs white, tarsi black at the ends. 

Expanse of wings, S ? > lA *o ^ inches. 

Hah. Stephensort, Dutch iSew Guinea ; a fine series. 

Section II. D. 

Veins 6 and 7 of bind wing stalkf^d, palpi longer ; male without 
secondary sexual characters. 

Deilemera cents parva, nov. 

$ . Very similar to D. cenis, CrRmei\ from Sikhim, Silhet, 
and Assam, but very much smaller^ all the spots and bands 
about halt" the size. 

Expanse of wings Ijq incii. 

IJab. Au-iSan, Central Formosa. 

Two females. 

Deilemera poUodesma^ nov. 

(^ ? . Head, collar, body, and jtalpi luteous, last joint 
black ; a black spot on the frons, another on the top of the 
head, two on the coUar, a thick black stripe along the middle 
of the thorax, and a narrower black stripe on each side; 
abdomen with black segmental bands above, and black spots 
on tlie segments beneath : fore wing black ; a broad discal 
white baud divided by the veins into six spots, much as in 
Jj. haulus, Boisd., from Bouru, but narrower, the uppermost 
spot small, the veins of the wing from the base to tiiis 
band dull yellowish: bind wing pure white, a broad marginal 
black band, angled inwards on vein 2, narrowing on the 
costa, and running upwards for a short space on the abdominal 
margin. Underside much as above, but paler, the inner 
portion of the fore wing suffused with dull ochreous. 

Expanse of wings, S ? ? 1 nJ i^ich. 

Hah. New Britain (New i\Jeck leu burg). 

Belongs to the haulus group. I have a great number of 
examples of this group from the different islands, and, 
though more or less resembling each other, each island 
seems to contain a form of its own. 

Deilemera liomogona, nov. 

cJ . Allied to D. lacticinia, Cramer ; the abdomen is with- 
out the black segmental bands on the upperside, having 
merely a row of black dots, decreasing in size hindwards ; 
the fore wing has the discal white band twice the width, 
more compact, and on the upperside of the small outer white 
spot (the third from the costa) there is another white spot 



Spech'S of Indo-Malai/an Lepidoptera. 415 

attached ; tlie marginal black band of tlie bind wing is 
much narrower and decreases in width hind wards. 

Expanse of wings l/^j- inch. 

Hah. Hue, Annan). 

Deilemera perissa, nov. 
(^ $ . Allied to D. luctuosa '-, Vollenhoven, from Bafjan 
Island ; palpi, bead, and body oclireous, last joint of the 
palpi black; frons with a black spot in its centre, one on the 
head, two on the collar ; three longitLidinal stiipts on the 
throat, a spot at the base of the abdomen followed by seg- 
mental black bands : fore wing black, a spear-shaped white 
band from near the base, widening outwards to the base of 
vein 2, where it is cut short ; a short white streak from the 
base along the costa, another on the median vein to the base 
of vein 2, and a similar streak on the internal vein ; a fairly 
broad discal white band of seven white spots joined together, 
the fourth round and small, between the ends of the thiid 
and fifth, the lowest still smaller and oval ; in one example, 
the band from the base is connected with the discal band by 
a thin white streak and there is a wiiite spot at the end of 
the cell : hind wing white, with the usual black marginal 
band, much as in luctuosa. Underside as on the upperside; 
body and legs ochreous, the former spotted with black ; the 
legs with black stripes. 

Expanse of wings, ^ ? i ^ i hich. 

Ilah. Obi Isl., Moluccas. 

A fine series. 

Deilemera delocyma^ nov. 

cJ . The antennse long, the pectinations also somewhat 
longer than is usual in the group ; pectus, frons, head, and 
thorax dull orange-ochreous ; frons with a black spot, one on 
the neck, two on the collar; thorax with black stripes on the 
middle and on the sides ; abdomen dull orange-ochreous, with 
black segmental bauds, so broad as almost to obliterate the 
ochreous colour : fore wing long ; costa much arched before 
the apex ; colour black, a white stripe below the median 
vein from the base to the middle ; a broad and somewhat 
upright discal band divided by the veins into seven spots, 
extending from near the costa to near the hinder margin, the 
first three from the costa narrow, the fourth oval, wedged in 
between the outer halves of the third and fifth, the sixth the 
largest, the seventh small and round-edged : hind wing 
white, a broad black marginal border, angled at vein 2, 
and continued narrowly along the costa. Underside: body 

* Tidj. Tou Dierk. i. p. 42 (1803). 



416 On new Species of Indo-Malayan LepUioptera. 

orange-oclireous ; abdomen with black segmental bands; 
le<i;s oiange-ochreous striped with black. 
Kxpanse of wings 2 inches. 
Ilab. Floras Isl. 

Family Orthostixidae. 
Alex nia.sica, nov. 

? . Frons and palpi black, the inner side of the first two 
joints of the palpi white ; ground-colour of the head, body, 
and wings greyish ochreous ; head and collar bhvckish 
through thickly covered irrorations ; both wings uniformly 
covered with short brown striations : fore wing with a pale 
brown mark at the upper end of the cell, both wings with 
indistinct traces of outwardly curved, pale brown, thin bands, 
antemedial and discal ; a thin, margintil, pale brown line and 
ochreous cilia with grey ti])s. Underside as above, but the 
striations and transverse lines thicker and more prominent. 

Ex})anse of wings 2 inches. 

Uab. Nias. 

Quitedistinctfromany other species of thisgenusknown tome. 

Family Geometridae. 
Pingasa talac/i, nov. 

(J . Frons, head, body, and wings greyish white, strongly 
tinged with ochreous irrorations ; palpi with the third joint 
black, elongate as in P. aravensis, Prout * ; wings with the 
markings pale grey : fore wing with a sinuous blackish 
thick line closing the cell; a nearly straight short line 
beyond it from the middle of interspace 3 to near the costa, 
an indistinct outwardly curved subbasal line; a more distinct 
and thicker postdiscsil line, more or less distinctly macular; 
a submarginal row of indistinct spots pricked with white on 
their inner sides, and minute dots on the outer margin; hind 
wing with a line closing the cell ; the two outer marginal 
bands diffuse and more or less conjoined together and with 
the outer margin, the white inner marks on the very indistinct 
submarginal spots more prominent than they are on the 
lore wing. Underside : wings paler and without irrorations ; 
fore wing with a wtry large black spot at the end of the cell 
and a laige black upper discal patch attenuated hindwards ; 
three white dots outside the upper part of the black patch ; 
hind wing witii a thick black lunular mark at the end of the 
cell, and a large black upper discal patch as on the tore wing, 
but without the white dots. 

Expanse of wings I^q inch. 

Hab. Tulagi, a small island off Ysabel Ishuid in the 
Solomon group {Evertti). 

♦ Nov. Zool. xxiii. p. 7 (1916). 



On Cylindi-oiulus (Leucoiuliis) iiitldus [Verhoeff). 417 



XXXIX. — Notes on Jlfyriapoda. — V.* On Cylindroiulus 
(Leucoiulus) iiitidus (Verhoeff). By HiLDA K. Beade, 
M.Sc, L.R.C.P., M.K.C.S.', and the Rev. S. Graham 
BiRKS, M.Sc. 

Last year Dr. A. Randell Jackson recorded f the finding by 
one of ns \ at VVinkhill, near Leek, Staffs, of Cylindroiulus 
{Leucoiulus) nitidus (Verhoeff). This seems to Iiave been 
the tirst record of the occurrence of tliis species in Britain, 
and the following notes are based primarily u})on our study 
of material from the locality named in the light of the original 
paper § in which Dr. C. W. Verhoeff describes Julus nitidus. 
Of this description we have made the fullest use, and we here 
ex))res3 our indebtedness. 

Our specimens were first examined by D''. Jackson, and 
then sent to Monsieur le Docteur Henry VV. Biolemann of 
Pau, who, with iiis usual kindness, dissected one of the males, 
and identified it as the Julus nitidus described by Verhoeff. 

1. Occurrence and Habitat. 

Cylindroiulus nitidus was taken in September 1915 at 
Wiiikhill, Staffs, by one of the writers (H. K. B.) ; three 
males and two immature specimens were found together under 
a stone on the grassy sides of the road leading from the 
station to the village; no adult females were then taken. 
Ill September 1916, when we had already made some study 
of the limited material then at our disposal, we took many 
specimens of both sexes in the same immediate neigiibourhood. 
In the field C. nitidus resen.bles C. silvariun (Meinert) very 
closely except in habitat. Verhoeff states (/oc. cit.) that he 
Lad noticed this animal only in woods or on heights. He 
records it in the Khine and Most lie districts: at Meibthal, 
near Bonn, in a wood under leaves ; at Ippendort'er Hohe, 
near Bonn, at the edge of a wood under stones ; at Cociiem, 
in woods and at Siebengebirge, Petersberg, in woods under 
stones. There are some trees in the neighbourhood of the 
ground where the English specimens were collected at 
Winkhill; but the very limited area of its occurrence is not 
in close connection witii woods, the district being hilly and 

* The authors' preTioiis notes I.-I V. in this series appeared as follows : — 
I., Lanes. & Ches. Nat., Juue 1910; II., ihid. July 1916; III., 'Irish 
Naturalist,' August 191G ; IV., Lanes. & Ches. Nat, September 1916. 

t " On some Arthropods observed in 1915," Lanes. & Ches. Nat., Feb. 
1916, p. 391. 

t H. K. B. 

§ *' Eiu Beitrag zur mitteleuropaischeu Diplopoden-Fauna,"' Berliner 
Eutomolog. Zeitscbrift, x.xxvi. 1, 1691, pp. 115 et seq. 



418 Miss H. K. Brade and the Rev. S. G. Birksou 

rather blenk. Some little distance away, however, there are 
several well-wooded areas. 

The rocks of the neighbourhood are Carboniferous sand- 
stones and shales. There is Carboniferous Limestone not 
more than 3 miles distant in a southerly direction. 

2. Systematic Position. 

This sjiecies takes its place in the family Julidfe, being 
referred to the genus Cylindroiulus [Julus s. I.) and subgenus 
Leucoiulus. 

3. Some External Characters. 
(a) Dimensions. 

Dr. Verhoeff (Joe. cit.) gives the following dimensions: — 

Male : length 15-20 mm. ; breadth 1-0-1-3 mm. 

Female : length 18-24 mm., less often up to 29 mm. (as 
in the case of one example 2 mm. broa 1) • breadih l'3-2*0 mm. 

The dimensions of three males taken at W inkhill in 1915 
are : — 

Length 14-20 mm.; breadth 1*0-1"3 mm. 

And of three females taken at the same place in 1916 : — 

Length 22-24 mm.; breadth 1'6— 1*8 mm. 

(b) Colour-markings etc. 

The exoskeleton is brightly polished. Each pleurotergite 
of the trunk is composed, as usual, of a narrow anterior pro- 
zonite (fig. 2, p) and a broader posterior metazonite (fig. 2, m). 

In our specimens the general tone of colour is brownish, 
but the shade varies very much in different specimens from 
quite dark to fairly light ; above the level of the foramina 
the pleurotergites are relatively dark, and dorsally the seg- 
ments are distinctly mottled by patches of a greyish tone ; 
passing ventrally the somites get much lighter, and so the 
mottled appearance is practically absorbed by the general 
tone of colour. At the level of the foramina a row of distinct 
brown spots may be seen running along each side of the 
body. These spots occur on each of the metazonites except 
those of the first few and last few segments. 

Frons and vertex without grooves. 

The prozonites are smooth. 

The metazonites are marked with longitudinal grooves set 
widely apart, but these grooves are wanting on the dorsal 
portions of the most anterior segments (fig. 1). 

The ventral plates (sternites) are simple and insignificant. 



Cylindroiulus (Leucoiulus) nitidus {VerJio^Jf). 419 
Fie. 1. 




Fio: 2. 




Fig. 1. — C. nitidus, anterior end of body of c? • Details of eye not shown. 

Ou the collum segment the characteristic curved groove is 

clearly seen. 3 is the third body segment, x 36. H. K. B. 

del. 
Fig. 2. — Posterior end of same. /, foramina repugnatoria ; 2^, prozonite ; 

m, metazonite. X 36. H. K. B. del. 



420 Miss II. K. Bva<]e and the Rev. S. G. Biiks on 

Above the mouth four bristle-beaviiig dimples are present. 

Crossing the head from side to side is a deeply pigmented 
band on whicli the eyes are situated hiterally (fii;-. 1). 

The collum segment is large and a longitudinal furrow 
runs along each of its lateral edges, which are slightly 
curved. Above this longitudinal furrow and parallel to it 
near the posterior border on eacii side two very much shorter 
grooves sometimes occur. These shorter furrows appear to 
correspond to the longitudinal grooves of other segments. 

In Julus nitidus the foramina repugnat )ria are small and 
situated on the posterior border of the metazonite, and so lie 
in close proximity to the sutures between the segments 

(fig-. 2,/). ^ ... 

The tergite of the anal segment is produced into a long 
caudal horn which taj)ers gradually and is bluntly pointed at 
the tip ; it is round in transverse section. 

(c) Appendages. 

We take the three males collected in 1915 as examples : — 

A (^ of 20 mm. had 56 segments, 101 pairs of legs, and 2 legless terminal 

segments. 
A c? of 14 do. 46 do. 77 do. 4 do. 

A c? of 14 do. 48 do. 85 do. 2 do. 

The number of segments and, therefore, tlie number of 
pairs of legs \i\ry considerably accoiding to the maturity 
of the specimens. 

The appendages of the males collected in 1915 are arranged 
as follows : — 

Segments. Pairs of limbs. 

1 1st One pair, modified, hook-shaped. 

2 2nd One pair, with pads on the 4th and 

5th joints and a secretory organ 

on the coxite. 

3 . . Genital apertures. 

4 3rd One pair. 

5 \tVi Twopai.. 

6 \m\ I-1-- 

\ 8th I Anterior gonopods. 

' I Dth I Posterior gonopods. 

8 and onward . j ^^^'g'J,^^^'' [ Two pairs. 
Last 2 or 4 . . Legless. 

In the female the first and second ))airs of legs are not 
modified, and in place of the gonopods are two pairs of 
walking-legs ; otherwise the arrangement is the same. 



Cyliiichoiuliis (r.eucoiulii.<) nitidns (Verhoejf). 



421 



(d) Ocelli. 

Dr. Verlioeff dwells upon tlie great interest of tlie ocelli in 
this species, and states tliat this character provides an inter- 
mediate condition between Ummatuiulus and AUaiulus. The 
external surface of the field of the eye is not broken up by 
the convexities of the individual ocelli, and with some illumi- 
nations the microscope reveals the fact that the field is quite 
smooth. With some illuminations it is impossible to see the 
individual ocelli, with otliers they are quite distinctly visible. 

Ocelli arrangement (1915 material) : — 

In a J of 14 mm. : 4, 5, 6, 5, 3, 2 (25). In curved rows, somewhat 

irregular. 
In a c? of 20 mm. : 3, 5, 6, 6, 4, 4, 2, 1 (31). Irregular. 
In a (5 of 14 mm. : 3, 4, 6, 5, 4, 1 (23). Irregular. 
In an immature specimen: o, 4, 3, 2, 1 (15). Fairly regular, 
do. do. : 4, 3, 2, 1 (10). do. 

It will be seen that there is great variation in the number 
of individual ocelli. This is also noticed in Dr. Verhoeff's 
description, where lie records from 26—40 ocelli in different 
s])eciniens. As in the case of the walking-legs, the greater 
number appear to occur in the more mature specimens. 

Fiof. 4. 



Fic 





Fig. 3.— First leg of male of C. nitidus. x 1-10. H. K. B. del. 
Fig. 4. — Second leg of male, with segments numbered, s, secretory 
organ (penis), x 140. H. K. B. del. 



3. Modified Appendages of the Male. 

The first pair of legs are hook-shaped, forming an angle 
at the outer bend as the tip turns inwards, and a small 
prominence is present at this angle (fig. 3). The second pair 



422 Miss H. K. Brade and the Rev. S. G. Blrks on 

of legs are also slightly modified, the joints being tliicker 
than those of the normal walking-legs, and pads are present 
on the £onrth and fifth joints — that is, the penultimate and 
aiitepenultiinate joints (fig. 4). The claws are strong, and 
the last joints ai-e armed with strong bristle-like spines, 
some of which overlap the claws. The coxite bears a 
secretory organ (fig. 4, s). The copulatory feet or gonopods 
are composed of the modified appendages (two pairs) of the 
seventh body-segment. Their situation is denoted by a gap, 
as these legs are retracted, in this group, within the somite to 

Fi*. 5. 




Figs. 5-8. — Gonapods. A, anterior gonopod; B, posterior portion of 
posterior gonopod ; C, anterior branch of posterior g-onopod ; 
a, b, c, parts of ; F, liagelluni ; d, hooked part of B ; L-L, 
point of measurement (see text). 

Fig, 5. — Silhouette of anterior gonopods, anterior surface. X 140. 

H. K. B. del. 
Fig. 6. — Silhouette of posterior gonopods, posterior surface. X 140. 

H. K. B, del. 

which they belong. They are complicated in character, and 
the anterior and posterior gonopods of each side are firmly 
attached to one another. The anterior pair of gonopods are 
seen from an anterior position as two lobe-like projections 
rounded at the tip (fig. 5). From a posterior position the 
posterior pair appear as two pointed projections with the tips 
turned inwards', broader at the base tlian at the tips (fig. 6). 
Viewed from the side the external surfaces of the anterior and 
posterior gonopods are seen (fig. 7). They are clearly sepa- 
rated at the free ends and united at the bases. The anterior 
gonopods are stronger and generallj^ less transparent than the 
posterior pair, which is delicate and very transparent, some 
parts being irregular in outline. 



m 



Oylindroiulus (Leucoiulus) nitidus [Verhoeff). 423 

The anterior gonopods are leaf-like in form, and, being 
convex posteriorly, their lateral edges wrap round and protect 
the anterior branch of the posterior aonopods somewhat 

The posterior gonopods consist of a foliaceous anterior 
branch and a subtrapezoidal posterior portion. 

The anterior branch consists of three parts — a, b, and c — 
which are very distinct and characteristic j a is finger-shaped 
and is the longest, standing out well beyond the others ; the 
middle portion, b, is the strongest, and is protected by very 

Fio-. 7. 




Anterior and posterior gonopods, external profile. X 140. H. K. B. del. 

thick chitin ; while c is smaller and approaches in shape 
more nearly to a. 

The structure of the posterior gonopod is clearly seen in 
fig. 8, which represents the inner view of the gonopods both 
anterior and posterior of one side. In this case the appendages 
liave been flattened out somewhat to show the separate parts 
of each. The most prominent part of the posterior portion of 
the posterior gonopod is the hooked piece, d, which i^ sparseh?- 
plumous at the tip, wliile a noticeable feature is the flao-elhim 
F, This, which is inserted upon the base of the anterior 



■k2i 



On CyliiKlroiulii^i (Leucoiulus) nitidus [Verhoeff 



fronopo 1, curves round so that its tip appears in repose above 
the delicate part of the posterior i[5onopod behind the hooked 
portion d. The actual breadth of the posterior goiiopods at 
L-L in the specimen figured is 0-210 mm.*, and that of the 
vvliole organ (anterior and posterior gonopods of one side 
together) is '-l mm. 



Fij?. 8. 




Anterior and posterior gonopods, internal profile. X 140. H. K. B. del. 

We are deeply indebted to Monsieur le Docteur Henry W. 
Brolemann for his very careful examination and report upon 
our material. Drawings of the gonopods which he furnished 
have been invaluable in the preparation of the illustrations 
which accompany this paper. 

We must also express our best thanks to Miss Simpson, of 
Darwen, for her assistance in translation. 

The Victoria University of Manchester. 



* Dr. Brolemann'a measurement. 



k^^ 



THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZLNE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[EIGHTH SEPJES.] 
No. lU. JUNE 1917. 



XL. — Noies on CoUembola. — Part 4. The Classification ofth6 
Collembola ; ivith a List of Genera known to occur in the 
British Isles. By John W. Shoebotham, N.D.A., Berk- 
hampsted, Herts. 

In ray paper on "Some Irish Collembola-" (1914), p. 59, 
I remarked that the classification adopted was one which, 
in the main, had been accepted by authors for the previous 
seven years, and that Dr. Borner had recently proposed a 
new system on which I should make some notes. 

This paper was practically completed during the early 
part of 19] 4, but my unexpected call to South Africa 
prevented me publishing it, and I then intended waiting till 
I returned to England. However, as I am about to publish 
a preliminary account of the Collembola of Lancashire and 
Cheshire, I feel it is just as well to list them according to 
the new system, which is much to be preferred to any yet 
proposed. I therefore give here a translation of part of 
Borner's paper (1913 b)^ pp. 318-322, which forms a key to 
the new classification, and I append a list of the genera of 
Collembola hitherto found in the British Isles. 

My best thanks are due to Dr. A. D. Imms, of the 
University of Manchester, for kindly seeing this paper 
through the press and for criticisms and suggestions, and to 
Mr. T. A. Coward, also of Manchester University, for much 
kind assistance. 

Ann. & Mag. N. EiaU Ser. 8. Vol xix. 28 



426 'Mr. J. W. Shoebotham's Notes on CoUemhola. 

There liave been many different arrangements of llic 
Collembola made during the last 75 years, and the number 
of families recognized has varied from 3 to as many as 8. 

Nietdot (184'.'2) has tlie springtails divided into the 
SmiiiithureUes, Podurelles, and Lipiirelles, and Lubbock 
(IHGJ) (nilled these Smi/nthir'hhe, Foduridce, and Lipuridce, 
>vhile in liis monograph (1873) he formed 6 families, viz., 
Sinynthuiid'£, Papiriidce, Deyeeriad(P., Poduridce, Lipuridie, 
and Anourida. Various modifications were used by authors 
till the end of the 19th century, when another family — 
Neelidce — was made for the reception of the genus Nee/us of 
Folsom. Sclialfcr (18'JG), in his paper on " 'J'lie Collembola 
from the Neighbourhood of Hamburg/' differentiated the 
subfamilies Isotomince and Tomocerince, which now rank as 
se})arate families. 

During the present century the work of Borner has done 
much to advance our kuowledgc of the classification of the 
order Collembola. In one of his earliest papers (1901 a) 
he divided the Collembola into two suborders, the linear 
kinds to be grouped under the uame ArtJiropleona and tlie 
globular forms he called Symphypleona. Keys were given 
to the families and subfamilies of the Arlhropleona, and 
these, together with an account of the Symphypleona, were 
given in more detail in his paper on " The Apterygotal 
Fauna of Bremen'' (1901 b). Then, in 1906, in his work 
on "The Classification of the Collembola," Borner discussed 
the whole group and the relationship of the families, sub- 
families, and tribes. He recognized the families Poduridce, 
Entomobryida, Neelidae, and Smmt/iuridce, and gave a synopsis 
of the subfamilies and tribes. This system, with but little 
variation, was used by authors for many years. Then, in 
1913, when examining some species of Pseudosira and 
ParoneUa from Java, Borner happened to find a peculiar 
structure on the hinder trochanters, in the form of a number 
of short, outstanding, pointed bristles, to which he gave the 
uame " Trochanteral organ." On looking through his collec- 
tion of slides, he found that this structure was present in all 
the true Entumobryince, but absent in the Tomocerina and 
IsotumiiKB. This discovery led Borner to propose a new 
arrangement of families, which I give in this paper. Pie 
firstly divided the Arlhropleona into two natural sections 
according to the structure of the prothorax (see below, in 
Key to Families, etc.). The old family Podurida, which 
corresponds to the new section Poduromorpha, was divided 
into three, the subfamilies Hypogustrurina and Onych'mrina 
being raised to the family rank, and the name Poduridce 



Mr. J. W. Slioebothaiu's Notes on Collembola. 427 

restricted for the single genus Podura. The second section 
Entomobryomorpha, vvliich corresponds to the old Entomo- 
bri/ida, was also split into three ; the name EntomobryidcB 
was retained for those species possessing the Trochanteral 
organ, and the rest divided into two new families, Isutomidce 
and TomoceridcB. The Sminthuridce and Neelidce remained 
as before. 

This classification gives us 8 families, and it may seem 
a large number for so small an order, but there are many 
districts in the world that have never been searched for 
springtails, and others in only a haphazard manner, and, 
doubtless, when the group has been more thoroughly 
worked, there will be hundreds of new species discovered, 
which will result in the formation of new genera, and probably 
of the larger divisions also. 

As an example of how a tribe has increased in size and 
importance in recent years, take the Cyphoderini. This 
tribe for many years contained only the one genus Cypho- 
derus, Nicolet (1812), and that genus, as we know it to-day, 
contained only two or three species up to the end of the 19tli 
century. Now, as a result of collections made in various 
parts of the world, there are the additional genera, Cyphn- 
derodes of Silvestri (1911), Pseudocyphoderus, Irams (1912), 
the peculiar genus Calobatella described by Borner (1913 «). 
The genus Cyphoderus now contains a dozen or more species, 
with the probability of the number being increased in the 
near future. 



Synopsis of Suborder's, Sections, Families, Subfamilies, and 
Iribes of the Order Collembola, taken from Borner 
(1913 6), pp. 318-322. 

A. Body flattish-cyliudrical, elongated, as a vide distinctly segmented, 
with free thoracic and free abdominal segments ; rarely the 
abdominal segments 5 and 6 or 4-6 are fused together. 

Suborder Arthropleona, C. B., 1901. 

I. Terqum of the prothorax similar to the terga of the other body- 
seyments, always, as in the case of these, possessing some hairs, 
Furcula present or absent, in the first case lying under abdominal 
terqum 4. Integument generally granular, mostly soft, seldom 
with stouter chitinized sClerites. Ventral tube always short, 
pocket-like, smooth-walled. Manubrium ventrally always without 
hairs. Section Poduromorpha, (y. B., 1913. 

a. Without pseudocelli. With or without eyes. Sensory organ ot 
the third antennal segment only with sense-rods, without 
sense-cones, without outer papilla?. Fourth antennal segment 
without subapical sense-pit, always with retractile sense-knob. 

28* 



k 



428 ^Ir. J. W. Slioebotham's Notes on Collembola. 

1. Head hypognathoiis. Ei/es situated near the hind edge of the 

head. Dontes bowed iu the horizontal plane, anuulated 
towards the end, over-reaching the ventral tube. ^lauubriuni 
in form recallintr that of the Symphypleoua, with a special 
medial support-piece of the deutes. 

1. Family Podurid.t. (C. B.), 1906. 

2. ifead obliquely prognathous. With or witliout eyes, these, if 

present, situated in front of the middle of ihe head. Dentes 
not anuulated, fairly straight, seldom reaching past the 
ventral tuhe, or the "furcula more or less completely reduced. 
When the furcula is present the manubrium is simple in 
form, without the medial support-piece of the dentes. 

2. Family Hypogastrurid^ (C. B.). 

i. ]Mandibles with well-developed molar plate. 

Subfamily Hypogastrurinje, C. B., 1906. 

ii. Mandibles without true molar plate or absent. 

Subfamily Achorctin^, C. B., 1906. 

* Anal segment with undivided supra-anal ralve. With or 
without furcula. 

Tribe Pseudachorutini, C. B., 1906. 

** Anal segment with double-lobed broader supra-anal valve. 
W^ithout furcula. 

Tribe Achorutini, C. B., 1906. 

b. With psendocelli. Without eyes. The sense-organ on antenna 
III. provided with from 2—3 sense-cones, and often at the same 
time with outer papillre and protecting bristles, in addition to 
the sense-rods. Post-antennal organ generally well-developed. 
Autenual segment 4 generally with subapical sense-pit 
{=^Lipuridce, Lubbock, 1869'.) 

3. Family ONYCHiURiDiE (Lbk., C. B.). 

II. Terqum of the pi-othorax ahoays membranous and toithoiit hairs. 
Furcula "generally present, and in tlie more recent forms of the 
group pushed analwards. Integument generally smooth, mostly 
with sclerites. Ventral tube short or elongated, sometimes with 
a lateral blind sac. Manubrium ventrally, generally with hairs 
or scales, seldom naked. 

Section Entomobryomorpha, C. B., 1913. 

a. Trochanteral organ absent. Ventral edge of the claw simple, 
without groove. 

1. Third and fourth abdominal terga of nearly equal length or 
the 4th longer, sometimes this (the 4th) fused with the .^th 
and 6th (without scales^). Naked or ciliated sensory setse 
( = bothriotriche) present or absent. 

4. Family Isotomid^ (SchfiTr., C. B., 1896-1903.) 



' This should be 1870. Lubbock's "Notes on the Thysanura — 
Part 4," was published in 1870, not 1809.— J. W. S. 

^ This is as given by Bonier (1913 i); but, to include the genus 
Oncopo(hira, Carl & Lebed., it slioiild now read " Scales nearly always 
absent, when present thev are without longitudinal ribs." — J. AV. S., 
1914. 



Mr. J. W. Shoebotham's Sotes on CoUemlola. 429 

i. Head obliquely prognathous. Antennfe inserted iu tLe 
fiout half of the head. (Trachese absent.) Furcal seg- 
ment without chitiu-ridges, to which are articulated the 
basal sclerites of the furcula if these (the chitiu-ridges) 
are present, Furcula seldom absent. Post-antenual organ 
generally present. 
* Subfamily IsoTOMrx^, Schffr., 1896. 

(Including the Isotomurini, C. B., 1906.) 

ii. Head hypognathous. Antennpe inserted in the middle of 
the head. (Head tracheae present.) Furcal segment with 
two stout chitin-ridges, which serve for the articulation 
of the l)asal sclerite of the furcula. 

Subfamily Actaletin.^:, C, B., 1906. 

2. Third abdominal tergum considerably longer than the fourth, 
all abdominal segments free. With longitudinally ribbed 
scales. Post-antenual organ absent. Sensory setse present, 
ciliated, Furcula always present. 

5. Family Tomocebid^ (Schffr., 1896). 

i. Dentes aunulated; mucro diminutive, without hairs. An- 
tennal segments 3 and 4 about equally long. 

Subfamily Lepidophoeellin.e (C, B., 1906.) 

ii. Dentes not annulated, 2-segmented ; mucro longish, with 
hairs. Third antennal segment striliingly elongated (this 
annulated as well as the fourth). 

Subfamily Tomocerix^ (C. B., 1906). 

. Trochanteral organ pi-esent (on the trochanters of the hind legs). 
Ventral edge of the claws as a rule with basal groove ("split"). 
Hairs and scales (at least in part) ciliated. Fourth abdominal 
tergum as a rule considerably longer than the third. Ciliated 
sensory setae always present. Furcula always present. 

6. Family ENTOJiOBRYiDiE'(C.B., 1906). 

1. Dentes slender, annulated dorsally here and there. 3Iucro 

small. With or without scales. With or without eyes. 
Empodial appendage with 4 wing-corners. 

Subfamily Entomobryix^ (C. B., 1906). 

i. Antenna 4-segmented, with undivided basal segments. 
Tribe Entomobryini, C.B., 1906. 

ii. Antenna 5- or 6-segmented, with the first or first and second 
segments secondarily divided into two. 

Tribe Ohchesellini, C. B., 1906. 

[Here also belongs, presumably, the Beteromuricinm of 
Imms, 1912. The medial cercus described by Imma 
should be nothing else than a peculiarly elongated supra- 
anal valve,] 

2, Dentes not annulated, not, or only a little, tapered towards 

the end. 

i. Dentes without dorsal ciliated scales or ciliated spines, 
dorsally and dorso-laterally (often completely all round) 
uniformly haired ; if dental spines are present, then some- 
times they are modified into biistles at the ends of the 
dentes. Empodial appendage with 4 strong wing-corners. 



430 ]\Ir. J. W. ShocbotLam's Notes on CoUembola. 

Mucrones plump. Coxae strikingly short. "With or 
without scales. The hitherto kuowu forms with eyes aud 
free-living. Subfamily Paronellixj: (C. B., ll'OU). 

ii. Deutes with dorsal ciliated scales or ciliated spines, these at 
the bases of the dentes pass over into ciliated bristles. 
Coxas generally distinctly longer than the trochanters (also 
in 2'roglopedeics ?). Empodial appendage with 3 Aving- 
corners, or more or less reduced, loveless and scaled. 

Subfamily Cyphoderin^ (C. B., 1906). 

* With one entodorsal row of ciliated spines on the dentes. 
Free-living in caves. 

Tribe Troglopedetini, C. B., 1913. 

** With a double roic of ciliated scales on the dentes. Man- 
dibl(?8 with or without molar plate. Head obliquely pro- 
gnathous, or hypognathous. Claws normal or with a 
bladder-like terminal portion. Mostly living in association 
with ants or termites. 

Tribe Cyphoderini, C. B., 1013. 

B. Body pear-shaped to almost globular, as a rule, with obsolete seg- 
mentation of the thorax and the Jirst 4 abdominal segments j 
especially the abdominal terga and pleurse not differentiated. The 
ano-genital segments remain mostly independent, but are occasionally 
fused together. ^lanubrium with a medial support-piece of the 
deutes, similar to the Poduridfe, ventrally always without hairs. 
Pronotum (sometimes also the metanotum) without hairs. 

Suborder Symphypleona, C. B., 1901. 

a. Antenu(S inserted in or in front of the middle of the head, s\y;&ys 

considerably shorter than the head-diagonal, 4-segmented ; head 
without elevated vertex. Corpus tenaculi without bristles. 
Coxce elongated, also on the outer side distinctly longer than the 
trochanteral segment. Ano-genital segment concealed under the 
furcal segment (seen from above). Abdominal sensory setae 
absent. 7. Family Neelid^, Folsom, 1896. 

b. AntetintB inserted behind (over) the middle of the head, generally 

considerably longer than the head-diagonal, not rarely with 
subdivided segments. Head with distinctly elevated vertex over 
the neck. Corpus tenaculi (generally) with bristles. Coxa not 
elongated, on the outer side considerably shorter than the inner 
side and than the trochanteral segment. Ano-genital segment 
not concealed under the furcal segment. Abdominal sensory 
setae present. 8. Family Sminthurid^, Lubbock, 1862. 

1. Ventral sac (tube) even in full-grown animals smooth-icalled 
(seldom at the tips with small warts — after Linnaniemi). 
Corpus tenaculi with lateral appendage (stylus ?) at the base 
of the rami. Integument granular. Tracheae (always?) 
present. Subfamily Sminthuridin^, C. B., 1906 

* Anal and genital segment fused, on each side with two (one 
small) sensory setae. 

Tribe Sminthuridini, C. B., 1913. 

** Anal and genital segment separated, sometimes the latter 
fused with the furcal segment. The genital segment with 
onlv one sensory seta. 

Tribe Katiaxnixi, C. B., 1913. 



Mr. J. W. Shoebotham's Notes on Collemhola. 431 

2. Ventral sac (tube) in full-growu animals with warted walls. 
Antennge always distinctly bent. 
i. Antennce bent heticeen the Zrd and 4th sec/tnents, 4th segment 
longer than the 3rd, the latter always undivided. Furcal 
segment without paired dorsal papillaj. Corpus teuaculi at 
the base of the rami without lateral appendage. Tracheae 
present (always.'). Genital and anal segment not fu.sed. 
Subfamily Sminthurin^, C. B., 1906. 
* Tibio-tarsus at the distal end on the hind side with 2-3 
(seldom with a 4th on the front side) more or less closely 
applied clubbed hairs, not, or only little, over-reaching the 
claws. "\\'ith or without empodial appendage. Mucronal 
bristle absent. Tribe Bourletielli>;i, C. B., 1913. 

[Here also belongs the genus Corynephoria, Absolon 
(1907), which is very nearly related to BourletieUa, and 
which only differs by the absence of the empodium and 
through the dorsal clavate appendage. It is doubtful also 
whether it possesses tracheae ; abdominal sensory setae are, 
however, present in normal numbers.] 

** Tibio-tarsus without the described clubbed hairs, having 
instead sometimes outstanding, finely knobbed, clavate 
hairs, Mucro with or without bristle. 

Tribe Sjiinthurini, C, B., 1913. 

ii. Antennce bent between the 2nd and 3rd segments, 4th always 

shorter than the 3rd. Furcal segment with one pair of 

dorsal papillae. Corpus tenaculi as in 1 (i. e. ^viinthuridince). 

Tracheae absent (always ?). Genital and anal segment fused. 

Subfamily Dicyrtomin^, C, B., 1906. 

The Genus Sira, Lubbock. 

In 1870, in his " Notes on the Thysauura — Part ■^," 
Lubbock described several Collemijola new to the English 
Fauna, and one formed, the type of a new genus which he 
called Sira (Seira). In his monograph, three years later^ 
he described several species uuder Sira, including 

/S. domestica (Nic), 
S. nigromaculata, Lbk. 
S. buskii Lbk. 

In later years the genus was split up, and. Schott proposed 
the name Pseudosira for types like the iS. domestica (Nic), 
leaving the name Sira for those like nigromaculata and buskii. 
But this should not be so, for Lubbock expressly states that 
domestica forms the type of his genus Sira. Therefore 
Pseudosira must fall and Sira take its place, and for the 
species hitherto included in Sira, I propose the new name 
Willowsia \ 

' Named after my friend Mr, F. W. "Willows, of Tsolo, South Africa, 



432 Mr. J. W. Slioebotliara's Notes on CoUemhola. 

Genus Sira, Lbk., mihi. 

Seira, Lubbock (1870), p. 279. 
= Pseudosira, Schott. 

Denies ventrally covered with scales. 
Type. S. domestica (Nic.) . 

Genus Willowsia, gen. nov. 

Dentes ventrally only with ciliated hairs, without scales. 
Type. IV. {Seira) niyromacvlata (Lbk.). 



List of Genera of CoUemboIa found in the British Isles. 

Class INSECTA. 

Subclass Apterygota, Oudns. 

Order COLLEMBOLA, Lbk. 

Suborder ARTHROPLEONA, C. B. 

Section PODUROMORPHA. C. B. 

1. Family Poduridae (C. B.). 

1. Genus PoDrnA, Linn., Tbg, 

II. Family H3rpogastruridaB (C. B.). 

Subfamily HypoGASTRUBiN^, C. B, 

2. Genus Hypogastruba, Boiirl., C. B, 

3. Genus Xenylla, Tbg. 

4. Genus Willemia, 0. B. 

5. Genus ? 

A genus comes here related to both Hypognstrura 
and Ximylla. I have an English species in my 
collection, which in many respects is intermediate 
between these two genera, but so far 1 have not 
described it. Possibly it is Beckerella, Liunaniemi. 

Subfamily Achorvthssjr, C. B. 

Tribe Pseudachorutini, C, B. 

6. Genus Pseudachorutes, Tbg. 

7. Genus Micranurtda, 0. B, 

8. Genus Antjrida, Laboulb. 

9. Genus Friesea, D. T. 



Mr. J. W. Shoebotham^s Notes on Collembola. 433 

10. Genus Chondrachobtjtes, Walilgr. 

[The genus Chondrachorutes of Walilgren Las 
not been previously recorded from the British 
Isies, but it nevertheless occurs there, for I took 
specimens at Berhhamsted, Herts, in 1910, but 
have not yet described them.] 

Tribe A c h o R u t i n i, C. B. 

11. Genus Achorutes, Tempi., C. B. 

= Keanura, MacG. 

III. Family Onychiuridae (Lbk,, C. B.). 

12. Genus Onychiueus, Gerv., C. B. 

13. Genus Peotaphoruka, Absln., C. B. 

14. Genus Tullbeegia, Lbk. 

Section ENTOMOBRYOMOEPHA, C. B. 
I^^ Family Isotomidae (Schffr., C. B.). 
Subfamily IsoTOMLX^, Schffi-. 

15. Genus Isotoma, Bourl., C. B. 

16. Genus Agrenia, C. B. 

17. Genus Peoisotoma, O.B. 

17 a. Genus ? Aechisotoma, Linnaniemi. 

[Linnaniemi has proposed the genus Archi- 
sotoma for the reception of Froisotoma besseUsi 
(=P. spitzberffetiensis, Lbk.), but as I have neither 
my specimens of bessel/si nor Linnaniemi's descrip- 
tion by me at the moment, I cannot say whether 
it should be regarded as a separate genus or as a 
subgenus oi Proisotoma.^ 

18. Genus Anurophorus, Nic. 

19. Genus Folsomia, Willem. 

20. Genus Teteacanthella, Schtt. 

21. Genus Isotomodes, Axels-Linn. 

22. Genus Isotomurus, C. B. 

23. Genus Oncopodura, Carl & Lebed. 

Subfamily Actaletin^, 0. B. 

[The subfamily Actaletina is not represented in the 
British Isles.] 



431 Mr. J. AV. Sliocbothani's Xotes on Culh'inbola. 

V. Family Tomoceridae (Schflfr.). 

Subfamily LEPii)OPnnRELUy\r., C. B. 

[The subfamilv Lepidophorellin<s is not represented in 
the British Isles.] 

Subfamily TOMOCERIX.K (C. B.). 

24. Genus ToMocKnus, Nic. 

24 fl. Genus ? Pogo.vognathus, C. B. 

[Biirner has proposed the f^enus rogonof/nathua 
for the species Tomocerus (P.) longicornis Aliill.).] 

"\ I. Family Entomobryidae (d B.). 
Subfamily ExTOMOBKYix.i:: (C. B.). 
Tribe E n t o m o n r y i n i, C. B. 

25. Genus Entomobkya, Rend. 

26. Geuus Sinella, Brook. 

27. Genus Lkpidocyetus, Bourl. 

28. Genus Sira, Lbk., Sbthm. 

29. Genus AVillowsia, gen. nov. 

Tribe Okchesellini, C. B. 

30. Genus Orchesella, Tempi. 

31. Geuus IIeterosiurus, Wankel. 

Subfamily rAiiOXELUX.i:, C. B. 

[The subfamily ParoiiellineB is not found in the British 
Isles.] 

Subfamily Cyphoderis^ (C. B.). 

Tribe T n o G L o p e d e x i N i, C. B. 

[This tribe has not yet been found in the British 
Isles.] 

Tribe Cyphoderini, C. B. 

32. Genus Cyphoderus, Nic. 

Suborder SYMPHYPLEONA, C. B. 
VII. Family Neelidae, Flsm. 

33. Genus Xeelus, Flsm. 

34. Genus Megalothorax, "Willem. 



Mr. J. W. Shoebotliam's Notes on Collembolu. 435 

VIII. Family Sminthuridae, Lbk. 

Subfamily Smistijluidix.s, C. B. 
Tribe S m i n t u u r i d i n i, C. B. 

35. Genus Sminthurides, C. B. 
Tribe K a t i a n n i n i, C. B. 

36. Genus Sminthurinus, C. B, 

37. Genus Arrhopalites, C. B. 

Subfamily S.ur.yriiURr.wt:, C. B. « 

Tribe B o u R l e t i e l l i n i, C. B. 

38. Genus Bourletiella, Banks, C. B. 
Tribe Sminthurini, C. B. 

39. Genus Sstinthurus, Latr., C. B. 

40. Genus Allacma, C. B. 

41. Genus SPHRi'OTHECA, C. B. 

Subfamily DicmroMiy^E, C. B. 

42. Genus Dicyrtoma, Bourl., C. B. 

43. Genus DiCYRXOinxA, C. B. 

44. Genus Ptexothrix, C. B. 

References. 

Absolon, K. (1907.) "Zwei ueue Collembolen-Gattungen." Wiener 

Entomol. Zeitung, Jahrg. 1907, pp. 335-3J3, with 3 figs, 
BoRNER, C. (1901a.) " Vorlaufige Mittheilung iiber einige neue 

Aphorurinen unci zur Systematik der Collembola." Zool. Anz. 

vol. xxiv. no. 633, pp. 1-15. 
. (1901 h.) " Zur Kenntnis der Apterygoten-Fauna von Bremen 

uud der Nachbardistrikte. Beitrag zu eiuer Apterygoten Fauna 

Mitteleuropas." Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, vol. xvii. Heft 1, 

pp. 1-140, pis. i., ii., text-figs. 1-G3. 
. (1903.) " Neue altweltlicbe Collembolen, nebst Bemerkungen 

zur Systematik der Isotomiuen uud Entomobryinen." Sitzungs- 

Ber. der Gesellsch. naturf, Freunde zu Berlin, 1*903, no. 3, pp. l->9- 

182, 1 pi. 
. (1906.) "Das System der Collembolen, nebst Beschreibung 

neuer Collembolen des Hamburger Naturbistorisch§n Museums." 

Mitt, aus dem Naturhist. Museum, xxiii. — Jabrbuch der Hamburo-. 

Wisseuscb. Anst. xxiii. pp. 1J7-188, with 4 text-figs. 
. (1913a.) "Neue Cvphoderinen."' Zool. Anz. vol. xli. no. 6, 

pp. 274-284, figs. 1-9.' 
. (1913 i.) " Bie Familien der Collembolen." Zool. Anz. vol. xli, 

no. 7, pp. 315-322. 



436 ^Ir. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

FoLSOM, J. W. (1896.) " Neehis murmus, representing a new Thysa- 

nuran family." Psyche, vol. vii. no. i>42, pp. 391, 892, pi. B. 
Imms, a. D. (1912.) " On some Collenibola from India, 13urma, and 

Cevlon ; with a Catalogue of the Oriental Species of the Order." 

iVoc. Zool. Soc. London, 1912, pp. 80-125, pis. vi.-xii. 
Lubbock, J. (1862.) "Notes on the Thysauiira; Part 1. Smyn- 

thurid<By Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xxiii. pp. 429-448, pis. xlv., xlvi. 
. (1870.) " Notes on the Thysanura, Part 4." Trans. Linn. Soc. 

vol. xxvii. pp. 277-297, pis. xlv., xlvi. 
. (1873.) Monograph of the Collenibola and Thysanura. London, 

Ray Society, 1873, pp. 1-276, pis. i.-lxxviii. 
NicoLET, H. (1842.) "llecherches pour servir a I'histoire des Podu- 

relles." Mdm. de la Soc. Helv. des Sc. Nat. vol. vi. pp. 1-88, 

pis. i.-*x. 
SCH.A.FFKR, C. (1896.) " Die Collembola der Umgebung von Hamburg 

und benachbanter Gebiete." Mitth. aus dem Naturhist. Museum, 

vol. xiii. pp. 149-216, pis. i.-iv. 
Shoi^botham, J. W. (1914.) " Notes on Collembola. — Part. 2. Some 

Irish Collembola, and Notes on the Genus Orcliesella.'' Ann. & 

Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xiii., Jan. 1914, pp. 59-68, pi. iii. 
SiLYESTUi, F. (1911.) " Termitiofih raccolti dal Prof. K. Escherich a 

Csylon." Zool. Jahrb. vol. xxx. Heft 4, pp. 401-418, pis. v,-xi. 



XLI. — Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptero. — XXVIII. On new 
Ethiopian Species o/'Bembex in the British Museum. By 
Rowland E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

Bemhex obtusa, sp. n, 

(S . Niger ; mandibulis, apice excepto, labro, clypeo, fronte macula 
obliqua nigra utrinque, scapo, orbitis externis, pronoto margine 
postico, callis humeralibus, prosterno, mesosterno antice, meso- 
noto linea supra tegulas, seutello linea obliqua utrinque, post- 
scutello margine postico, pedibusque flavis ; femoribus anticis 
supra nigro-lineatis, tarsis anticis iufra nigro-maculatis ; seg- 
mento dorsali primo macula transversa utrinque fasciaque trans- 
versa mediana angustissima, segmentis dorsalibus 2-6 fascia 
transversa bisinuata, ventralibus 2-5 macula utrinque, segraento- 
que veiitrali primo fascia angusta apicali flavo-olivaceis ; flagello 
subtus ochraceo ; segmento dorsali sexto apice, septimoque 
dimidio basali ferrugineis ; alis hyalinis, venis fuscis, thorace 
duplo longioribus. 

Long. 21 mm. 

(^ . Clypeus very broadly triangularly flattened on the 
apical half, labrum flattened at the base; a strong longitudinal 
carina between tlie antennae ; sixth, seventh, and eiglith joints 
of the flagelluni each with two or three small spines beneatii, 



I 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 437 

joints 9 and 10 subdenticulate beneath, penultimate joint 
concave beneath, longer than the tenth, apical joint about 
half as long again as the penultimate, concave beneatii, blunt 
and rather strongly curved at the apex. Fore tarsi rather 
stout, with a strong tarsal comb, the apical joint flattened, 
nearly as broad and less than half as long again as the 
penultimate, with a small spine on the middle of tlie outer 
margin ; anterior and intermediate femora not serrate ; inter- 
mediate tibipe produced into a distinct spine at the apex. 
Seventh dorsal segment very broad, with parallel sides on 
the basal portion to beyond the middle, the apex obtuse; the 
surface of the segment finely punctured, w'ith coarse punc- 
tures intermixed near the apex. Second ventral segment 
with a very large tubercle, which is broadly truncate at the 
apex ; sixth ventral segment with a slightly raised, broadly 
triangular area near the apex ; seventh broad, with a longi- 
tudinal carina on each side ; eighth produced into a stout 
blunt tooth. IMedian cell of the hind wing emitting only one 
vein from the apex. 

Hah. Nyasaland, Mlanje, 2300 ft. {S. A.Neave), October. 

The apical dorsal segment is shaped somewhat as in the 
variety of B. imgillatrix figured by Handlirsch (Sitzungsb. 
Akad. Wiss. AVien, cii. t. v. fig. 15), but the parallel sides 
are continued much nearer to the apex than in that figure. 
In the antennte it aj)proache3 aJbofasciata^ Sm. { = karschii, 
Handl.), also in the short wings, but differs in the legs and 
ajjical abdominal segments. The three intermediate joints of 
the fore tarsi are moderately dilated, about as broad as long, 
nearly as much dilated as in latiiarais, Handl. 

Bemhex johnstoni^ Turn. 

Bemhex johnstoni, Turn. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) x. p. 372 (1912). 

J. 

This belongs to the group of B. diversipennis, not of molii, 
to which I conipared it in the description ; it is, indeed, 
probably only an extreme colour-variation of diversipeunis. 
In a considerable series of that species from E. Africa tlie 
thorax is always without yellow markings in both sexes, 
except in one female from Harar. The yellow markings on 
the abdomen vary much, but do not form continuous fasciae 
as in most West-African specimens. The wings are hyaline 
in the male, more or less strongly iuscous at the base in the 
female in all specimens which 1 have seen. 



43S Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ily nienoptera. 

Bemhex albiduJa, sp. n. 

cJ . Niger; abdomine cferuleo-tincto ; mandibulis, apice excepto, 
labro, clypco macula magna basali nigra utrinque, scapo subtus, 
orbitis, macula parva utrinque sub ocellis, prosterno, callis 
humeralibus apice, segmento mediauo angulis posticis, segmentis 
dorsalibus 2-4: fascia late interrupta, primo macula magna 
utrinque, quinto fascia auguste interrupta, sexto linea transversa 
utrinque, segmentis veutralibus secundo tertioque macula parva 
utrinque, femoribus anticis intermediisque subtus, tibiis supra 
uigro-liueatis, tarsisque anticis intus albidis ; alis byalinis, venis 
fuscis, anticte latitudine thoracis duplo et dimidium longiores. 

Long. 22 mm. 

cJ . Eyes distinctly divergent towards tlie clypeus ; labrum 
flattened^ clypeus convex; carina between the antennaj very 
low. Antennpe almost normal; eighth joint of the flagellum 
with two very minute spines beneath ; ninth with a minute 
spine near the base; apical joiut slightly curved, rounded at 
the apex, longer than the penultimate. Fore tarsi mode- 
rately stout, the joints not dilated ; the basa